Abstract

Proteomics involves the applications of technologies for the identification and quantification of overall proteins present content of a cell, tissue or an organism. It supplements the other “omics” technologies such as genomic and transcriptomics to expound the identity of proteins of an organism, and to cognize the structure and functions of a particular protein. Proteomics-based technologies are utilized in various capacities for different research settings such as detection of various diagnostic markers, candidates for vaccine production, understanding pathogenicity mechanisms, alteration of expression patterns in response to different signals and interpretation of functional protein pathways in different diseases. Proteomics is practically intricate because it includes the analysis and categorization of overall protein signatures of a genome. Mass spectrometry with LC–MS-MS and MALDI-TOF/TOF being widely used equipment is the central among current proteomics. However, utilization of proteomics facilities including the software for equipment, databases and the requirement of skilled personnel substantially increase the costs, therefore limit their wider use especially in the developing world. Furthermore, the proteome is highly dynamic because of complex regulatory systems that control the expression levels of proteins. This review efforts to describe the various proteomics approaches, the recent developments and their application in research and analysis.

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