Community practice broadly refers to work that ‘involves empowerment through organized groups of people acting collectively to control decisions, projects, programs, and policies that affect them as a community’ (Rubin and Rubin, 2007). Rothman (1987, 2008) categorized community practice into three models: social planning, locality development, and social action. In practice, these models have become blended whilst the boundaries amongst market, state, and civil society fade and the culture of civic participation rapidly changes (Weil and Gamble, 2005; Boehm and Cnaan, 2012). Cross-cutting forms of community-based action have been emerging in United States (US) and the world (Sites, Chaskin and Parks, 2007). Similarly, community practice in Taiwan presents a mix of these models.

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Taiwan's early social policies including community development were made for...

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