A quantitative measure of the degree of cortical folding was used to test the mechanical hypothesis of cortical folding and to analyze structural properties of the rhesus monkey cortex. The rhesus monkey cortex has both its maximal degree of cortical folding and the largest ratios of supragranular laminae to the lower granular and infragranular layers in the caudal cortex, over the posterior parietal-anterior occipital regions. Low values for cortical folding and for the ratios of inner and outer cortical layers characterize frontal regions. Topographically intermediate regions are intermediate in both sets of values. Ratios of the amounts of white and gray matter have a topographic pattern that differs from those of cortical folding, suggesting that the sizes of subcortical axonal bundles are not directly associated with the degree of cortical folding. Whereas differences in mean degrees of cortical folding are correlated with brain weights among species of primates, the amount of folding is not associated with brain weight within the species.

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