Abstract

Spasmodic dysphonia (SD), or laryngeal dystonia, is an isolated task-specific dystonia of unknown causes and pathophysiology that selectively affects speech production. Using next-generation whole-exome sequencing in SD patients, we computed polygenic risk score from 1804 genetic markers based on a genome-wide association study in another form of similar task-specific focal dystonia, musician's dystonia. We further examined the associations between the polygenic risk score, resting-state functional connectivity abnormalities within the sensorimotor network, and SD clinical characteristics. We found that the polygenic risk of dystonia was significantly associated with decreased functional connectivity in the left premotor/primary sensorimotor and inferior parietal cortices in SD patients. Reduced connectivity of the inferior parietal cortex was correlated with the age of SD onset. The polygenic risk score contained a significant number of genetic variants lying near genes related to synaptic transmission and neural development. Our study identified a polygenic contribution to the overall genetic risk of dystonia in the cohort of SD patients. Associations between the polygenic risk and reduced functional connectivity of the sensorimotor and inferior parietal cortices likely represent an endophenotypic imaging marker of SD, while genes involved in synaptic transmission and neuron development may be linked to the molecular pathophysiology of this disorder.

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