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Instructions to Authors

Please follow British spelling throughout (authors who are accustomed to writing in American English can retain American spelling).

Language editing,if your first language is not English, to ensure that the academic content of your paper is fully understood by journal editors and reviewers is optional. Language editing does not guarantee that your manuscript will be accepted for publication. For further information on this service, please click here. Several specialist language editing companies offer similar services and you can also use any of these. Authors are liable for all costs associated with such services

Please keep in mind that your texts and tables will be typeset and that all graphs will be redone in the Ifo format. Please do the tables in MS Word format and provide the data for the graphs in an MS Excel file.

1 Text

Please avoid any form of block-settings, line breaks or print-formatting. Do not use ligatures.

1.1 Length

Unless otherwise agreed, manuscripts should be about 20-25 pages, double-spaced, not counting tables and figures.

1.2 Footnotes

Notes serve to provide supplementary information and are therefore to be used sparingly. Notes are to be indicated in the text by exponents without parentheses.

1.3 Sources and bibliographical references in text

Sources and bibliographical references should be given in the text itself according to the author-date (or Harvard) style of referencing, with the author’s or editor’s surname together with the year of publication and the page or pages, all enclosed in parentheses. Page numbers are to be separated by a medium-length en-dash (–).

When multiple works by the same author within the same year are cited, the letters "a", "b", "c" etc. should follow the dates. Instead of the abbreviation "ff.", the exact page specifications are to be given.


(Jones 1981a, pp. 55–58 ).

It is also acceptable to cite the author with only the remaining information parenthesised.

As Jones (1981a, pp. 413–26 ) stated ...

For co-authored works, the names are to be separated by "and"; when there are three authors, the first and second are separated by a comma, the second and third by "and" without a comma. When there are more than three authors, the first author is given, followed by the abbreviation "et al.". If two references are necessary, they are separated by a semicolon. Examples:

(Miyamoto and Takemura 1990, p. 427)

(Ariyoshi, Takemura and Tanaka 1984, pp. 23–29 )

(Kenwood et al. 1979, p. 65)

(Kollo 1998; Kagami 1998)

1.4 Anonymous essays

Anonymous essays in newspapers and non-scientific magazines should be cited by giving the name of the newspaper, with the date of publication and the page number(s). Example:

(Handelsblatt 22 July 1995, p.15)

2 Incorporating house style

2.1 Quotations

Quotations must appear as in the original and should not be changed. Use single quotation marks with double quotation marks for quotes within quotes. Interpolated words should be enclosed in square brackets to show that they are not part of the quoted matter. Punctuation should be within quotation marks if a compete sentence is quoted. Final punctuation will be outside quotation marks if the quotation forms only part of a sentence.

2.2 Dates

Dates should be written 18 August 1996, decades should be written in numbers (e.g. 1970s) and not in letters (e.g. seventies). No apostrophe should be used. Dates should be elided to the last two digits 1977–78.

2.3 Abbreviations

Abbreviations consisting of capital letters do not have full stops (GNP, USA, US). For abbreviating United States either as a noun or an adjective, use "US" without full stops. Contractions ending with the same letter as the original word do not take terminal full stops (St, Mr, Dr).

Abbreviations where the last letter of the singular word is not included take a full stop (vol., vols./ed., eds.). The abbreviation for number is no./nos. Abbreviated unit of measurements do not take a full stop (lb, mm, kg) and do not take a final 's' in the plural.

2.4 Numbers

Numbers one to ten are expressed in words, but 11 upward appear in figures, unless used in general terms. Example: "about a hundred people". Wherever a unit of measurement is used, the number preceding it appears in figures, unless it is used in a very general sense: "hundreds of miles".

2.5 Percent

In text, percent should be spelled out and the number should appear in figures: 54 percent. In tables the % symbol may be used.

2.6 Hyphenation

In general, the hyphen is now used less frequently in compound terms, for example, "microeconomic", but note the adjectival hyphen in "a twentieth-century author".

2.7 Headings

Headings, sub-headings, table headings and figure captions should not have full stops.

2.8 Currencies

Currencies should be indicated consistently applying the conventional abbreviation of the European Central Bank: JPY, EUR, USD. Use before the numbers with a space: USD 1.2 billion. The symbols €, ¥ and £ are also permissible, especially in Tables. The dollar sign $ can be used if it is clear from the context that the US dollar is intended.

2.9 Data Accessibility

To facilitate the verification and replication of results, authors of accepted papers are encouraged to submit data sets, programs, and information on empirical analysis, experiments and simulations. This material will be published alongside the article on the CES website, and can be accessed through the ‘supplementary data’ link. However, authors should not submit data or files if publication would breach the rights of a third party or if any individuals are identifiable from the data.

3. Bibliographical references

In the bibliography at the end of the paper, all of the cited works are to be given in alphabetical order. In the case of two or more works by a single author, the order should be chronological. When a single work has more than one author, it should be listed under the name of the first author, but after the individual publications of this author. Personal names should be abbreviated. Surnames should be separated from personal names by a comma. Please include the publisher of the book as well.

3.1 Monographs

Monographs should list:

  • The author's initials and name
  • The year of publication in parentheses
  • The title of the book in italics
  • The volume number of edition where relevant
  • The name of the publisher and the place of publication
  • The page number(s)

Sinn, H.-W. (2002), The New Systems Competition , Basil Blackwell, Oxford.

Tobin, J. J., Y. H. David and D. H. Davidson (1989), Preschool in Three Cultures , Yale University Press, New Haven, London.

3.2 A book within a series

Opitz, P. J. (2001), Weltprobleme im 21. Jahrhundert , UTB no. 2209, Wilhelm Fink Verlag, Munich.

3.3 A book within a multivolume work

Yamamura, K. and Y. Yasuba, eds. (1987), The Political Economy of Japan , vol. 1, The Domestic Transformation, Stanford University Press, Stanford.

3.4 Articles within a Book

McKean, M. (1993), "State Strength and the Public Interest", in G. Allinson and Y. Sone, eds., Political Dynamics in Contemporary Japan , Cornell University Press, Ithaca, pp. 72–104.

3.5 Journal articles

Sinn, H.-W. (1997), "The Selection Principle and Market Failure in Systems Competition", Journal of Public Economics 66 , 247–74.

3.6 Newspaper articles

Financial Times Deutschland (2002), Vertikaler Vorteil , 9 July, p. 26.

3.7 Working paper

Pezzin, L.E. and B.S. Schone (2006), "Examining Motives for Intergenerational Transfers: A New Test Based on Siblings’ Behavior", Working paper, AHRQ, Rockville, MD.

3.8 Internet

OECD (1998), OECD News Release: Standardised Unemployment Rates, http://www.oecd.org/news and events/new-numbers/sur/nw98-75a.htm (found day/month/year).

4 Tables and figures

Figures should be printed out and data supplied in an MS Excel file. They should be clearly labelled. For tables and figures, the following information is to be added:

Third-Party Content in Open Access papers
If you will be publishing your paper under an Open Access licence but it contains material for which you do not have Open Access re-use permissions, please state this clearly by supplying the following credit line alongside the material:

Title of content
Author, Original publication, year of original publication, by permission of [rights holder]

This image/content is not covered by the terms of the Creative Commons licence of this publication. For permission to reuse, please contact the rights holder.

  • The number of the table or figure, together with the title
  • Explanatory notes, if necessary (Note: ...)
  • Sources (Source: ...)

5 Funding

Details of all funding sources for the work in question should be given in a separate section entitled 'Funding'. This should appear before the 'Acknowledgements' section.

The following rules should be followed:

  • The sentence should begin: ‘This work was supported by …’
  • The full official funding agency name should be given, i.e. ‘the National Cancer Institute at the National Institutes of Health’ or simply ‘National Institutes of Health' not ‘NCI’ (one of the 27 subinstitutions) or ‘NCI at NIH (full RIN-approved list of UK funding agencies) . Grant numbers should be given in brackets as follows: ‘[grant number xxxx]’
  • Multiple grant numbers should be separated by a comma as follows: ‘[grant numbers xxxx, yyyy]’
  • Agencies should be separated by a semi-colon (plus ‘and’ before the last funding agency)
  • Where individuals need to be specified for certain sources of funding the following text should be added after the relevant agency or grant number 'to [author initials]'.

An example is given here: ‘This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health [AA123456 to C.S., BB765432 to M.H.]; and the Alcohol & Education Research Council [hfygr667789].’

Oxford Journals will deposit all NIH-funded articles in PubMed Central. See Depositing articles in repositories – information for authors for details. Authors must ensure that manuscripts are clearly indicated as NIH-funded using the guidelines above.

Crossref Funding Data Registry

In order to meet your funding requirements authors are required to name their funding sources, or state if there are none, during the submission process. For further information on this process or to find out more about the CHORUS initiative please click here.

6 Submitting the paper

Once you have prepared your manuscript according to the instructions above please visit the online submission web site .


It is a condition of publication in the Journal that authors grant an exclusive licence to Oxford University Press. This ensures that requests from third parties to reproduce articles are handled efficiently and consistently and will also allow the article to be as widely disseminated as possible. As part of the licence agreement, authors may use their own material in other publications provided that the Journal is acknowledged as the original place of publication, and Oxford University Press is notified in writing and in advance. Upon receipt of accepted manuscripts at Oxford Journals authors will be invited to complete an online copyright licence to publish form.

Please note that by submitting an article for publication you confirm that you are the corresponding/submitting author and that Oxford University Press ("OUP") may retain your email address for the purpose of communicating with you about the article. You agree to notify OUP immediately if your details change. If your article is accepted for publication OUP will contact you using the email address you have used in the registration process. Please note that OUP does not retain copies of rejected articles.

Open access option for authors

CESifo Economic Studies authors have the option to publish their paper under the Oxford Open initiative; whereby, for a charge, their paper will be made freely available online immediately upon publication. After your manuscript is accepted the corresponding author will be required to accept a mandatory licence to publish agreement. As part of the licensing process you will be asked to indicate whether or not you wish to pay for open access. If you do not select the open access option, your paper will be published with standard subscription-based access and you will not be charged.

Oxford Open articles are published under Creative Commons licences. Authors publishing in CESifo Economic Studies can use the following Creative Commons licences for their articles:
• Creative Commons Attribution licence (CC BY)
• Creative Commons Non-Commercial licence (CC BY-NC)
• Creative Commons non-Commercial No Derivatives licence (CC BY-NC-ND)

Please click here for more information about the Creative Commons licences.

You can pay Open Access charges using our Author Services site. This will enable you to pay online with a credit/debit card, or request an invoice by email or post. The open access charges applicable are:

Regular charge - £1600/ $2550 / €2100
Reduced Rate Developing country charge* - £800/ $1275 / €1050
Free Developing country charge * - £0 /$0 / €0
*Visit our Developing Countries page for a list of qualifying countries

Please note that these charges are in addition to any colour charges that may apply.

Orders from the UK will be subject to the current UK VAT charge. For orders from the rest of the European Union, OUP will assume that the service is provided for business purposes. Please provide a VAT number for yourself or your institution, and ensure you account for your own local VAT correctly.


The corresponding authors will receive electronic access to their paper free of charge. Additional printed offprints may be purchased using the Oxford Journals Author Services site.


CESifo Economic Studies does not accept papers that have been previously published elsewhere with the exception of working papers series. The Journal’s policy regarding working paper series is:

1. Pre-publication in working paper series is allowed where submission to the working paper series is prior to acceptance by the Journal.

2. The working paper version may remain online after publication in the Journal.

3. The working paper version should NOT be updated after acceptance by the Journal.

4. Authors are requested to append the appropriate citation to the working paper version on acceptance by the Journal (if the working paper series allows this).

Conflict of Interest Policy


Submission by Editor
A paper submitted by one of the Editors will be handled by another Editor or an Editorial Board member who is not at the same institution. The other Editor/Board member will select referees and make all decisions on the paper. The decision process will be handled in such a way that the submitting Editor does not have access to information or correspondence relating to the submission.

Submission by author at same institution as an Editor
A paper submitted by an author who is at the same institution as one of the Editors will be handled by one of the other Editors or an Editorial Board member who is not at that institution. The Editor who is at the same institution as the author will not be involved in selecting referees or making any decisions on the paper.

Submission by family member of Editor or by author whose relationship with Editor might create the perception of bias
If a paper is submitted by a family member of one of the Editors, or by an author whose relationship with one of the Editors might create the perception of bias (e.g. in terms of close friendship or conflict/rivalry), the Editor will declare a conflict of interest and the paper will be handled by one of the other Editors or an Editorial Board member. The Editor who has declared a conflict of interest will not be involved in selecting referees or making any decisions on the paper.

General policy
If an Editor feels that there is likely to be a perception of a conflict of interest in relation to their handling of a submission, they will declare it to the other Editors or Editorial Board, and the paper will be handled in the same way as described above.


Potential conflict of interest for referee
The invitation letter to referees will include the following wording: ‘If you feel there is any potential conflict of interest in your refereeing this paper please declare it. By accepting this invitation, it is assumed there is no potential conflict of interest.’ Standard policy will be not to use a referee if a conflict of interest has been declared, but the Editor may use his/her discretion.


Sources of funding
On acceptance, authors will be asked to provide a statement declaring all sources of funding relating to their paper, and the statement will be printed on the title page or at the end of their paper.

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