Abstract

Aims

To examine long-term healthcare utilization and costs of patients with stable coronary artery disease (SCAD).

Methods and results

Linked cohort study of 94 966 patients with SCAD in England, 1 January 2001 to 31 March 2010, identified from primary care, secondary care, disease, and death registries. Resource use and costs, and cost predictors by time and 5-year cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk profile were estimated using generalized linear models. Coronary heart disease hospitalizations were 20.5% in the first year and 66% in the year following a non-fatal (myocardial infarction, ischaemic or haemorrhagic stroke) event. Mean healthcare costs were £3133 per patient in the first year and £10 377 in the year following a non-fatal event. First-year predictors of cost included sex (mean cost £549 lower in females), SCAD diagnosis (non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction cost £656 more than stable angina), and co-morbidities (heart failure cost £657 more per patient). Compared with lower risk patients (5-year CVD risk 3.5%), those of higher risk (5-year CVD risk 44.2%) had higher 5-year costs (£23 393 vs. £9335) and lower lifetime costs (£43 020 vs. £116 888).

Conclusion

Patients with SCAD incur substantial healthcare utilization and costs, which varies and may be predicted by 5-year CVD risk profile. Higher risk patients have higher initial but lower lifetime costs than lower risk patients as a result of shorter life expectancy. Improved cardiovascular survivorship among an ageing CVD population is likely to require stratified care in anticipation of the burgeoning demand.

Introduction

Improved survival coupled with a decline in the incidence of acute myocardial infarction (AMI)1,2 has dramatically changed the pattern of healthcare use over recent years.3,4 Nowadays, patients with stable coronary artery disease (SCAD), including patients with stable angina and those who have become stable after acute coronary syndrome (ACS),5,6 are older and living longer and so make greater use of healthcare resources. Patients with SCAD might be considered to have ‘fallen off the radar’ of clinical interest: no longer in cardiac rehabilitation [mainly offered to those immediately after AMI or coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG)], discharged from ongoing specialist care, and with suboptimal drug compliance, adherence, and persistence.7 Such patients, however, vary widely in their risk of subsequent AMI or coronary death (∼10-fold, between top and bottom deciles of risk),8 which will clearly have differential resource implications.

While previous studies of resource use and cost have taken as a starting point AMI,9,10 there is a paucity of information about the contemporary use and associated costs of healthcare beyond the initial hospital stay. In addition, existing studies in the area have been limited in a number of ways. First, as a result of the nature of their samples, they are not population based and do not reflect contemporary and routine clinical practice.11 Second, they use overly simplistic models, typically restricting their analysis to a subset of SCAD index events and not evaluating how the pattern of healthcare resource use changes following a first post-SCAD myocardial infarction (MI) or stroke.9,10 Third, no study has evaluated resource utilization and costs according to baseline cardiovascular risk, despite the importance of this information in improving decision-making and ensuring more efficient use of limited healthcare resources. Fourth, longer term and particularly lifetime implications of SCAD have not been quantified.

These knowledge gaps have a number of important ramifications. They create uncertainty for those who need to forecast future care needs, restrain the research and development of new technologies and treatments for SCAD, and limit informed clinical decision-making. To address these limitations, our study aimed to (i) determine healthcare utilization and the associated costs in the first year with SCAD and in the year following a first non-fatal event (i.e. AMI, ischaemic or haemorrhagic stroke), (ii) study predictors of costs in the first year of SCAD, and (iii) estimate the 5-year and lifetime costs among patients at low and high risk of subsequent events and coronary heart disease (CHD) death.

Methods

Data set and patient population

The ClinicAl research using Linked Bespoke studies and Electronic Records (CALIBER) e-health database was the data resource for this study. CALIBER links patient records from four different data sources: Clinical Practice Research Database (CPRD), Myocardial Ischaemia National Audit Project (MINAP) registry, Hospital Episodes Statistics (HES), and the Office for National Statistics. The data of CPRD were used to obtain heart rate measurements, demographic variables, and other risk factors. Primary care practices that provide valuable data to CPRD and cover ∼4% of UK population are representative in terms of demographic parameters such as gender, age, and ethnicity12,13 and overall mortality14 and have been validated for epidemiological research. A description of the CALIBER approach has been presented elsewhere.15 Classification algorithms combining Read, International Classification of Disease 10 (ICD-10), drug, and procedure codes to define risk factors and endpoints are available at http://www.caliberresearch.org/portal/.

Eligible patients were those with a diagnosis of stable angina, patients with a diagnosis of ACS within the study period (unstable angina or AMI), or those with a diagnosis of CHD in which there is no further specification of whether it is angina or MI (other CHD). Study start date was calculated from the date of diagnosis of stable angina or other CHD or from 6 months after an ACS or coronary intervention. The period of 6 months was chosen to differentiate long-term prognosis from the high-risk period that typically follows an ACS or revascularization. Diagnoses were identified in CPRD, HES, or MINAP records according to definitions given in the CALIBER data manual.15 Patients were only eligible for the study during the period they were actively registered at a CPRD practice that was collecting up-to-standard data (according to CPRD measures of data quality and completeness), with follow-up ending if a patient transferred out of a CPRD practice. Full details of the cohort are available elsewhere.8

Healthcare utilization

Healthcare utilization extracted from the data set included primary care consultations, pharmaceutical prescriptions, inpatient stays, and diagnostic tests. Primary care consultations included all contacts between the patient and healthcare professionals captured in the CPRD data set. Prescription data were available from the CPRD data set and distinguished between drugs that were cardiovascular disease (CVD)-related and those that were not. Inpatient stays extracted from HES were based on Health Resource Group (HRG) codes and defined as CHD, CVD (including CHD and broader HRGs), or non-CVD related based on ICD-10 codes. Diagnostic tests as recorded in the primary care data set but not outpatient consultations were also extracted, the latter being due to the absence of outpatient HES data linkage.

Costs

All costs were calculated from the perspective of the UK National Health Service (NHS) in pound sterling based on 2011/12 prices. Costs were calculated by combining healthcare utilization data from CALIBER with associated unit costs that were taken from published UK sources.16–18 For hospitalizations, costs are calculated based on finished consultant episodes in HES. Costs are presented in terms of total healthcare costs (all costs incurred), CHD costs (all CHD-related hospitalization costs, CVD-related drugs, and all primary care and diagnostic costs), and CVD costs (all CVD-related hospitalization costs, CVD-related drugs, and all primary care and diagnostic costs).

Analytical methods

Estimates of healthcare utilization and costs were calculated for the first year in the SCAD cohort and the first year following a non-fatal event during the follow-up period (AMI, ischaemic or haemorrhagic stroke) with results reported as means and standard deviations, with medians and interquartile ranges reported in the appendices. Observations that were right censored for any reason other than mortality (i.e. those for which the data are incomplete for the year of interest, either first year with SCAD or first year following an event, but the reason for incompleteness was not death) were excluded from the analysis.

A generalized linear model with a log link and gamma distribution was used to estimate the impact of baseline covariates on costs in the first year in the SCAD cohort to account for the non-linear impact of covariates and the right skewness in cost data. Covariates were based on those used by Rapsomaniki et al.,8 which developed a prognostic model for SCAD patients, on the assumption that predictors of costs were likely linked to prognostic indicators. The covariates included the baseline diagnosis for entry to SCAD, co-morbidities, age, gender, smoking status, and biomarkers. Models were fitted on five multiply-imputed data sets and estimates combined using Rubin's rules.19 The impact of covariates has been transformed back onto the natural scale to allow for ease of interpretation.

Panel data methods with time invariant covariates were used to estimate patient costs over each 90-day period. Also estimated were the impact of events (non-fatal AMI, ischaemic and haemorrhagic stroke, CVD- and non-CVD-related death) on the costs in the period of the event and subsequent periods if the event was non-fatal. These costs were then combined with a state transition Markov model to estimate costs over a longer period. The model estimated the probabilities of, and mean times to, the first events of non-fatal AMI, ischaemic or haemorrhagic stroke, CVD- and non-CVD-related death, and subsequent CVD or non-CVD death following a non-fatal first event. These estimates were conditional on baseline covariates and were inferred from patient-level costs, covariates, survival, and events experienced. Full details of this model are available elsewhere with a brief description given in the appendix.20 For the purpose of this article, the results of costs over time are presented for patients based on average covariate patterns for the 5-year risk deciles of a cardiovascular event. Discounted costs are also presented using a discount rate of 3.5% per annum.21

Results

Cohort

In total, 94 966 patients were identified who met the inclusion criteria, of which 44% were female. The mean age of men and women included were 67 and 72 years, respectively. For the primary SCAD diagnosis, 47.4% of patients had stable angina, 13.5% unstable angina, 6.7% ST-elevation MI (STEMI), 9.7% non-STEMI (NSTEMI), and 22.6% had CHD not otherwise specified. Full details of the cohort can be found in Appendix Table A1.

Figure 1 summarizes the SCAD cohort and the patient numbers used for each analysis.

Figure 1

Stable coronary artery disease cohort.

Figure 1

Stable coronary artery disease cohort.

Healthcare utilization

Table 1 reports healthcare utilization in the first year in the SCAD cohort and in the first year following a non-fatal event during the follow-up period (AMI, ischaemic or haemorrhagic stroke). In the first year in the SCAD cohort, 20.5% of patients (n = 17 532) were hospitalized for CVD, and those who were hospitalized had a mean 1.9 stays (spells) in hospital with a mean length of stay of 4.6 days. In the year following a non-fatal event during follow-up, 66% of patients (n = 4354) were hospitalized for CHD. These patients spent a mean of 2.2 stays in hospital with a mean length of stay of 6.5 days. In the first year in SCAD, patients had a mean of 10.8 primary care appointments, and this increased to 13.7 in the first year following a non-fatal event. In the first year of SCAD, 88.2% of patients were taking cardiovascular medication, which decreased to 83.6% in the year following a non-fatal event. In the first year of SCAD, 5.7% of patients had a revascularization procedure, increasing to 13.5% of patients in the first year following a non-fatal event.

Table 1

Healthcare utilization in first year in the stable coronary artery disease cohort and first year following a non-fatal event during follow-up (myocardial infarction, ischaemic or haemorrhagic stroke)

 Resource use in first year (n= 85 702) Resource in first year following an event (n = 6599) 
Mean (SD) Mean (SD) 
Hospitalizations 
 Hospitalized (%) 37.6 (0.484) 83.5 (0.371) 
 Hospitalized for CVD (%) 27 (0.444) 80.2 (0.399) 
 Hospitalized for CHD (%) 20.5 (0.403) 66 (0.474) 
 Inpatient stays 0.875 (4.421) 2.364 (6.425) 
 Inpatient stays for CVD 0.503 (2.545) 1.931 (5.284) 
 Inpatient stays for CHD 0.343 (1.321) 1.434 (3.315) 
With any hospitalization n = 32 242 n = 5512 
 Inpatient stays 2.325 (6.971) 2.83 (6.935) 
 Length of stay 6.717 (17.583) 14.857 (20.349) 
With any hospitalization for CVD n = 23 160 n = 5291 
 Inpatient stays for CVD 1.862 (4.631) 2.408 (5.803) 
 Length of stay 7.516 (12.757) 15.541 (20.939) 
With any hospitalization for CHD n = 17 532 n = 4354 
 Inpatient stays for CHD 1.674 (2.51) 2.174 (3.88) 
 Length of stay 4.579 (7.617) 6.515 (10.857) 
Revascularizations 
 Any revascularization (%) 5.7 (0.232) 13.5 (0.341) 
 PCI (%) 3 (0.17) 9.1 (0.287) 
 CABG (%) 2.9 (0.169) 5 (0.218) 
Primary care consultations 10.768 (10.857) 13.671 (15.407) 
Drugs 
 Patients on any drugs (%) 91.3 (0.281) 85.1 (0.356) 
 Patients on CVD drugs (%) 88.2 (0.322) 83.6 (0.37) 
 Patients on anticoagulants (%) 8.7 (0.282) 14.7 (0.354) 
 Patients on ACEi or ARB (%) 47.7 (0.499) 61.5 (0.487) 
 Patients on anti-platelets (%) 65.6 (0.475) 76.3 (0.425) 
 Patients on β-blockers (%) 46 (0.498) 50.1 (0.5) 
 Patients on calcium channel blockers (%) 31.5 (0.464) 32.6 (0.469) 
 Resource use in first year (n= 85 702) Resource in first year following an event (n = 6599) 
Mean (SD) Mean (SD) 
Hospitalizations 
 Hospitalized (%) 37.6 (0.484) 83.5 (0.371) 
 Hospitalized for CVD (%) 27 (0.444) 80.2 (0.399) 
 Hospitalized for CHD (%) 20.5 (0.403) 66 (0.474) 
 Inpatient stays 0.875 (4.421) 2.364 (6.425) 
 Inpatient stays for CVD 0.503 (2.545) 1.931 (5.284) 
 Inpatient stays for CHD 0.343 (1.321) 1.434 (3.315) 
With any hospitalization n = 32 242 n = 5512 
 Inpatient stays 2.325 (6.971) 2.83 (6.935) 
 Length of stay 6.717 (17.583) 14.857 (20.349) 
With any hospitalization for CVD n = 23 160 n = 5291 
 Inpatient stays for CVD 1.862 (4.631) 2.408 (5.803) 
 Length of stay 7.516 (12.757) 15.541 (20.939) 
With any hospitalization for CHD n = 17 532 n = 4354 
 Inpatient stays for CHD 1.674 (2.51) 2.174 (3.88) 
 Length of stay 4.579 (7.617) 6.515 (10.857) 
Revascularizations 
 Any revascularization (%) 5.7 (0.232) 13.5 (0.341) 
 PCI (%) 3 (0.17) 9.1 (0.287) 
 CABG (%) 2.9 (0.169) 5 (0.218) 
Primary care consultations 10.768 (10.857) 13.671 (15.407) 
Drugs 
 Patients on any drugs (%) 91.3 (0.281) 85.1 (0.356) 
 Patients on CVD drugs (%) 88.2 (0.322) 83.6 (0.37) 
 Patients on anticoagulants (%) 8.7 (0.282) 14.7 (0.354) 
 Patients on ACEi or ARB (%) 47.7 (0.499) 61.5 (0.487) 
 Patients on anti-platelets (%) 65.6 (0.475) 76.3 (0.425) 
 Patients on β-blockers (%) 46 (0.498) 50.1 (0.5) 
 Patients on calcium channel blockers (%) 31.5 (0.464) 32.6 (0.469) 

Costs

Table 2 reports costs for hospitalizations, primary care appointments, diagnostic tests, and drugs in patients in the first year in the SCAD cohort, and in the first year following a non-fatal event during follow-up (MI, ischaemic or haemorrhagic stroke). The mean total healthcare costs in the first year in the SCAD cohort were £3133 per patient, of which 56.8% (£1780) and 70.2% (£2199) were related to CHD and CVD, respectively. This estimate increased to £10 377 per patient in the year following a non-fatal event during follow-up, of which 66.2% (£6869) and 85.9% (£8916) were related to CHD and CVD, respectively. The majority of healthcare costs were driven by hospitalizations (64.4% in the first year in the SCAD cohort and 84.2% in the year following a non-fatal event during follow-up).

Table 2

Costs in first year in the stable coronary artery disease cohort and in first year following an event during follow-up (myocardial infarction, ischaemic or haemorrhagic stroke)

 Costs in first year (n = 85 702) Costs in first year following an event (n = 6599) 
Mean (SD) Mean (SD) 
Total costs 
 Total cost (£) 3133 (6101) 10 377 (12 260) 
 Total CVD cost (£) 2199 (4632) 8916 (10 930) 
 Total CHD costs (£) 1780 (3686) 6869 (9467) 
Hospitalizations 
 Inpatient costs (£) 2018 (5632) 8744 (11 554) 
 Inpatient CVD costs (£) 1487 (4493) 7957 (10 796) 
 Inpatient CHD costs (£) 1067 (3548) 5910 (9338) 
Primary care costs (£) 466 (463) 589 (629) 
Diagnostic test costs (£) 141 (232) 228 (311) 
Drugs 
 All drug costs (£) 508 (1548) 816 (3135) 
 CVD drug costs (£) 105 (113) 142 (175) 
 Costs in first year (n = 85 702) Costs in first year following an event (n = 6599) 
Mean (SD) Mean (SD) 
Total costs 
 Total cost (£) 3133 (6101) 10 377 (12 260) 
 Total CVD cost (£) 2199 (4632) 8916 (10 930) 
 Total CHD costs (£) 1780 (3686) 6869 (9467) 
Hospitalizations 
 Inpatient costs (£) 2018 (5632) 8744 (11 554) 
 Inpatient CVD costs (£) 1487 (4493) 7957 (10 796) 
 Inpatient CHD costs (£) 1067 (3548) 5910 (9338) 
Primary care costs (£) 466 (463) 589 (629) 
Diagnostic test costs (£) 141 (232) 228 (311) 
Drugs 
 All drug costs (£) 508 (1548) 816 (3135) 
 CVD drug costs (£) 105 (113) 142 (175) 

Cost predictors in the first year in the stable coronary artery disease cohort

Figure 2 presents the results of the regression analysis showing the incremental costs associated with different covariates and the associated 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the first year in the SCAD cohort. Non-CVD-related co-morbidities had the largest impact on costs, with a history of renal disease associated with the largest increment of £1998 per patient (95% CI £1715–£2297). A history of heart failure resulted in an additional cost of £802 per patient (95% CI £683–£920). Of the baseline diagnoses for entry to the SCAD cohort, NSTEMI had the largest impact on cost with those patients with NSTEMI costing an additional £656 per patient (95% CI £473–£848) when compared with those with stable angina. Females were significantly less costly than males, being female was associated with a cost decrement of £549 per patient (95% CI −£638 to −£457). Figures A1 and A2 in the appendix present the same results for CVD- and CHD-related costs, respectively.

Figure 2

Forest plot of incremental costs associated with covariates.

Figure 2

Forest plot of incremental costs associated with covariates.

Estimated 90-day period and event costs

Tables A4, A5, and A6 in the appendix provide estimates of total healthcare costs, CVD-related costs, and CHD-related costs, respectively, for a 90-day period based on a range of baseline characteristics. The tables also show the incremental costs in the period of an event and in subsequent periods for non-fatal events. For example, the background total healthcare costs for a male, mean age 69 years, with no co-morbidities would be £341 in the first 90 days, increasing by £10 for each subsequent 90-day period. If the patient had a non-fatal AMI, he would incur an incremental cost (on top of the normal period cost of £372) of £5028 in the 90 days following the AMI with the incremental costs decreasing in subsequent trimesters until 360 days after which there is an incremental cost of £521 per 90 days suggesting significant ongoing lifetime costs of events. Also of note, the incremental costs in the period of death from CVD- and non-CVD-related causes were £2008 and £2240, respectively.

Estimated costs over time for stable coronary artery disease

Table 3 presents estimates of 5-year and lifetime costs (total and CVD related, undiscounted and discounted) of the representative patients for each risk group. The covariate profiles used are shown in Appendix Table A7.

Table 3

Mean 5-year and lifetime costs for stable coronary artery disease patient population by cardiovascular risk decile

Results Risk group
 
10 
5-year riska (%) 3.46 5.43 6.95 8.53 10.36 12.57 15.64 20.07 27.23 44.18 
Average age (years) 52 59 62 65 68 70 73 76 80 84 
Life expectancy (years) 26.81 19.62 17.34 15.63 14.26 13.03 11.92 10.48 8.52 5.51 
Total 5-year costs (£) 9335 11 200 12 308 13 512 14 644 15 930 17 660 19 609 21 617 23 391 
Discounted total 5-year costsb (£) 8495 10 204 11 221 12 327 13 368 14 554 16 153 17 963 19 853 21 620 
Total 5-year CVD costs (£) 5306 6959 7941 8954 9874 10 904 12 242 13 742 15 380 17 050 
Discounted total 5-year CVD costsb (£) 4823 6338 7238 8168 9014 9962 11 197 12 589 14 126 15 759 
Total 5-year CHD costs (£) 4172 5543 6354 7153 7867 8583 9449 10 385 11 376 12 392 
Discounted total 5-year CHD costsb (£) 3801 5057 5801 6534 7191 7850 8651 9521 10 455 11 459 
Total lifetime costs (£) 116 888 81 490 73 057 68 102 64 521 62 034 61 435 59 446 54 345 43 020 
Discounted total lifetime costsb 62 210 50 864 48 046 46 535 45 429 44 785 45 283 44 903 42 436 35 549 
Total lifetime CVD costs (£) 71 943 52 034 47 681 45 251 43 438 42 266 42 301 41 366 38 410 31 199 
Discounted total lifetime CVD costsb (£) 37 857 32 331 31 288 30 896 30 584 30 531 31 211 31 281 30 024 25 801 
Total lifetime CHD costs (£) 46 921 36 069 33 892 32 693 31 741 30 944 30 793 29 885 27 533 22 324 
Discounted total lifetime CHD costsb (£) 25 316 22 868 22 639 22 672 22 657 22 619 22 946 22 778 21 646 18 522 
Results Risk group
 
10 
5-year riska (%) 3.46 5.43 6.95 8.53 10.36 12.57 15.64 20.07 27.23 44.18 
Average age (years) 52 59 62 65 68 70 73 76 80 84 
Life expectancy (years) 26.81 19.62 17.34 15.63 14.26 13.03 11.92 10.48 8.52 5.51 
Total 5-year costs (£) 9335 11 200 12 308 13 512 14 644 15 930 17 660 19 609 21 617 23 391 
Discounted total 5-year costsb (£) 8495 10 204 11 221 12 327 13 368 14 554 16 153 17 963 19 853 21 620 
Total 5-year CVD costs (£) 5306 6959 7941 8954 9874 10 904 12 242 13 742 15 380 17 050 
Discounted total 5-year CVD costsb (£) 4823 6338 7238 8168 9014 9962 11 197 12 589 14 126 15 759 
Total 5-year CHD costs (£) 4172 5543 6354 7153 7867 8583 9449 10 385 11 376 12 392 
Discounted total 5-year CHD costsb (£) 3801 5057 5801 6534 7191 7850 8651 9521 10 455 11 459 
Total lifetime costs (£) 116 888 81 490 73 057 68 102 64 521 62 034 61 435 59 446 54 345 43 020 
Discounted total lifetime costsb 62 210 50 864 48 046 46 535 45 429 44 785 45 283 44 903 42 436 35 549 
Total lifetime CVD costs (£) 71 943 52 034 47 681 45 251 43 438 42 266 42 301 41 366 38 410 31 199 
Discounted total lifetime CVD costsb (£) 37 857 32 331 31 288 30 896 30 584 30 531 31 211 31 281 30 024 25 801 
Total lifetime CHD costs (£) 46 921 36 069 33 892 32 693 31 741 30 944 30 793 29 885 27 533 22 324 
Discounted total lifetime CHD costsb (£) 25 316 22 868 22 639 22 672 22 657 22 619 22 946 22 778 21 646 18 522 

aOf AMI, ischaemic or haemorrhagic stroke, or fatal CVD.

bDiscounted at a rate of 3.5% per annum to calculate the present value of the costs.

A patient with SCAD representative of the lowest risk decile (5-year cardiovascular risk of 3.5% and a life expectancy of 26.8 years) would have expected undiscounted costs of £9335 over 5 years, of which 44.7 and 56.8% would be CHD and CVD related, respectively; and undiscounted lifetime costs of £116 888, of which 40.1 and 61.5% would be CHD and CVD related, respectively. A representative patient of the highest risk decile (5-year cardiovascular risk of 44.2% and a life expectancy of 5.51 years) would have expected undiscounted costs of £23 391 over 5 years, of which 53.0 and 72.9% would be CHD and CVD related, respectively; and lifetime undiscounted costs of £43 020, of which 51.9 and 72.5% would be CHD and CVD related, respectively.

Figure 3 shows the predicted total, CVD-related, and CHD-related costs and the survival curves over a 25-year period for representative patients of risk deciles 1 (lowest risk), 4, 7, and 10 (highest risk). Higher risk patients with SCAD have higher initial costs, which are overtaken by the lower risk patients as a result of higher mortality in the higher risk groups resulting in less time to accrue costs (5-year survivorship differs from 98.4% in risk decile 1 to 40.7% in risk decile 10; and 25-year survivorship differs from 58.2% in risk decile 1 to 0.5% in risk decile 10).

Figure 3

Expected costs and survival over time for patients representative of risk deciles 1, 4, 7, and 10. CHD, coronary heart disease; CVD, cardiovascular disease; RG, risk decile.

Figure 3

Expected costs and survival over time for patients representative of risk deciles 1, 4, 7, and 10. CHD, coronary heart disease; CVD, cardiovascular disease; RG, risk decile.

Discussion

This study addresses a fundamental gap in knowledge relevant to clinicians and policymakers: what is the clinical, health service, and cost burden associated with SCAD? Using data from a large, contemporary, and representative population of patients from the England with SCAD, the analysis has shown that substantial healthcare costs are likely to be incurred as a result of improved ACS survivorship and the ageing population. Moreover, 5-year and lifetime costs vary according to CVD risk, which may be readily predicted from the baseline characteristics of patients that are routinely collected. High-risk patients have considerably higher costs over the initial 5 years but lower lifetime costs than lower risk patients as a result of shorter life expectancy.

Patients with SCAD might be considered to have ‘fallen off the radar’ of clinical interest. Current guidelines give little information about how frequently and where such patients should be followed up or if and how they should be risk stratified.5,6 Our results clearly highlight the unmet need and the shortfalls of current approaches—with high use of primary care and frequent hospitalizations, there are considerable ongoing costs. The number of primary care consultations, a mean of 10.8 per patient in the first year in the SCAD cohort, is higher than previous estimates for the overall population (5.5 per year).22 In the first year in the SCAD cohort, over a third of patients were hospitalized (and 20.5% for CHD reasons). This is substantially higher than recent estimates for the general population in one area of the UK (14.9%),23 and markedly higher than that in the general population for a similar age (23.4 and 21.2% of 60- to 74-year-old males and females, respectively, based on HES data).

Healthcare utilization is, however, insufficient as a metric of the impact on the healthcare system. It is also important to consider the cost imposed on the NHS associated with those resources as this indicates the value of resources that cannot be devoted to health-enhancing activities for other patients. Mean costs of £3133 in the first year in the SCAD cohort are much higher than those in patients without chronic conditions (£293), but comparable with other chronic conditions (e.g. diabetes £3036).23 Very high costs in the first year following a non-fatal event during follow-up (MI, ischaemic or haemorrhagic stroke) (£10 377) are reflective of the healthcare utilization required to treat that event.

Patients were stratified by risk to understand the costs accrued in greater detail. This higher resolution analysis allows the identification of where novel treatments and health service interventions have the greatest potential to be cost-effective. Non-CVD co-morbidities were common and had a major influence on costs with e.g. renal disease resulting in a mean extra cost of £1998 per patient in the first year of SCAD. This is an important finding when the presence of multiple co-morbidities has been shown to increase costs23 yet clinicians tend to focus only on single diseases.24

The panel data analysis examined the average cost per 90-day period with the disease and also the costs of events. The estimated incremental cost of a non-fatal MI over 1 year (£7677 ignoring mortality risk) was lower than some previous estimates from trial populations (e.g. among patients with stable angina the estimate of £9775 from the EUROPA trial).11 However, this lower estimate may be reflective of less intensive use of healthcare resources in non-trial settings and should provide a more accurate representation of costs of these events in routine clinical practice. Estimated stroke costs in the first year of the event (£8902 for ischaemic and £10 477 for haemorrhagic stroke incremental to background costs) were similar to those seen in other studies. For example, the OXVASC study estimated mean total healthcare costs per patient in the first year following stroke at £10524.25

Furthermore, a study of costs in the first year of SCAD and the first year following an event is of limited use to decision-makers who require more detailed information on the long-term costs and consequences of SCAD. This can be seen from the panel data analysis, which suggested ongoing long-term costs as a result of non-fatal events. By estimating 5-year and lifetime costs by CVD risk group, it was possible to examine the long-term cost implications as a result of the disease and future events. In the shorter term of 5 years, which is shorter than the life expectancy of even the highest risk group (although survivorship in this group was only 40.7% at 5 years), costs increased with cardiovascular risk, and were largely driven by the high number of fatal and non-fatal events among these patients. Over a lifetime, however, patients in the lower risk groups eventually had substantially higher costs than higher risk patients, primarily driven by greater life expectancy and, therefore, costs being incurred over a much longer period. This is a key finding of our research: increased survivorship as well as an increasingly co-morbid and older population will result in significant future healthcare costs. In turn, this has implications for the cost and therefore the cost-effectiveness of established and new SCAD treatments.

Many studies have attempted to address the burden of disease in terms of health losses but fewer have examined the impact on financial costs of disease. Our research used SCAD as an exemplar in estimating resource use and costs from ‘real world’ electronic health record data. The methods used here could be readily applied to other chronic diseases to help produce evidence of their resource and cost implications to better inform clinicians and decision-makers. This would reduce uncertainty for those who need to forecast future care needs and allow for better focused research and development of new technologies and treatments for these chronic diseases as well as resulting in better informed clinical decision-making.

Limitations

While our study has a number of strengths including the multi-source electronic health record linkage, there are a number of limitations. In addition to being censored at 2010, after which there have been further improvements in the care and survivorship of SCAD, a key weakness of this study was the exclusion of outpatient appointment costs that cannot currently be linked from HES. As a result, the total healthcare costs of this population are underestimated. Further disaggregation of primary care costs into CHD and CVD related was not possible and therefore in each category all primary care costs have been included and therefore are likely overestimated. The estimation of lifetime costs has also involved extrapolation over a longer time period than is currently observed in the CALIBER data. This extrapolation is subject to considerable uncertainty. The SCAD population is also inherently heterogeneous, and there may be value in further disaggregation of the population in future research.

Conclusions

Using a multi-source electronic health record approach, this study provides, for the first time, estimates and predictors of contemporary national healthcare utilization and costs in the first year of SCAD and the first year following an event. It reveals that patients with SCAD incur substantial healthcare utilization and costs, which vary and may be predicted by 5-year CVD risk profiles. While high-risk patients incur substantially higher costs over the short term (5 years), low-risk patients incur higher lifetime costs as a result of greater life expectancy. Improved cardiovascular survivorship and an ageing UK population will require stratified care in anticipation of the burgeoning economic demand. The methods used here could be readily applied to other chronic diseases to better inform clinical decision-making.

Authors’ contributions

All authors contributed to the interpretation of the data and several drafts of the manuscript. S.W., M.A., A.M., S.P., and M.S. conducted the statistical analysis and developed the model used to estimate long-term costs. A.D.S., K.A., M.C., C.P.G., A.T., and H.H. provided advice throughout the process. A.T. and H.H. were responsible for the overall grant from the NIHR.

Acknowledgements

We acknowledge the help of the authors of the original prognostic model, namely, Eleni Rapsomaniki, Pablo Perel, Spiros Denaxas, Julie George, Owen Nicholas, Ruzan Udumyan, Gene Feder, Aroon Hingorani, and Liam Smeeth. Further we acknowledge those responsible for the development of the CALIBER data set including Spiros Denaxas, Julie George, Emily Herrett, Dipak Kalra, Aroon Hingorani, Mike Kivimaki, and Liam Smeeth.

Funding

The study was funded by the UK National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) (RP-PG-0407-10314) and the Wellcome Trust (WT 086091/Z/08/Z) and was supported by the Farr Institute of Health Informatics Research, funded by The Medical Research Council (K006584/1) in partnership with Arthritis Research UK, the British Heart Foundation, Cancer Research UK, the Economic and Social Research Council, the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council, the NIHR, the National Institute for Social Care and Health Research (Welsh Assembly Government), the Chief Scientist Office (Scottish Government Health Directorates), and the Wellcome Trust. The views and opinions expressed within the paper do not necessarily reflect those of the NIHR or the UK Department of Health. A.D.S. is supported by a Wellcome Trust clinical research training fellowship (0938/30/Z/10/Z). C.P.G. is funded by the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR-CTF-2014-03-03) as Associate Professor and Honorary Consultant Cardiologist. This work made use of the facilities of N8 HPC provided and funded by the N8 consortium and EPSRC (Grant No. EP/K000225/1). The Centre is co-ordinated by the Universities of Leeds and Manchester. Funding to pay the Open Access publication charges for this article was provided by University College London.

Conflict of interest: All authors have completed the Unified Competing Interest form at www.icmje.org/coi_disclosure.pdf (available on request from the corresponding author) and declare that S.W., M.A., S.P., C.P.G., A.D.S., M.C., and H.H. have nothing to disclose. A.M. reports and currently sits on one of the NICE Technology Appraisal Committees. M.S. received grant funding for the work reported in this paper from the National Institute for Health Research. Outside of the published work, M.S. has received personal fees from various pharmaceutical and medical device companies, some of which have products used in cardiovascular disease. A.T. reports personal fees from Menarini Pharmaceuticals, other from Servier, outside the submitted work. K.A. reports personal fees from ABPI, Roche, Novo Nordisk, AstraZeneca, Janssen, and Allergan, outside the submitted work.

Appendix

Model description

A state transition Markov model was used to capture the natural history of SCAD patients. The model predicts time to first non-fatal events (MI, ischaemic stroke or haemorrhagic stroke) and CVD and non-CVD mortality (as a first event or following a non-fatal first event). The model has a lifetime horizon and uses a 90-day cycle length to capture the time varying and age-dependent nature of risks. Risks of the five primary clinical endpoints (non-fatal MI, non-fatal ischaemic stroke, non-fatal haemorrhagic stroke, and CVD and non-CVD mortality) were estimated based on key prognostic factors, including demographic measures, SCAD subtype, use of long-acting nitrates, whether CABG or PCI was performed in the 6 months following CAD diagnosis, previous MI, smoking, blood pressure, diagnosis of hypertension, diabetes, lipids, CVD co-morbidities, non-CVD co-morbidities, psychosocial factors, and clinically assessed biomarkers. Risk equations for the six subsequent events, namely CVD and non-CVD mortality following non-fatal MI, ischaemic stroke, and haemorrhagic stroke were estimated in a similar way. However, due to the greatly reduced numbers of events observed, these were based only on sex and age at time of non-fatal event. Non-CVD mortality beyond the maximum follow-up in the CALIBER data set (10 years) was based on age–sex-specific non-CVD mortality from national life tables. Costs are accrued based on baseline covariate, events experienced, and time alive with the costs based on the results detailed in this article. Full details can be found in Asaria et al.20

Table A1

Patient characteristics

Socio-demographic characteristics  
Sex (% female) 44 
Age (if male) (years) 67 
Age (if female) (years) 72 
Most deprived quintile (%) 20 
Baseline diagnoses for entry to the SCAD cohort 
 NSTEMI (%) 10 
 STEMI (%) 
 Unstable angina (%) 14 
 Stable angina (%) 47 
 CHD not otherwise specified (%) 23 
CVD risk factors 
 Current smoker (%) 35 
 Ex-smoker (%) 32 
 Never smoked (%) 33 
 Hypertension (%) 76 
 Diabetes (%) 16 
CVD co-morbidities 
 Heart failure (%) 26 
 Atrial fibrillation (%) 15 
 Peripheral arterial disease (%) 
 Stroke (%) 
Socio-demographic characteristics  
Sex (% female) 44 
Age (if male) (years) 67 
Age (if female) (years) 72 
Most deprived quintile (%) 20 
Baseline diagnoses for entry to the SCAD cohort 
 NSTEMI (%) 10 
 STEMI (%) 
 Unstable angina (%) 14 
 Stable angina (%) 47 
 CHD not otherwise specified (%) 23 
CVD risk factors 
 Current smoker (%) 35 
 Ex-smoker (%) 32 
 Never smoked (%) 33 
 Hypertension (%) 76 
 Diabetes (%) 16 
CVD co-morbidities 
 Heart failure (%) 26 
 Atrial fibrillation (%) 15 
 Peripheral arterial disease (%) 
 Stroke (%) 
Table A2

Healthcare utilization in first year with stable coronary artery disease and first year following a non-fatal event (myocardial infarction, ischaemic or haemorrhagic stroke)

 Mean (SD) Median (IQR) 
Resource use in first year (n = 85 702) 
Hospitalizations 
 Hospitalized (%) 37.6 (0.484) 0 (0–1) 
 Hospitalized for CVD (%) 27 (0.444) 0 (0–1) 
 Hospitalized for CHD (%) 20.5 (0.403) 0 (0–1) 
 Inpatient stays 0.875 (4.421) 0 (0–3) 
 Inpatient stays for CVD 0.503 (2.545) 0 (0–2) 
 Inpatient stays for CHD 0.343 (1.321) 0 (0–2) 
With any hospitalization (n = 32 242) 
 Inpatient stays 2.325 (6.971) 1 (1–5) 
 Length of stay 6.717 (17.583) 3 (1–23) 
With any hospitalization for CVD (n = 23 160) 
 Inpatient stays for CVD 1.862 (4.631) 1 (1–4) 
 Length of stay 7.516 (12.757) 3.667 (1–26) 
With any hospitalization for CHD (n = 17 532) 
 Inpatient stays for CHD 1.674 (2.51) 1 (1–4) 
 Length of stay 4.579 (7.617) 2 (1–14.75) 
Revascularizations 
 Any revascularization (%) 5.7 (0.232) 0 (0–1) 
 PCI (%) 3 (0.17) 0 (0–0) 
 CABG (%) 2.9 (0.169) 0 (0–0) 
Primary care consultations 10.768 (10.857) 8 (0–30) 
Drugs 
 Patients on any drugs (%) 91.3 (0.281) 1 (0–1) 
 Patients on CVD drugs (%) 88.2 (0.322) 1 (0–1) 
 Patients on anticoagulants (%) 8.7 (0.282) 0 (0–1) 
 Patients on ACEi or ARB (%) 47.7 (0.499) 0 (0–1) 
 Patients on anti-platelets (%) 65.6 (0.475) 1 (0–1) 
 Patients on β-blockers (%) 46 (0.498) 0 (0–1) 
 Patients on calcium channel blockers (%) 31.5 (0.464) 0 (0–1) 
Resource in first year following an event (n = 6599) 
Hospitalizations 
 Hospitalized (%) 83.5 (0.371) 1 (0–1) 
 Hospitalized for CVD (%) 80.2 (0.399) 1 (0–1) 
 Hospitalized for CHD (%) 66 (0.474) 1 (0–1) 
 Inpatient stays 2.364 (6.425) 1 (0–6) 
 Inpatient stays for CVD 1.931 (5.284) 1 (0–5) 
 Inpatient stays for CHD 1.434 (3.315) 1 (0–4) 
With any hospitalization (n = 5512) 
 Inpatient stays 2.83 (6.935) 2 (1–6) 
 Length of stay 14.857 (20.349) 8.5 (1.5–50.5) 
With any hospitalization for CVD (n = 5291) 
 Inpatient stays for CVD 2.408 (5.803) 2 (1–5) 
 Length of stay 15.541 (20.939) 9 (2–52) 
With any hospitalization for CHD (n = 4354) 
 Inpatient stays for CHD 2.174 (3.88) 1 (1–5) 
 Length of stay 6.515 (10.857) 3.5 (1–21.5) 
Revascularizations 
 Any revascularization (%) 13.5 (0.341) 0 (0–1) 
 PCI (%) 9.1 (0.287) 0 (0–1) 
 CABG (%) 5 (0.218) 0 (0–1) 
Primary care consultations 13.671 (15.407) 11 (0–38) 
Drugs 
 Patients on any drugs (%) 85.1 (0.356) 1 (0–1) 
 Patients on CVD drugs (%) 83.6 (0.37) 1 (0–1) 
 Patients on anticoagulants (%) 14.7 (0.354) 0 (0–1) 
 Patients on ACEi or ARB (%) 61.5 (0.487) 1 (0–1) 
 Patients on anti-platelets (%) 76.3 (0.425) 1 (0–1) 
 Patients on β-blockers (%) 50.1 (0.5) 1 (0–1) 
 Patients on calcium channel blockers (%) 32.6 (0.469) 0 (0–1) 
 Mean (SD) Median (IQR) 
Resource use in first year (n = 85 702) 
Hospitalizations 
 Hospitalized (%) 37.6 (0.484) 0 (0–1) 
 Hospitalized for CVD (%) 27 (0.444) 0 (0–1) 
 Hospitalized for CHD (%) 20.5 (0.403) 0 (0–1) 
 Inpatient stays 0.875 (4.421) 0 (0–3) 
 Inpatient stays for CVD 0.503 (2.545) 0 (0–2) 
 Inpatient stays for CHD 0.343 (1.321) 0 (0–2) 
With any hospitalization (n = 32 242) 
 Inpatient stays 2.325 (6.971) 1 (1–5) 
 Length of stay 6.717 (17.583) 3 (1–23) 
With any hospitalization for CVD (n = 23 160) 
 Inpatient stays for CVD 1.862 (4.631) 1 (1–4) 
 Length of stay 7.516 (12.757) 3.667 (1–26) 
With any hospitalization for CHD (n = 17 532) 
 Inpatient stays for CHD 1.674 (2.51) 1 (1–4) 
 Length of stay 4.579 (7.617) 2 (1–14.75) 
Revascularizations 
 Any revascularization (%) 5.7 (0.232) 0 (0–1) 
 PCI (%) 3 (0.17) 0 (0–0) 
 CABG (%) 2.9 (0.169) 0 (0–0) 
Primary care consultations 10.768 (10.857) 8 (0–30) 
Drugs 
 Patients on any drugs (%) 91.3 (0.281) 1 (0–1) 
 Patients on CVD drugs (%) 88.2 (0.322) 1 (0–1) 
 Patients on anticoagulants (%) 8.7 (0.282) 0 (0–1) 
 Patients on ACEi or ARB (%) 47.7 (0.499) 0 (0–1) 
 Patients on anti-platelets (%) 65.6 (0.475) 1 (0–1) 
 Patients on β-blockers (%) 46 (0.498) 0 (0–1) 
 Patients on calcium channel blockers (%) 31.5 (0.464) 0 (0–1) 
Resource in first year following an event (n = 6599) 
Hospitalizations 
 Hospitalized (%) 83.5 (0.371) 1 (0–1) 
 Hospitalized for CVD (%) 80.2 (0.399) 1 (0–1) 
 Hospitalized for CHD (%) 66 (0.474) 1 (0–1) 
 Inpatient stays 2.364 (6.425) 1 (0–6) 
 Inpatient stays for CVD 1.931 (5.284) 1 (0–5) 
 Inpatient stays for CHD 1.434 (3.315) 1 (0–4) 
With any hospitalization (n = 5512) 
 Inpatient stays 2.83 (6.935) 2 (1–6) 
 Length of stay 14.857 (20.349) 8.5 (1.5–50.5) 
With any hospitalization for CVD (n = 5291) 
 Inpatient stays for CVD 2.408 (5.803) 2 (1–5) 
 Length of stay 15.541 (20.939) 9 (2–52) 
With any hospitalization for CHD (n = 4354) 
 Inpatient stays for CHD 2.174 (3.88) 1 (1–5) 
 Length of stay 6.515 (10.857) 3.5 (1–21.5) 
Revascularizations 
 Any revascularization (%) 13.5 (0.341) 0 (0–1) 
 PCI (%) 9.1 (0.287) 0 (0–1) 
 CABG (%) 5 (0.218) 0 (0–1) 
Primary care consultations 13.671 (15.407) 11 (0–38) 
Drugs 
 Patients on any drugs (%) 85.1 (0.356) 1 (0–1) 
 Patients on CVD drugs (%) 83.6 (0.37) 1 (0–1) 
 Patients on anticoagulants (%) 14.7 (0.354) 0 (0–1) 
 Patients on ACEi or ARB (%) 61.5 (0.487) 1 (0–1) 
 Patients on anti-platelets (%) 76.3 (0.425) 1 (0–1) 
 Patients on β-blockers (%) 50.1 (0.5) 1 (0–1) 
 Patients on calcium channel blockers (%) 32.6 (0.469) 0 (0–1) 
Table A3

Costs in first year with stable coronary artery disease and in first year following an event (myocardial infarction, ischaemic of haemorrhagic stroke)

 Mean (SD) (£) Median (IQR) (£) 
Costs in first year (n = 85 702) 
 Total costs 
  Total cost 3133 (6101) 1149 (43–12 641) 
  Total CVD cost 2199 (4632) 735 (0–10 274) 
  Total CHD costs 1780 (3686) 685 (0–8413) 
 Hospitalizations 
  Inpatient costs 2018 (5632) 0 (0–10 603) 
  Inpatient CVD costs 1487 (4493) 0 (0–9333) 
  Inpatient CHD costs 1067 (3548) 0 (0–7284) 
 Primary care costs 466 (463) 361 (0–1291) 
 Diagnostic test costs 141 (232) 70 (0–538) 
 Drugs 
  All drug costs 508 (1548) 209 (0–1698) 
  CVD drug costs 105 (113) 84 (0–272) 
Costs in first year following an event (n = 6599) 
 Total costs 
  Total cost 10 377 (12 260) 6855 (580–30 755) 
  Total CVD cost 8916 (10 930) 5819 (384–27 279) 
  Total CHD costs 6869 (9467) 3972 (159–23 336) 
 Hospitalizations 
  Inpatient costs 8744 (11 554) 5421 (0–27 436) 
  Inpatient CVD costs 7957 (10 796) 4871 (0–25 843) 
  Inpatient CHD costs 5910 (9338) 3127 (0–22 020) 
 Primary care costs 589 (629) 456 (0–1664) 
 Diagnostic test costs 228 (311) 131 (0–806) 
 Drugs 
  All drug costs 816 (3135) 293 (0–2924) 
  CVD drug costs 142 (175) 110 (0–376) 
 Mean (SD) (£) Median (IQR) (£) 
Costs in first year (n = 85 702) 
 Total costs 
  Total cost 3133 (6101) 1149 (43–12 641) 
  Total CVD cost 2199 (4632) 735 (0–10 274) 
  Total CHD costs 1780 (3686) 685 (0–8413) 
 Hospitalizations 
  Inpatient costs 2018 (5632) 0 (0–10 603) 
  Inpatient CVD costs 1487 (4493) 0 (0–9333) 
  Inpatient CHD costs 1067 (3548) 0 (0–7284) 
 Primary care costs 466 (463) 361 (0–1291) 
 Diagnostic test costs 141 (232) 70 (0–538) 
 Drugs 
  All drug costs 508 (1548) 209 (0–1698) 
  CVD drug costs 105 (113) 84 (0–272) 
Costs in first year following an event (n = 6599) 
 Total costs 
  Total cost 10 377 (12 260) 6855 (580–30 755) 
  Total CVD cost 8916 (10 930) 5819 (384–27 279) 
  Total CHD costs 6869 (9467) 3972 (159–23 336) 
 Hospitalizations 
  Inpatient costs 8744 (11 554) 5421 (0–27 436) 
  Inpatient CVD costs 7957 (10 796) 4871 (0–25 843) 
  Inpatient CHD costs 5910 (9338) 3127 (0–22 020) 
 Primary care costs 589 (629) 456 (0–1664) 
 Diagnostic test costs 228 (311) 131 (0–806) 
 Drugs 
  All drug costs 816 (3135) 293 (0–2924) 
  CVD drug costs 142 (175) 110 (0–376) 
Table A4

Total healthcare costs per 90-day period

 Coefficient (£) Standard error Lower 95% CI (£) Upper 95% CI (£) 
Background cost per 90 days 
 Baseline (for a man aged 69 with stable angina and no other co-morbidities) 341 10.15 322 361 
 Baseline age (centred) 0.42 
 Female −7 10.09 −26 13 
 Increase per 90 days 10 0.18 10 11 
 SCAD diagnosis (relative to stable angina) 
  Other CHD −20 12.40 −44 
  NSTEMI 157 18.37 121 193 
  STEMI −26 21.48 −68 17 
  Unstable angina 153 14.92 124 183 
 CVD co-morbidities 
  History of heart failure 364 12.23 340 388 
  History of atrial fibrillation 186 14.32 158 214 
  History of PAD 327 17.80 292 362 
 Non-CVD co-morbidities 
  Diabetes 338 13.71 312 365 
  History of liver disease 530 50.70 431 629 
  History of COPD 231 11.58 208 254 
  History of cancer 331 17.51 296 365 
  History of renal disease 756 20.93 715 797 
Incremental cost of non-fatal MI 
 Cost in first 90-day period 5028 34.41 4961 £5096 
 Cost in second 90-day period 1282 36.84 1210 £1354 
 Cost in third 90-day period 675 39.15 598 £751 
 Cost in fourth 90-day period 692 40.84 612 £772 
 Cost in subsequent 90-day periods 521 18.64 484 £557 
Additional incremental cost of non-fatal MI for patients with diabetes 
 Additional cost in first 90-day period 776 75.79 627 924 
 Cost in second 90-day period 1100 81.56 940 1260 
 Cost in third 90-day period 785 87.01 614 955 
 Cost in fourth 90-day period 550 90.87 372 728 
 Cost in subsequent 90-day periods 369 42.16 286 451 
Incremental cost of non-fatal ischaemic stroke 
 Cost in first 90-day period 6215 36.01 6144 6285 
 Cost in second 90-day period 1239 38.03 1164 1313 
 Cost in third 90-day period 795 41.05 714 875 
 Cost in fourth 90-day period 654 43.12 569 738 
 Cost in subsequent 90-day periods 564 19.97 525 604 
Incremental cost of non-fatal haemorrhagic stroke 
 Cost in first 90-day period 7011 125.41 6765 7257 
 Cost in second 90-day period 1767 138.80 1495 2039 
 Cost in third 90-day period 947 155.22 643 1252 
 Cost in fourth 90-day period 751 165.14 428 1075 
 Cost in subsequent 90-day periods 927 74.20 782 1073 
Cost of fatal events 
 Fatal CVD event 2008 24.88 1960 2057 
 Fatal non-CVD event 2240 20.16 2201 2280 
 Coefficient (£) Standard error Lower 95% CI (£) Upper 95% CI (£) 
Background cost per 90 days 
 Baseline (for a man aged 69 with stable angina and no other co-morbidities) 341 10.15 322 361 
 Baseline age (centred) 0.42 
 Female −7 10.09 −26 13 
 Increase per 90 days 10 0.18 10 11 
 SCAD diagnosis (relative to stable angina) 
  Other CHD −20 12.40 −44 
  NSTEMI 157 18.37 121 193 
  STEMI −26 21.48 −68 17 
  Unstable angina 153 14.92 124 183 
 CVD co-morbidities 
  History of heart failure 364 12.23 340 388 
  History of atrial fibrillation 186 14.32 158 214 
  History of PAD 327 17.80 292 362 
 Non-CVD co-morbidities 
  Diabetes 338 13.71 312 365 
  History of liver disease 530 50.70 431 629 
  History of COPD 231 11.58 208 254 
  History of cancer 331 17.51 296 365 
  History of renal disease 756 20.93 715 797 
Incremental cost of non-fatal MI 
 Cost in first 90-day period 5028 34.41 4961 £5096 
 Cost in second 90-day period 1282 36.84 1210 £1354 
 Cost in third 90-day period 675 39.15 598 £751 
 Cost in fourth 90-day period 692 40.84 612 £772 
 Cost in subsequent 90-day periods 521 18.64 484 £557 
Additional incremental cost of non-fatal MI for patients with diabetes 
 Additional cost in first 90-day period 776 75.79 627 924 
 Cost in second 90-day period 1100 81.56 940 1260 
 Cost in third 90-day period 785 87.01 614 955 
 Cost in fourth 90-day period 550 90.87 372 728 
 Cost in subsequent 90-day periods 369 42.16 286 451 
Incremental cost of non-fatal ischaemic stroke 
 Cost in first 90-day period 6215 36.01 6144 6285 
 Cost in second 90-day period 1239 38.03 1164 1313 
 Cost in third 90-day period 795 41.05 714 875 
 Cost in fourth 90-day period 654 43.12 569 738 
 Cost in subsequent 90-day periods 564 19.97 525 604 
Incremental cost of non-fatal haemorrhagic stroke 
 Cost in first 90-day period 7011 125.41 6765 7257 
 Cost in second 90-day period 1767 138.80 1495 2039 
 Cost in third 90-day period 947 155.22 643 1252 
 Cost in fourth 90-day period 751 165.14 428 1075 
 Cost in subsequent 90-day periods 927 74.20 782 1073 
Cost of fatal events 
 Fatal CVD event 2008 24.88 1960 2057 
 Fatal non-CVD event 2240 20.16 2201 2280 
Table A5

Total cardiovascular disease-related healthcare costs

 Coefficient (£) Standard error Lower 95% CI (£) Upper 95% CI (£) 
Background cost per 90 days 
 Baseline (for a man aged 69 with stable angina and no other co-morbidities) 224 7.74 209 239 
 Baseline age (centred) 0.32 
 Female −23 7.65 −38 −8 
 Increase per 90 days 0.15 
 SCAD diagnosis (relative to stable angina) 
  Other CHD 9.39 −16 21 
  NSTEMI 145 13.66 119 172 
  STEMI 29 15.77 −2 60 
  Unstable angina 125 11.32 103 147 
 CVD co-morbidities 
  History of heart failure 248 9.29 230 266 
  History of atrial fibrillation 221 10.90 199 242 
  History of PAD 242 13.53 216 269 
 Non-CVD co-morbidities 
  Diabetes 194 10.43 173 214 
  History of liver disease 279 38.68 203 355 
  History of COPD 142 8.79 124 159 
  History of cancer 154 13.34 128 180 
  History of renal disease 418 16.07 386 449 
Incremental cost of non-fatal MI 
 Cost in first 90-day period 4854 29.55 4796 4911 
 Cost in second 90-day period 1209 31.64 1147 1271 
 Cost in third 90-day period 640 33.63 574 706 
 Cost in fourth 90-day period 675 35.08 606 744 
 Cost in subsequent 90-day periods 481 15.64 451 512 
Additional incremental cost of non-fatal MI for patients with diabetes 
 Additional cost in first 90-day period 674 65.05 546 801 
 Cost in second 90-day period 1042 70.02 904 1179 
 Cost in third 90-day period 660 74.71 514 807 
 Cost in fourth 90-day period 403 78.04 250 556 
 Cost in subsequent 90-day periods 280 35.33 210 349 
Incremental cost of non-fatal ischaemic stroke 
 Cost in first 90-day period 5957 30.95 5897 6018 
 Cost in second 90-day period 1151 32.69 1087 1215 
 Cost in third 90-day period 675 35.29 606 744 
 Cost in fourth 90-day period 539 37.08 466 612 
 Cost in subsequent 90-day periods 448 16.86 415 481 
Incremental cost of non-fatal haemorrhagic stroke 
 Cost in first 90-day period 6836 107.73 6625 7047 
 Cost in second 90-day period 1517 119.28 1284 1751 
 Cost in third 90-day period 585 133.45 324 847 
 Cost in fourth 90-day period 393 142.02 115 671 
 Cost in subsequent 90-day periods 670 62.69 547 792 
Cost of fatal events 
 Fatal CVD event 2071 21.30 2029 2113 
 Fatal non-CVD event 1737 17.28 1703 1771 
 Coefficient (£) Standard error Lower 95% CI (£) Upper 95% CI (£) 
Background cost per 90 days 
 Baseline (for a man aged 69 with stable angina and no other co-morbidities) 224 7.74 209 239 
 Baseline age (centred) 0.32 
 Female −23 7.65 −38 −8 
 Increase per 90 days 0.15 
 SCAD diagnosis (relative to stable angina) 
  Other CHD 9.39 −16 21 
  NSTEMI 145 13.66 119 172 
  STEMI 29 15.77 −2 60 
  Unstable angina 125 11.32 103 147 
 CVD co-morbidities 
  History of heart failure 248 9.29 230 266 
  History of atrial fibrillation 221 10.90 199 242 
  History of PAD 242 13.53 216 269 
 Non-CVD co-morbidities 
  Diabetes 194 10.43 173 214 
  History of liver disease 279 38.68 203 355 
  History of COPD 142 8.79 124 159 
  History of cancer 154 13.34 128 180 
  History of renal disease 418 16.07 386 449 
Incremental cost of non-fatal MI 
 Cost in first 90-day period 4854 29.55 4796 4911 
 Cost in second 90-day period 1209 31.64 1147 1271 
 Cost in third 90-day period 640 33.63 574 706 
 Cost in fourth 90-day period 675 35.08 606 744 
 Cost in subsequent 90-day periods 481 15.64 451 512 
Additional incremental cost of non-fatal MI for patients with diabetes 
 Additional cost in first 90-day period 674 65.05 546 801 
 Cost in second 90-day period 1042 70.02 904 1179 
 Cost in third 90-day period 660 74.71 514 807 
 Cost in fourth 90-day period 403 78.04 250 556 
 Cost in subsequent 90-day periods 280 35.33 210 349 
Incremental cost of non-fatal ischaemic stroke 
 Cost in first 90-day period 5957 30.95 5897 6018 
 Cost in second 90-day period 1151 32.69 1087 1215 
 Cost in third 90-day period 675 35.29 606 744 
 Cost in fourth 90-day period 539 37.08 466 612 
 Cost in subsequent 90-day periods 448 16.86 415 481 
Incremental cost of non-fatal haemorrhagic stroke 
 Cost in first 90-day period 6836 107.73 6625 7047 
 Cost in second 90-day period 1517 119.28 1284 1751 
 Cost in third 90-day period 585 133.45 324 847 
 Cost in fourth 90-day period 393 142.02 115 671 
 Cost in subsequent 90-day periods 670 62.69 547 792 
Cost of fatal events 
 Fatal CVD event 2071 21.30 2029 2113 
 Fatal non-CVD event 1737 17.28 1703 1771 
Table A6

Total coronary heart disease-related healthcare costs

 Coefficient (£) Standard error Lower 95% CI (£) Upper 95% CI (£) 
Background cost per 90 days 
 Baseline (for a man aged 69 with stable angina and no other co-morbidities) 179 5.93 167 191 
 Baseline age (centred) 0.24 
 Female −23 5.85 −35 −12 
 Increase per 90 days 0.12 
 SCAD diagnosis (relative to stable angina) 
  Other CHD 82 7.17 68 97 
  NSTEMI 219 10.49 198 239 
  STEMI 111 12.04 88 135 
  Unstable angina 163 8.65 146 179 
 CVD co-morbidities 
  History of heart failure 143 7.11 129 157 
  History of atrial fibrillation 84 8.34 67 100 
  History of PAD 161 10.35 141 181 
 Non-CVD co-morbidities 
  Diabetes 144 7.98 128 160 
  History of liver disease 198 29.62 140 256 
  History of COPD 117 6.72 104 131 
  History of cancer 107 10.21 87 127 
  History of renal disease 201 12.34 176 225 
Incremental cost of non-fatal MI 
 Cost in first 90-day period 4658 23.69 4612 4705 
 Cost in second 90-day period 1166 25.36 1116 1215 
 Cost in third 90-day period 590 26.96 538 643 
 Cost in fourth 90-day period 642 28.13 587 697 
 Cost in subsequent 90-day periods 475 12.40 451 500 
Additional incremental cost of non-fatal MI for patients with dibetes 
 Additional cost in first 90-day period 643 52.14 541 745 
 Cost in second 90-day period 792 56.13 682 902 
 Cost in third 90-day period 701 59.90 584 819 
 Cost in fourth 90-day period 330 62.57 207 453 
 Cost in subsequent 90-day periods 269 28.01 215 324 
Incremental cost of non-fatal ischaemic stroke 
 Cost in first 90-day period 3029 24.82 2981 3078 
 Cost in second 90-day period 620 26.22 568 671 
 Cost in third 90-day period 415 28.31 359 470 
 Cost in fourth 90-day period 262 29.74 203 320 
 Cost in subsequent 90-day periods 256 13.42 230 282 
Incremental cost of non-fatal haemorrhagic stroke 
 Cost in first 90-day period 2874 86.38 2704 3043 
 Cost in second 90-day period 790 95.66 602 977 
 Cost in third 90-day period 218 107.04 428 
 Cost in fourth 90-day period 301 113.92 77 524 
 Cost in subsequent 90-day periods 251 49.89 154 349 
Cost of fatal events 
 Fatal CVD event 1407 17.06 1374 1441 
 Fatal non-CVD event 1068 13.84 1040 1095 
 Coefficient (£) Standard error Lower 95% CI (£) Upper 95% CI (£) 
Background cost per 90 days 
 Baseline (for a man aged 69 with stable angina and no other co-morbidities) 179 5.93 167 191 
 Baseline age (centred) 0.24 
 Female −23 5.85 −35 −12 
 Increase per 90 days 0.12 
 SCAD diagnosis (relative to stable angina) 
  Other CHD 82 7.17 68 97 
  NSTEMI 219 10.49 198 239 
  STEMI 111 12.04 88 135 
  Unstable angina 163 8.65 146 179 
 CVD co-morbidities 
  History of heart failure 143 7.11 129 157 
  History of atrial fibrillation 84 8.34 67 100 
  History of PAD 161 10.35 141 181 
 Non-CVD co-morbidities 
  Diabetes 144 7.98 128 160 
  History of liver disease 198 29.62 140 256 
  History of COPD 117 6.72 104 131 
  History of cancer 107 10.21 87 127 
  History of renal disease 201 12.34 176 225 
Incremental cost of non-fatal MI 
 Cost in first 90-day period 4658 23.69 4612 4705 
 Cost in second 90-day period 1166 25.36 1116 1215 
 Cost in third 90-day period 590 26.96 538 643 
 Cost in fourth 90-day period 642 28.13 587 697 
 Cost in subsequent 90-day periods 475 12.40 451 500 
Additional incremental cost of non-fatal MI for patients with dibetes 
 Additional cost in first 90-day period 643 52.14 541 745 
 Cost in second 90-day period 792 56.13 682 902 
 Cost in third 90-day period 701 59.90 584 819 
 Cost in fourth 90-day period 330 62.57 207 453 
 Cost in subsequent 90-day periods 269 28.01 215 324 
Incremental cost of non-fatal ischaemic stroke 
 Cost in first 90-day period 3029 24.82 2981 3078 
 Cost in second 90-day period 620 26.22 568 671 
 Cost in third 90-day period 415 28.31 359 470 
 Cost in fourth 90-day period 262 29.74 203 320 
 Cost in subsequent 90-day periods 256 13.42 230 282 
Incremental cost of non-fatal haemorrhagic stroke 
 Cost in first 90-day period 2874 86.38 2704 3043 
 Cost in second 90-day period 790 95.66 602 977 
 Cost in third 90-day period 218 107.04 428 
 Cost in fourth 90-day period 301 113.92 77 524 
 Cost in subsequent 90-day periods 251 49.89 154 349 
Cost of fatal events 
 Fatal CVD event 1407 17.06 1374 1441 
 Fatal non-CVD event 1068 13.84 1040 1095 
Table A7

Covariate profiles based on deciles of 5-year risk

Patient average covariate profiles based on deciles of 5-year risk of composite CVD first event 
 Risk decile 10 
 5-year risk (average) 3.69% 5.70% 7.37% 9.15% 11.20% 13.71% 17.14% 22.14% 30.42% 52.37% 
 Re-calculated 5-year risk 3.46% 5.43% 6.95% 8.53% 10.36% 12.57% 15.64% 20.07% 27.23% 44.18% 
Socio-demographic characteristics 
 Sex (female) 64% 48% 42% 39% 37% 37% 38% 42% 44% 46% 
 Age (if male) 49 55 59 62 65 67 71 74 77 81 
 Age (if female) 53 62 67 70 73 75 78 80 83 87 
 Age (weighted average) 52 59 62 65 68 70 73 76 80 84 
 Most deprived quintile 15% 17% 18% 19% 20% 21% 21% 22% 22% 24% 
SCAD diagnosis and severity 
 Other CHD 11% 17% 20% 22% 24% 24% 25% 26% 25% 20% 
 NSTEMI 0% 1% 3% 5% 8% 10% 12% 17% 23% 43% 
 STEMI 1% 4% 8% 12% 13% 14% 13% 9% 6% 4% 
 Unstable angina 10% 13% 12% 12% 12% 12% 13% 15% 17% 15% 
 Stable angina 78% 65% 56% 49% 43% 39% 37% 34% 29% 18% 
 PCI in last 6 months 9% 12% 13% 14% 13% 13% 11% 9% 6% 4% 
 CABG in last 6 months 9% 7% 6% 5% 5% 4% 4% 3% 2% 1% 
 Previous/recurrent MI 2% 6% 10% 14% 18% 23% 26% 29% 32% 43% 
 Use of nitrates 10% 16% 19% 21% 24% 28% 33% 37% 43% 56% 
CVD risk factors 
 Current smoker 31% 35% 36% 37% 38% 38% 37% 35% 32% 30% 
 Ex-smoker 27% 30% 31% 32% 32% 33% 34% 34% 34% 34% 
 Never smoked 41% 35% 33% 31% 30% 29% 29% 31% 33% 36% 
 Hypertension 69% 70% 71% 71% 72% 74% 76% 79% 83% 87% 
 Diabetes 4% 8% 10% 12% 14% 16% 18% 21% 24% 32% 
 Total cholesterol (mmol/L) 4.95 4.91 4.84 4.79 4.74 4.74 4.70 4.68 4.64 4.54 
 HDL (mmol/L) 1.41 1.37 1.35 1.35 1.35 1.35 1.36 1.37 1.37 1.35 
CVD co-morbidities 
 Heart failure 5% 7% 9% 12% 15% 19% 27% 37% 52% 73% 
 Peripheral arterial disease 1% 2% 3% 4% 6% 8% 10% 13% 16% 25% 
 Atrial fibrillation 3% 5% 7% 9% 10% 13% 16% 21% 29% 43% 
 Stroke 0% 1% 1% 2% 3% 5% 8% 14% 22% 39% 
Non-CVD co-morbidities 
 Chronic kidney disease 2% 2% 3% 4% 4% 5% 7% 9% 12% 20% 
 Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease 20% 20% 20% 21% 22% 23% 25% 27% 28% 30% 
 Cancer 4% 5% 6% 7% 8% 9% 11% 13% 14% 12% 
 Chronic liver disease 0% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 
Psychosocial characteristics 
 Depression at diagnosis 20% 17% 15% 15% 14% 14% 15% 17% 18% 21% 
 Anxiety at diagnosis 7% 6% 6% 7% 7% 7% 8% 8% 10% 12% 
Biomarkers 
 Heart rate (b.p.m.) 72 71 71 71 71 71 72 73 74 76 
 Creatinine (mmol/L) 88 92 95 96 98 100 101 104 109 125 
 White cell count (109/L) 6.81 7.05 7.19 7.31 7.44 7.54 7.62 7.76 7.88 8.22 
 Haemoglobin (g/100 mL) 14.26 14.26 14.16 14.05 13.88 13.70 13.48 13.16 12.81 12.20 
Patient average covariate profiles based on deciles of 5-year risk of composite CVD first event 
 Risk decile 10 
 5-year risk (average) 3.69% 5.70% 7.37% 9.15% 11.20% 13.71% 17.14% 22.14% 30.42% 52.37% 
 Re-calculated 5-year risk 3.46% 5.43% 6.95% 8.53% 10.36% 12.57% 15.64% 20.07% 27.23% 44.18% 
Socio-demographic characteristics 
 Sex (female) 64% 48% 42% 39% 37% 37% 38% 42% 44% 46% 
 Age (if male) 49 55 59 62 65 67 71 74 77 81 
 Age (if female) 53 62 67 70 73 75 78 80 83 87 
 Age (weighted average) 52 59 62 65 68 70 73 76 80 84 
 Most deprived quintile 15% 17% 18% 19% 20% 21% 21% 22% 22% 24% 
SCAD diagnosis and severity 
 Other CHD 11% 17% 20% 22% 24% 24% 25% 26% 25% 20% 
 NSTEMI 0% 1% 3% 5% 8% 10% 12% 17% 23% 43% 
 STEMI 1% 4% 8% 12% 13% 14% 13% 9% 6% 4% 
 Unstable angina 10% 13% 12% 12% 12% 12% 13% 15% 17% 15% 
 Stable angina 78% 65% 56% 49% 43% 39% 37% 34% 29% 18% 
 PCI in last 6 months 9% 12% 13% 14% 13% 13% 11% 9% 6% 4% 
 CABG in last 6 months 9% 7% 6% 5% 5% 4% 4% 3% 2% 1% 
 Previous/recurrent MI 2% 6% 10% 14% 18% 23% 26% 29% 32% 43% 
 Use of nitrates 10% 16% 19% 21% 24% 28% 33% 37% 43% 56% 
CVD risk factors 
 Current smoker 31% 35% 36% 37% 38% 38% 37% 35% 32% 30% 
 Ex-smoker 27% 30% 31% 32% 32% 33% 34% 34% 34% 34% 
 Never smoked 41% 35% 33% 31% 30% 29% 29% 31% 33% 36% 
 Hypertension 69% 70% 71% 71% 72% 74% 76% 79% 83% 87% 
 Diabetes 4% 8% 10% 12% 14% 16% 18% 21% 24% 32% 
 Total cholesterol (mmol/L) 4.95 4.91 4.84 4.79 4.74 4.74 4.70 4.68 4.64 4.54 
 HDL (mmol/L) 1.41 1.37 1.35 1.35 1.35 1.35 1.36 1.37 1.37 1.35 
CVD co-morbidities 
 Heart failure 5% 7% 9% 12% 15% 19% 27% 37% 52% 73% 
 Peripheral arterial disease 1% 2% 3% 4% 6% 8% 10% 13% 16% 25% 
 Atrial fibrillation 3% 5% 7% 9% 10% 13% 16% 21% 29% 43% 
 Stroke 0% 1% 1% 2% 3% 5% 8% 14% 22% 39% 
Non-CVD co-morbidities 
 Chronic kidney disease 2% 2% 3% 4% 4% 5% 7% 9% 12% 20% 
 Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease 20% 20% 20% 21% 22% 23% 25% 27% 28% 30% 
 Cancer 4% 5% 6% 7% 8% 9% 11% 13% 14% 12% 
 Chronic liver disease 0% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 
Psychosocial characteristics 
 Depression at diagnosis 20% 17% 15% 15% 14% 14% 15% 17% 18% 21% 
 Anxiety at diagnosis 7% 6% 6% 7% 7% 7% 8% 8% 10% 12% 
Biomarkers 
 Heart rate (b.p.m.) 72 71 71 71 71 71 72 73 74 76 
 Creatinine (mmol/L) 88 92 95 96 98 100 101 104 109 125 
 White cell count (109/L) 6.81 7.05 7.19 7.31 7.44 7.54 7.62 7.76 7.88 8.22 
 Haemoglobin (g/100 mL) 14.26 14.26 14.16 14.05 13.88 13.70 13.48 13.16 12.81 12.20 
Figure A1

Forest plot of cardiovascular disease costs.

Figure A1

Forest plot of cardiovascular disease costs.

Figure A2

Forest plot of coronary heart disease costs.

Figure A2

Forest plot of coronary heart disease costs.

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