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Volume 64, Issue 2
15 January 2017
ISSN 1058-4838
EISSN 1537-6591





Biomarkers of inflammation, coagulation cascade activation, and fibrosis predict serious non-AIDS during antiretroviral therapy (ART). We found increased biomarker levels in acute human immunodeficiency virus infection. Several did not normalize despite early ART initiation.

The persistence of an inverted CD4/CD8 ratio has been associated with the increased morbimortality of chronic HIV-infected subjects. We explored the impact of baseline thymic function on the CD4/CD8 ratio of HIV-infected subjects, finding associations before and after treatment in antiretroviral-naive subjects.

In the Brazilian Amazon, the artesunate–amodiaquine combination was more effective in preventing Plasmodium vivax recurrence. With a favorable safety profile, this antimalarial treatment proved to be a good first-line alternative. Chloroquine resistance is probably underestimated in the area.

Total invasive pneumococcal disease incidence halved in 9 years of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) use. PCV13 reversed non-vaccine-type disease increases seen post-PCV7. Serotype replacement was minimal in the PCV13 compared with the PCV7 era. Impact of 3 + 0 PCV13 program is less than that of schedules with a booster dose.

This trial failed to show the equivalence of placebo to amoxicillin in term infants <2 months of age with isolated fast breathing who did not have other clinical signs of illness or hypoxemia and were managed in primary care settings.

Summary Here, we illustrate a stable number of reported pediatric Clostridium difficile infections in 26 hospitals in the Netherlands during the last 6 years and predominance of a polymerase chain reaction ribotype 265 that is rarely found in adults.

Maternal viremia at amniocentesis in women with primary human cytomegalovirus infection has a prognostic value because it is associated with a 3-fold greater chance of congenital infection, but it is not correlated with symptomatic disease.




Currently there are no accepted guidelines for infection prevention and management in mechanical circulatory support recipients. We summarize the main topics in this area and acknowledge that recommendations are based on expert opinion.







  • Cover Image

    Cover Image

    issue cover
    On the cover: The Duke of Orléans Visiting the Sick at l’Hôtel -Dieu During the Cholera Epidemic in 1832, oil on canvas, 1832, by Alfred Johannot (French, 1800-1837) Musée de la Ville de Paris, Musée Carnavalet, Paris, France. Bridgeman Art Library, New York. Reproduced with permission. The artist Johannot usually depicted scenes at court or official events. Here, the royal visitor dominates the center axis of the painting, with his red trousers, tricorn hat, and magnanimous gesture towards one of the obviously weakened and afflicted patients around him. The Duke of Orléans was described in the press as a very generous public figure, who genuinely cared for the fate of the poor. As a demonstration of his concern, he visited very sick patients at Hôtel-Dieu, the hospital in Paris that had begun to receive a steady stream of cholera cases by the end of March 1832. The person who accompanied the duke on this visit became infected with cholera and died. It was an epidemic that lasted several months, claiming an estimated 19 000 lives. (Mary and Michael Grizzard, Cover Art Editors)
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