Background. Our aim was to study the incidence and pattern of dyslipidemia among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected patients with tuberculosis (TB) who received once-daily antiretroviral therapy (ART).

Methods. Antiretroviral-naive HIV-infected patients with TB were recruited to a trial of once-daily nonnucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)–based ART and treated with rifampicin-based thrice-weekly antituberculosis treatment (ATT); participants were randomized to receive didanosine (250/400 mg) and lamivudine (300 mg) with either efavirenz (600 mg) or nevirapine (400 mg) once-daily after an intensive phase of ATT. Fasting triglyceride (TG) level, total cholesterol (TC) level, low-density cholesterol (LDL-c) level and high-density cholesterol (HDL-c) level were measured at baseline and at 6 and 12 months. Lipid levels at 6 and 12 months were compared with baseline values with use of repeated measures analyses. McNemar test was used to compare the proportion of patients with lipid abnormality at baseline versus at 12 months, and χ2 test was used to compare between the 2 groups.

Results. Of 168 patients (79% men; mean age, 36 years; mean weight, 42 kg; median CD4+ cell count, 93 cells/mm3), 104 received efavirenz-based ART, and 64 received nevirapine-based ART. After 6 months, TC levels increased by 49 mg/dL, LDL-c levels by 30 mg/dL, and HDL-c levels increased by 18 mg/dL (P < .001 for all). At baseline and at 12 months, TC was >200 mg/dL for 1% and 26% of patients, respectively; LDL-c level was >130 mg/dL for 3% and 23%, respectively; HDL-c level was <40 mg/dL for 91% and 23%, respectively; and blood glucose level was >110 mg/dL for 14% and 13%, respectively. TC level >200 mg/dL was more common among patients who received efavirenz than among those who received nevirapine (32% vs 16%; P = .04).

Conclusions. HIV-infected patients with TB who initiate NNRTI-based ART undergo complex changes in lipid profile, highlighting the importance of screening and treating other cardiovascular disease risk factors in this population.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/2.5/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
You do not currently have access to this article.