We investigated the evolution of lymphocyte subsets in blood samples from 94 consecutive patients with community-acquired pneumonia; these samples were obtained 72 hours after hospitalization and at follow-up, when the patients were considered to be cured. Acute-phase lymphocyte counts, as compared with follow-up counts, were decreased in the overall population (P < .0001); however, the percentage of CD4+ T cells remained unchanged during the course of pneumonia in each patient. These changes that were noted for the overall population were not significantly influenced by age, the presence (or not) of infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), or etiologic microorganisms. Of the 68 HIV-seronegative patients, 12 had initial CD4+ T cell counts of <200/mm3; multivariate analysis revealed that this finding was significantly associated with the presence of an underlying disease or tuberculosis and an age of ⩾60 years.