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Issue Cover
Volume 64, Issue 5
1 March 2017
ISSN 1058-4838
EISSN 1537-6591

NEWS

IN THE LITERATURE

ARTICLES AND COMMENTARIES

In a quasi-experimental, crossover trial involving 1508 patients receiving antibiotics whose providers received either preprescription authorization or postprescription review with feedback, we found that postprescription review with feedback was associated with 2 fewer antibiotic days of therapy per patient.

We observed waning influenza vaccine protection with increasing time since vaccination across influenza types/subtypes among patients ≥9 years old with medically attended acute respiratory illness in the US Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness Network using data from 4 recent US influenza seasons.

We evaluated the epidemiological risk factors for MERS-CoV transmission during the recent South Korean outbreak. MERS-CoV transmission was determined by host infectivity and the number of contacts, whereas super-spreading events were determined by the number of contacts and hospital visits.

Infectious disease (ID) consultations were associated with significantly lower mortality, more lumbar punctures, and treatment with amphotericin and flucytosine. This suggests that ID consultations should be included in management of cryptococcosis.

Reported are the results of the largest population pharmacokinetic study of intravenous colistin in various categories of critically ill patients, including those receiving different types of renal replacement therapy, and derived dosing guidance to achieve a desired plasma colistin concentration.

Psychological stress is thought to be a risk factor for herpes zoster. However, 2 large population-based studies in Denmark and the United Kingdom found no consistent increase in risk of herpes zoster after partner bereavement.

Offering human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination to men who have sex with men up to age 40 years via genitourinary clinics will have a large impact on HPV-related diseases and is likely to be cost-effective.

HIV/hepatitis C virus coinfection and elevated IL-18 levels are both associated with inflammatory disease progression. IL-18 levels are significantly elevated in coinfected individuals, correlated inversely with CD4 count, and increased with incident HIV infection, potentially explaining enhanced inflammatory disease progression in coinfection.

In this analysis of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) surveillance data from 9 states in the United States, socioeconomic factors were found to explain differences in invasive MRSA incidence between white and black persons.

High-dose daptomycin was independently associated with improved survival compared with medium- and standard-dose daptomycin for vancomycin-resistant enterococcal bacteremia, without an apparent increased risk of creatine phosphokinase elevation. Infectious diseases specialist consultation was also independently associated with improved survival.

MTN-017, a phase 2 expanded safety and acceptability study of the reduced-glycerin 1% tenofovir (TFV) gel, showed that rectal application was safe, with adherence and likelihood to use it at least twice weekly similar to daily oral emtricitabine/TFV disoproxil fumarate.

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) controllers are patients with different clinical characteristics, including immunologic progression as defined by CD4+ T-cells drop. We defined 2 genetic markers that can be used to segregate HIV controllers with CD4+T-cell counts >500 mm3 over time from those who experience CD4+ T-cell decline.

During 2009–2013, the proportion of sexually active human immunodeficiency virus–infected adults receiving medical care in the United States who were tested for syphilis, gonorrhea, and chlamydia increased from 20% to 36%. While this increase indicates progress, testing remained far below recommended guidelines.

Patients with cancer and TB infection are at increased risk of developing active TB. Those with hematologic, head and neck, and lung cancer have the highest risk and should be screened and treated for LTBI. Foreign born cancer patients may be considered for screening.

Chronic asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum infection during the dry season predicts decreased clinical malaria risk during the ensuing malaria season; however, treating these infections did not alter this reduced risk, challenging the notion that chronic P. falciparum infection maintains malaria immunity.

Dengue is a common, sometimes life-threatening disease throughout tropical Asia and the Americas. We developed a clinically intuitive algorithm, the Early Severe Dengue Identifier, to assist in the prediction of severe, life-threatening presentations.

REVIEW ARTICLE

The addition of piperacillin/tazobactam to vancomycin therapy is associated with acute kidney injury development compared to vancomycin without piperacillin/tazobactam. This relationship did not exist when an adjusted analysis was restricted to critically ill patients.

BRIEF REPORTS

PHOTO QUIZ

INVITED ARTICLE

VIRAL HEPATITIS

Check Hep C provided patient navigation services to 388 hepatitis C–infected patients, successfully reducing barriers to treatment and achieving a 91% cure rate. Advanced liver fibrosis and receiving on-site clinical care were predictive of increased odds of initiating treatment.

ANSWER TO THE PHOTO QUIZ

CORRESPONDENCE

COVER

  • Cover Image

    Cover Image

    issue cover
    On the cover: Tankard engraved with scenes depicting the Fire of London and the Great Plague, silver, 1675/76, by the Master I.N. (British, 17th c.). Metropolitan Museum, New York, NY. Reproduced with permission. This tankard commemorates the work of a London magistrate, Sir Edmund Berry Godfrey (1621.66), who was instrumental in mitigating the effects of the 1666 Great Plague and Fire that afflicted London. The sides of the tankard are engraved with scenes of the two disasters, with Latin inscriptions describing Sir Godfreyfs exemplary conduct, and the gratitude of King Charles II. As a magistrate, he would have been instrumental in organizing evacuation and relief efforts. There are several inscriptions on the tankard, one of which reads: gperpetual recognitionc for his outstanding and practical works mitigating the plagueh. By the time of the 1666 fire, plague had already killed over 68,000 people in the previous two years, and death carts were still common sights. Since the fire destroyed so many of the old timber buildings and narrow alleyways that harbored the flea-laden, disease-spreading rats, it may well have helped taper that particular plague epidemic. Other waves of plague would come to London in later years, but the one in 1664.66 London was among the worst. (Mary and Michael Grizzard, Cover Art Editors)
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