IN THE LITERATURE
ARTICLES AND COMMENTARIES
What Is the More Effective Antibiotic Stewardship Intervention: Preprescription Authorization or Postprescription Review With Feedback?
In a quasi-experimental, crossover trial involving 1508 patients receiving antibiotics whose providers received either preprescription authorization or postprescription review with feedback, we found that postprescription review with feedback was associated with 2 fewer antibiotic days of therapy per patient.
Intraseason Waning of Influenza Vaccine Protection: Evidence From the US Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness Network, 2011–2012 Through 2014–2015
We observed waning influenza vaccine protection with increasing time since vaccination across influenza types/subtypes among patients ≥9 years old with medically attended acute respiratory illness in the US Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness Network using data from 4 recent US influenza seasons.
Risk Factors for Transmission of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Infection During the 2015 Outbreak in South Korea
We evaluated the epidemiological risk factors for MERS-CoV transmission during the recent South Korean outbreak. MERS-CoV transmission was determined by host infectivity and the number of contacts, whereas super-spreading events were determined by the number of contacts and hospital visits.
Impact of Infectious Diseases Consultation on Mortality of Cryptococcal Infection in Patients Without HIV
Infectious disease (ID) consultations were associated with significantly lower mortality, more lumbar punctures, and treatment with amphotericin and flucytosine. This suggests that ID consultations should be included in management of cryptococcosis.
Reported are the results of the largest population pharmacokinetic study of intravenous colistin in various categories of critically ill patients, including those receiving different types of renal replacement therapy, and derived dosing guidance to achieve a desired plasma colistin concentration.
Partner Bereavement and Risk of Herpes Zoster: Results from Two Population-Based Case-Control Studies in Denmark and the United Kingdom
Psychological stress is thought to be a risk factor for herpes zoster. However, 2 large population-based studies in Denmark and the United Kingdom found no consistent increase in risk of herpes zoster after partner bereavement.
Impact and Cost-effectiveness of Selective Human Papillomavirus Vaccination of Men Who Have Sex With Men
Offering human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination to men who have sex with men up to age 40 years via genitourinary clinics will have a large impact on HPV-related diseases and is likely to be cost-effective.
Systemic Elevation of Proinflammatory Interleukin-18 in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)/Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Coinfection Versus HIV or HCV Monoinfection
HIV/hepatitis C virus coinfection and elevated IL-18 levels are both associated with inflammatory disease progression. IL-18 levels are significantly elevated in coinfected individuals, correlated inversely with CD4 count, and increased with incident HIV infection, potentially explaining enhanced inflammatory disease progression in coinfection.
Socioeconomic Factors Explain Racial Disparities in Invasive Community-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Disease Rates
In this analysis of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) surveillance data from 9 states in the United States, socioeconomic factors were found to explain differences in invasive MRSA incidence between white and black persons.
Comparative Effectiveness and Safety of Standard-, Medium-, and High-Dose Daptomycin Strategies for the Treatment of Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcal Bacteremia Among Veterans Affairs Patients
High-dose daptomycin was independently associated with improved survival compared with medium- and standard-dose daptomycin for vancomycin-resistant enterococcal bacteremia, without an apparent increased risk of creatine phosphokinase elevation. Infectious diseases specialist consultation was also independently associated with improved survival.
MTN-017: A Rectal Phase 2 Extended Safety and Acceptability Study of Tenofovir Reduced-Glycerin 1% Gel
MTN-017, a phase 2 expanded safety and acceptability study of the reduced-glycerin 1% tenofovir (TFV) gel, showed that rectal application was safe, with adherence and likelihood to use it at least twice weekly similar to daily oral emtricitabine/TFV disoproxil fumarate.
HLA-B*57 and IFNL4-Related Polymorphisms Are Associated With Protection Against HIV-1 Disease Progression in Controllers
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) controllers are patients with different clinical characteristics, including immunologic progression as defined by CD4+ T-cells drop. We defined 2 genetic markers that can be used to segregate HIV controllers with CD4+T-cell counts >500 mm3 over time from those who experience CD4+ T-cell decline.
Increased Sexually Transmitted Disease Testing Among Sexually Active Persons Receiving Medical Care for Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection in the United States, 2009–2013
During 2009–2013, the proportion of sexually active human immunodeficiency virus–infected adults receiving medical care in the United States who were tested for syphilis, gonorrhea, and chlamydia increased from 20% to 36%. While this increase indicates progress, testing remained far below recommended guidelines.
Patients with cancer and TB infection are at increased risk of developing active TB. Those with hematologic, head and neck, and lung cancer have the highest risk and should be screened and treated for LTBI. Foreign born cancer patients may be considered for screening.
Treatment of Chronic Asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum Infection Does Not Increase the Risk of Clinical Malaria Upon Reinfection
Chronic asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum infection during the dry season predicts decreased clinical malaria risk during the ensuing malaria season; however, treating these infections did not alter this reduced risk, challenging the notion that chronic P. falciparum infection maintains malaria immunity.
Dengue is a common, sometimes life-threatening disease throughout tropical Asia and the Americas. We developed a clinically intuitive algorithm, the Early Severe Dengue Identifier, to assist in the prediction of severe, life-threatening presentations.
Systematic Review and Metaanalysis of Acute Kidney Injury Associated With Concomitant Vancomycin and Piperacillin/Tazobactam
The addition of piperacillin/tazobactam to vancomycin therapy is associated with acute kidney injury development compared to vancomycin without piperacillin/tazobactam. This relationship did not exist when an adjusted analysis was restricted to critically ill patients.
From Care to Cure: Demonstrating a Model of Clinical Patient Navigation for Hepatitis C Care and Treatment in High-Need Patients
Check Hep C provided patient navigation services to 388 hepatitis C–infected patients, successfully reducing barriers to treatment and achieving a 91% cure rate. Advanced liver fibrosis and receiving on-site clinical care were predictive of increased odds of initiating treatment.
ANSWER TO THE PHOTO QUIZ
Cover ImageOn the cover: Tankard engraved with scenes depicting the Fire of London and the Great Plague, silver, 1675/76, by the Master I.N. (British, 17th c.). Metropolitan Museum, New York, NY. Reproduced with permission. This tankard commemorates the work of a London magistrate, Sir Edmund Berry Godfrey (1621.66), who was instrumental in mitigating the effects of the 1666 Great Plague and Fire that afflicted London. The sides of the tankard are engraved with scenes of the two disasters, with Latin inscriptions describing Sir Godfreyfs exemplary conduct, and the gratitude of King Charles II. As a magistrate, he would have been instrumental in organizing evacuation and relief efforts. There are several inscriptions on the tankard, one of which reads: gperpetual recognitionc for his outstanding and practical works mitigating the plagueh. By the time of the 1666 fire, plague had already killed over 68,000 people in the previous two years, and death carts were still common sights. Since the fire destroyed so many of the old timber buildings and narrow alleyways that harbored the flea-laden, disease-spreading rats, it may well have helped taper that particular plague epidemic. Other waves of plague would come to London in later years, but the one in 1664.66 London was among the worst. (Mary and Michael Grizzard, Cover Art Editors)
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