The following list is based on actual inspection of the periodicals concerned, which in many cases are sent to the EHR by the courtesy of their editors and publishers, and which are read and summarised by contributors. It should be noted that contributors are not asked to include all articles, but only those to which in their judgement attention should be drawn; and that articles of a purely bibliographical or archaeological character are not normally included. Most of the items listed appeared in 2015. The principal periodicals and occasional publications summarised below are as follows: 20th Century British History; Anglo-Saxon England; Annales de Bretagne; Annales de Normandie; Anuarul Institutului de istorie ‘A.D. Xenopol’; Archivio storico italiano; Austrian History Yearbook; Bibliothèque de l’École des Chartes; Bohemia; Bollettino storico-bibliografico subalpino; Cahiers de civilisation médiévale; Cambrian Medieval Celtic Studies; Catholic Historical Review; Český časopis historický; Contemporary European History; Deutsches Archiv; Economic History Review; En la España medieval; European History Quarterly; French History; German History; Haskins Society Journal; Historical Journal; Historical Research; Historische Zeitschrift; Historisk Tidskrift (Sweden); Historisk Tidsskrift (Denmark); History; History and Theory; History Workshop Journal; Intellectual History Review; International History Review; Irish Historical Studies; Journal of Belgian History; Journal of British Studies; Journal of Contemporary History; Journal of Ecclesiastical History; Journal of Medieval History; Journal of Medieval Military History; Journal of Modern History; Journal of the History of Collections; Journal of Victorian Culture; Medieval Clothing and Textiles; Mediterranea: ricerche storiche; Midland History; Northern History; Nuova rivista storica; Past and Present; Rethinking History; Revista istorică; Revue d’histoire ecclésiastique; Rivista storica italiana; Slavonic and East European Review; Southern History; Speculum; Studii şi materiale de istorie contemporană; Studii şi materiale de istorie medie; Századok; Thirteenth-Century England; Tijdschrift voor Geschiedenis; Transactions of the Royal Historical Society; Welsh History Review; William and Mary Quarterly; Women’s History Review

The Editors of the English Historical Review are very grateful to all those who have collaborated in the compilation of these summaries: Richard Allen, Christian Bailey, Julia Barrow, Simon Barton, Anna Bayman, G.W. Bernard, Jeremy Black, Tom Buchanan, Jeremy Catto, Trevor Dean, Alex Drace-Francis, Jean Dunbabin, John Dunbabin, Antonia Fitzpatrick, Murray Frame, Robert Frost, Mary Heimann, Peregrine Horden, Michael Jones, Ludmilla Jordanova, Jonathan Kwan, John Maddicott, David Meredith, Rosemary Mitchell, Thomas Munck, Graeme Murdock, Anthony Nicholls, Michael Prestwich, Euryn Rhys Roberts, Nigel Saul, Simon Skinner, David Stevenson, John Stevenson, Florence Sutcliffe-Braithwaite, Robert Swanson, Wendy Toulson, Jessica Wardhaugh, John Watts, Ian Wood, A.D. Wright, and Natalie Zacek.


Using the case-studies of Thucydides, Paulus Orosius, Eduard Schwartz and Reinhart Koselleck, M. Meier’s fascinating article suggests that historians have (somewhat unconsciously) developed a technique of compressing time, particularly when providing narratives describing periods of existential threat. This compression of time—for instance, placing various instances of conflict within a procession of events called a war—has served to provide a narrative orderliness that guards against the radical contingency of historical happenings. Meier’s argument applies to Thucydides and his presentation of the Peloponnesian War, but also to the Thucydides scholar Eduard Schwartz, who wrote about Thucydides while experiencing his own crisis during the First World War. Equally, Koselleck’s treatment of the eighteenth century in his first historical work was conceived during the Cold War and appears to compress the time between the eighteenth century and the contemporary situation in Europe into an era he designates as modern. Historische Zeitschrift, ccc

A special issue is devoted to the pioneering work of H.M. Chadwick (d. 1947) and his influence on the study of Anglo-Saxon, Norse and Celtic at Cambridge. M. Lapidge, the editor of the collection, contributes an overview of the study of Anglo-Saxon, Norse and Celtic in Cambridge, 1878–1999, and an additional biographical appreciation of Chadwick’s own intellectual achievements. R. Dance looks at Chadwick’s approach and contribution to Old English philology; M.C. Ross assesses Chadwick’s contribution to the study of early Scandinavian religion and myth; S. Keynes provides an important historiographical account of Chadwick’s role in the advancement in understanding of Anglo-Saxon England; R. Naismith considers Chadwick’s pioneering use of numismatic evidence; O. Padel explores Celtic, Pictish and Germanic onomastics in the work of Chadwick; P. Sims-Williams throws light on Chadwick’s approach to the history of the Britons and Welsh; M. Ní Mhaonaigh surveys Hector and Nora Chadwick’s magnum opus The Growth of Literature (3 vols., 1932–40); F. Edmonds examines Chadwick’s final book Early Scotland: The Picts, the Scots and the Welsh of Southern Scotland (1949). Useful appendices for understanding the role of Chadwick and his wife Nora in the development of their subject and the subsequent activities of their department are included. This is an informative collection of papers which reflects both the interdisciplinary nature of Chadwick’s own work, and more generally that undertaken at the department at Cambridge in which he was so influential. Cambrian Medieval Celtic Studies, nos. 69/70

A. Walsham provides an appreciation of the work of Professor Patrick Collinson, scholar of the Elizabethan Church and of Puritanism, on the occasion of a symposium held in his honour at Trinity College, Cambridge in 2013. History, c

M. Greengrass discusses Patrick Collinson’s The Reformation (2003) in the context of the larger historiography of the Reformation and the British experience. History, c

Vico and his evaluation of child psychology are re-examined by D. Canaris in the light of earlier and contemporary theories of education and primitive man, with specific reference to the way in which Vico theorised myths and the development of rational thought, as laid out in successive editions of his Scienza nuova between 1725 and 1744. Intellectual History Review, xxv

P. Hicks examines the persistent place of ‘women worthies’ in eighteenth-century feminist thought. Women’s History Review, xxiv

P. Andersson regrets the preference among cultural historians for literary and written source material in Victorian Studies, arguing that reliance on a canon of authors leads historians to over-emphasise the discourse of civility and discipline. He promotes a reorientation towards ‘non-verbal’ sources, including photography, and a return to history from below to revitalise study of the period. Journal of Victorian Culture, xx

Andrew Bisset (1803–1891) was a lawyer and minor historian, who used history for explicitly polemical and reform-minded purposes. M.J. Turner discusses his use (and abuse) of the history of the English Civil War to advance the idea of representative government in The History of the Struggle for Parliamentary Government in England (1877). Journal of Victorian Culture, xx

A. Oakley analyses the ‘LSE Affair’ (in which her father, Richard Titmuss, was the protagonist) through the lens of gender, accounting for the transformation of the Department of Social Administration at the LSE from a department focused on training social workers, and dominated by ‘difficult women’, to a male-led centre for social policy research. She also offers reflections on methodological issues arising from the intersection of biography, autobiography, history and memory. Women’s History Review, xxiv

In a lively paper, D. Munro considers the part played by Michael Turnbull, editor at Sydney University Press, in persuading Geoffrey Elton to write The Practice of History, published in 1967. A fascinating account of Turnbull’s turbulent career is matched by an acute characterisation of Elton’s book. Elton insisted, against philosophers of history who misunderstood what historians were about, and against historians (notably E.H. Carr) who had succumbed to relativism, that historians were the servants of their evidence and that it was possible to say true things about the past. The Practice of History was both a description and a vindication of his working method. Elton placed great weight on Thomas Cromwell as the architect of ‘the Tudor Revolution in Government’: Elton claimed, quite simply, that he had gone to the Letters and Papers of Henry VIII and that there he had found Cromwell. This paper complements Ian Harris’s study of the making of Elton’s Tudor Revolution in Government (1953), ante, cxxvi (2011), 1355–85. Historical Journal, lvii

The core of P. Baehr’s article is an account of a seminar given by Hannah Arendt in 1972, and of the discussion that ensued. The author of the account is not known, but it is placed in context by Baehr, and provides valuable insights into Arendt’s thinking about Stalinism (a theme that was central to her work) at this time—and into the reactions of others to her. History and Theory, liv

In a wide-ranging article based on his outgoing presidential address at the 2013 North American Conference on British Studies, D. Kennedy reflects on the differing preoccupations, but common presentism, of British and American imperial historians. Journal of British Studies, liv

In an important study of the International Economic History Association, M. Berg focuses on East–West dialogues, providing a valuable transnational perspective on an intellectual context of détente. Journal of Modern History, lxxxvii

Charles Taylor’s book, A Secular Age (2007) has elicited many responses (including about the ways in which Taylor uses history in his arguments), especially since it espouses a clear position on the value of a sense of transcendence. G. Vanheeswijck contributes here to debates about how to interpret the role of history in Taylor’s narrative. History and Theory, liv

D.P. Jordan discusses two recent accounts, one French and one English, of Napoleon Bonaparte, and contrasts their approaches in order to consider the different statuses and traditions of biography in Britain and France. It raises issues around how historians study lives, and how the role of Napoleon, especially in relation to the French Revolution, is best understood. History and Theory, liv

J. Aurell examines what he sees as a new form of academic life-writing that some historians, such as Natalie Davis, have undertaken recently. He sees such works as significant, not just as a way of understanding the lives of major figures in the discipline, but as having value for those concerned with theoretical questions. History and Theory, liv

C. Baker analyses the opening ceremony of the 2012 Olympic Games in London in terms of heated debates about how the national past should be represented. She assesses the significance of a multivocal depiction of that past, especially in the context of debates about how history should be taught in schools. She shows how the ceremony was indebted to radical accounts, such as those by Raphael Samuel, of how the past can and should be presented to wide publics. Rethinking History, xix

Frank Ryan, 1902–44, was an IRA leader who collaborated with the Nazis. D. Bell and F. McGarry explore the complexities of making The Enigma of Frank Ryan, a film about him, in terms of the different roles of the film’s director and the historian who acted as a specialist advisor. The article considers their different methodologies and concerns, and also the reactions of audiences to the tricky subject-matter of the film. It thus speaks to ways in which academic historians might collaborate with film-makers. Rethinking History, xix

Amid generous praise, the late C.A. Bayly offers a searching critique of the last two volumes of Michael Mann’s The Sources of Social Power (2012–13). The ‘social roots’ of anti-colonial resistance, nationalism and social change in Asia, Africa and Latin America deserve more attention. ‘We can learn a lot about the centre by considering what appear to be mere peripheries’. And there could be much more on religion, on languages and communication, on urbanisation and the relative decline of the peasantry. Historical Journal, lvii

A special issue on ‘Rethinking Historical Genres in the Twenty-first Century’ comprises nine articles on genres as diverse as historical re-enactment, computer games, social media and film. Since selecting a genre in a fast-changing landscape is a necessary part of historical practice, it is valuable to have the complexities and entailments of such choices examined. Rethinking History, xix

P. Van den Heede examines the historical aspects of some of the best-selling first-person-shooter games which situate their action in the Second World War, taking as a starting-point the concept of ‘immersive historicity’ developed by Eva Kingsepp. Tijdschrift voor Geschiedenis, cxxviii


Charitable foundations are the topic addressed by M. Borgolte, who offers a survey of a five-thousand-year period and identifies two major junctures in this vast history. The first took place around 500 BC, when donors no longer set up foundations as offerings to the gods or as means of paying tribute to ancestors. Instead, monotheistic religions encouraged individuals to make these acts of charity as a way of taking care of their own souls. The next major break took place in the modern period. Particularly in the United States, modern foundations such as Andrew Carnegie’s followed shifting agendas that were tied less to the founder’s intentions and more to the changing needs of contemporary societies. However, the goals of such foundations have also sometimes become obscured because their ability to accumulate interest has generated its own dynamic. The author therefore suggests that the goals of these foundations can reveal much about the values and beliefs or particular eras. This is particularly true with regard to the relationship between understandings of this life and an afterlife. Historische Zeitschrift, ccci

E. Marlowe’s important article on the so-called Trebonianus Gallus statue at the Metropolitan Museum in New York disputes the traditional account of its find-spot in the Lateran area of Rome. As this means that the statue may well have represented provincial rather than metropolitan trends, and possibly an athlete rather than an emperor, its use to demonstrate a significant shift from Hellenic realism to late Antique abstraction becomes questionable. The article has wider implications in its demonstration that presumptions about provenance may lead to potentially mistaken assumptions about major artistic developments. Journal of the History of Collections, xxvii

J.-M. Kötter describes the problems facing the Roman church in the last phases of antiquity. He points out that, like the Roman Emperors, the bishops in the Roman Empire were hampered in their church leadership by particular traditions and established usages. Kötter points out that the German term ‘Reichskirche’ (Imperial Church) is itself somewhat questionable. Even though imperial acceptance of Christianity had liberated the Church from persecution, its relationship to the Roman regime was not made clear. Kötter concludes that the Church was not a harmonious unity but was characterised by various forms of dysfunction. However, despite its weaknesses, he believes it should not be disregarded. Historische Zeitschrift, ccxcviii (2014)

G.I. Halford charts the history of conciliar legislation prohibiting Christians from dining with Jews between the early fourth century and the seventh century, and argues that such prohibitions were directed against contemporary practices and actual Jews and not against ‘fictional straw-men created for polemical purposes by Christian authors’. Haskins Society Journal, xxvi (2014)

J. Western offers a detailed reconsideration of the activities and status of the papal apocrisiarii in Constantinople during the pontificate of Gregory I. Journal of Ecclesiastical History, lxvi

M. Legendre draws on papyri to show how the Islamic conquerors of Egypt made use of Byzantine administrative methods to consolidate their rule in the seventh and eighth centuries: a state of affairs not revealed by the narrative sources. Historical Research, lxxxix

S. Bobrycki uses a story from the Liber Officialis of the Carolingian intellectual Amalarius of Metz to throw light both on the Mediterranean slave trade in the early eighth century and, more broadly, on Amalarius’ travels and his stylistic quirks in writing about them. Haskins Society Journal, xxvi (2014)

A. Ricciardi reinterprets the Libri Carolini, not as a prelude to Charlemagne’s imperial coronation, but as an assertion of the separateness of the Frankish people, and of the Franks’ new status as defenders of orthodoxy in the face of Greek theological deviations. Rivista storica italiana, cxxv (2013)

C. West questions the applicability of notions of lordship to the Carolingian empire, studying Bishop Hincmar of Laon’s men and concluding that looking at them in terms of patron–client relationships makes more sense. Hincmar’s men did not feel ties of loyalty. Intriguing, though leaving a sense that Carolingian realities are being considered against a somewhat idealised view of high medieval lordship. Past and Present, no. 226

Why the centre of Mediterranean commerce shifted from Alexandria, Mahdia and Palermo to Pisa, Genoa and Amalfi in the eleventh and twelfth centuries is considered by R.D. Smith. Much weight is placed on the Great Calamity that struck Egypt in the 1050s. Past and Present, no. 228

S. John examines the ‘Feast of the Liberation of Jerusalem’, established in the city shortly after the First Crusade, and shows how it linked the commemoration of the events of 15 July 1099 with the Old and New Testament histories of Jerusalem, thus placing the crusades in scriptural time. Journal of Medieval History, xli

M. Lieberman examines six occasions of the delivery of arms in eleventh-century northern France and Flanders, highlighting the early compatibility of nobility and knighthood, and thereby fundamentally challenging the conventional view that posits the ‘rise’ of knights over the course of the twelfth century. Speculum, xc

M. Karnes examines theories of marvels (mirabilia) in Arabic and Latin philosophy from Al-Kindi in the ninth century to Nicole Oresme in the fourteenth, giving a new explanation for why naturalistic studies of marvels intensified rather than diminished philosophers’ interest: the increasingly apparent complexity of the imagination’s contribution to marvels only reinforced their inscrutability. Speculum, xc

A significant reinterpretation of the first ‘general chapter’ of the Benedictines in 1131 is offered by S. Vanderputten. Journal of Ecclesiastical History, lxvi

C. Matlis discusses the role of competition and invidia—envy or jealousy—in the ways in which early twelfth-century scholars, notably Guibert of Nogent, Abelard, and William of Conches, viewed their ambitions in relation to those of others. She points out that invidia might be a positive force, generating intellectual achievement and progress, as well as one disruptive of communal harmony. Haskins Society Journal, xxvi (2014)

The continuation of Sigebert of Gembloux tells of an attack in 1138 on England by the Danes, who were defeated by King Stephen. T.K. Heebøll-Holm accepts this story, which is not found elsewhere. He argues that the incident was forgotten, as it suited neither the regime of Henry II in England nor that of Valdemar I in Denmark to remember it. Journal of Medieval Military History, xiii

B. Pohl argues that Robert of Torigni first received a copy of Henry of Huntingdon’s Historia Anglorum, not on the occasion of Henry’s visit to Bec in 1139, but in the late 1140s, probably in 1147; and that Robert’s claim to have received the HA about ten years earlier was intended to enhance the authority of his own work through its supposed association with a famous historian and his writings. Haskins Society Journal, xxvi (2014)

U.Z. Schachar proposes a fresh context for the first ritual-murder allegations made against Jews in the Life of William of Norwich: viz. the new recognition of the corporeality of Christ and the associated theology, in which Christians were seen as capable of apprehending the spiritual meanings in bodily experiences, while Jews saw these in purely physical terms. Journal of Medieval History, xli

E. Corran makes a contribution to the history of ethics by discussing the views of Hugh of St Victor, Peter the Chanter and Stephen Langton on whether lying can ever be morally justified, and by showing how their more liberal views differed from those of Augustine. Historical Research, lxxxvii

T.K. Heebøll-Holm argues that the marriage of Philip II of France to the Danish princess Ingeborg in 1193 marked an attempt to enlist Danish military power and the Danish claim to the English throne in support of Philip’s war against England, but that the king’s immediate repudiation of Ingeborg after the marriage was a bad political miscalculation. Haskins Society Journal, xxvi (2014)

J. Sabapathy, in a dense and complex paper, explores the political thinking of Pope Innocent III, bringing out the degree to which the pope’s actions were influenced by his concept of prudence, and showing how his guiding ideas were brought to bear on the English political situation of 1215–16. Thirteenth-Century England, xv

P. Jones challenges the consensus that laughter was accepted by Christian authorities in the thirteenth century, arguing instead—on the basis of the exempla of the Dominican preacher Arnold of Liège—that we should acknowledge a plurality of views, including the persistence of negative ones. Journal of Medieval History, xli

The Umbrian nun Clare of Assisi shared her desire for holy poverty with the Bohemian princess Agnes of Prague. C. Monagle finds that the maternal imagery used in Clare’s four letters to Agnes is central to her ‘performance of power’, both religious and spiritual, and contributed to her campaign to secure the Privilege of Poverty for her order. Women’s History Review, xxiv

C.J. Mews and T. Zahora discuss the importance of beatitude as a novel feature in two early fourteenth-century anonymous mendicant treatises on the afterlife (De consideratione novissimorum and Speculum morale), both of which also evince a politically motivated effort to synthesise Bonaventuran and Thomist ethical thought during a period of mendicant factionalist squabbles. Speculum, xc

M. Carr confounds traditional assumptions about the attitudes of merchants and popes towards trade with Muslims in the fourteenth-century Mediterranean, showing that merchants were more concerned with spiritual questions than we have thought, while the papacy was realistic about commercial and political opportunities. Journal of Medieval History, xli

M. Bochaca uses accounts of voyages by diplomats and other travellers at the end of the Middle Ages to supplement what is known about the length and conditions of journeys at sea between Spain and the Channel. Annales de Bretagne, cxxii

M. Tranchant introduces ten informative contributions to a conference on pluri-activity and the obviation of risk in local, regional or national maritime economies, concentrating chiefly on the western seaboard of Europe in the later Middle Ages and early modern period, but with an excursion to the Newfoundland Banks in the later sixteenth century based on over 400 insurance contracts registered in Burgos (H. Casado Alonso). The main concentration is on different regions of France. P. Lardin discusses legitimate trade and privateering at Dieppe to c.1500; A. Gallicé and L. Moal provide an authoritative reassessment of the convoy system organised by the dukes of Brittany from 1372 until its cessation in 1559; S. Périsse describes the activities of the ‘sailor-farmers’ of Saintonge after the Hundred Years War; M. Bochaca analyses a short phase in the career of the Bordeaux merchant Thomas de Bondié, illustrated by over 100 notarial deeds surviving from 1505–6; while, in two separate contributions, T. Sauzeau first analyses the multiple activities of long-distance sailors of the Marennes region (Charente-Maritime) in the eighteenth century, and then the treatment and relief offered to seafarers from the same area between 1760 and 1825. Beyond France, J.A. Solóranzo Telechea and B. Arízaga Bolumburu trace the efforts of the Cantabrian ports of Castro Urdiales, Laredo, Santander and San Vicente de la Barquera to spread risk between the thirteenth and fifteenth centuries; M. Farelo discusses the responses of Portuguese towns over a similar period, with particular attention to the role of charitable institutions in assisting impoverished or aged sailors; and L. Sicking considers how risk in maritime commerce and fishing was managed in the Low Countries, c.1480–1560. Annales de Bretagne, cxx (2013)

Using the example of municipal control of letters of marque in fourteenth-century Marseille, C. Beck shows how legal and theological notions of the common good influenced urban policy. Journal of Medieval History, xli

D. Malkiel examines the interplay between empiricism and classical and medieval authority in late fifteenth-century observations of nature, using reports of encounters with crocodiles from two Jewish travellers on the Nile (Meshulam da Volterra and Ovadiah da Bertinoro) as a lens through which to look, and concluding that what travellers expected to see inevitably constrained, without fully determining, what they saw. Speculum, xci

T. Andrade compares the early development of gunpowder weapons in China and Europe. The European emphasis was on large siege artillery; in China it was on small handheld weapons. A range of explanations is provided, from the way in which Chinese troops were drilled, to the relative thinness of the walls in European defensive fortifications, and to the different intensity of warfare in the two regions. Journal of Medieval Military History, xiii

B. Bouley traces the early modern evolution in Catholic Europe of medical evidence relating to bodily incorruption in the ecclesiastical investigation of potential saints. Catholic Historical Review, cii

In a sharply focused special issue, twelve scholars engage critically with Fernand Braudel’s famous contention that France eluded the languid rhythms of the Mediterranean in its path towards becoming a modern nation and colonial power. Five forum pieces offer case-studies drawn from around the Mediterranean, using their temporal and geographical focus to test established narratives of French colonial, commercial and diplomatic development. N. Vatin returns to the late fifteenth century for the origins of a certain idea of the French and their ‘Sultan’ among the Ottomans, while J. Clancy-Smith steps sideways from the preoccupation with military conquest of Algeria to offer a ‘view from the water’s edge’ of France’s long-term commercial connections with Tunisia. J. Takeda reveals the relevance of Levantine exchange to the commercial success of seventeenth-century Marseille, effectively using local examples to nuance concepts of the absolutist state, while C. Denis-Delacour and M. Genet also play down the determining role of the state in eighteenth-century trading theories and patterns by exploring commercial relations between France and the Maghreb. As the full-length articles make clear, rival concepts of the Mediterranean as frontier or connecting space are far from innocent of contemporary political implications. P. McCluskey paints a positive picture of increased cross-cultural awareness among soldiers and sailors in the later seventeenth century, in which popular experience offset a crusading-state rhetoric of ‘holy war’, while J. Horn and J. Horan style the Mediterranean as a ‘contact zone’ that ultimately strengthened trading links and state-building. Conversely, N. Matar’s painstaking analysis of Franco-Moroccan correspondence traces an asymmetrical and ultimately fragile exchange between those of different cultural, social and religious backgrounds, and M. D’Auria explores Montesquieu’s depiction of the Roman Mediterranean as associated primarily with conquest and subjection, a foil to his concept of a modern, liberal and commercial Europe. French History, xxix

D.A. Lines alerts us to the importance of vernacular philosophy texts in the Renaissance, noting that, although Latin was the obvious language of international communication and dissemination, the importance of Italian (and other vernacular languages) needs to be recognised, not least because modern scholarship is hampered by insufficient training in these languages (at least in the Anglophone world). Substantial re-evaluation of major works, their dissemination and their impact is needed. Intellectual History Review, xxv

G. Alonge considers the activity of the early sixteenth-century reformer Ludovico di Carrara in the diocese of Caen and the Verona of Matteo Giberti; as Francis I’s ambassador and as a reforming bishop he was a link between the French evangelicals and the Italian Catholic reform movement. Rivista storica italiana, cxxvi (2014)

Detailed analysis of a mid-sixteenth-century mercantile dispute between two Hanseatic traders enables J. Wubs-Mrozewicz to demonstrate the central role played by trust in mercantile relationships, in Germany and the Netherlands in particular but also more generally. Historical Research, lxxxviii

S. Broomhall considers the relationship between Catherine de Médicis and her daughter, Elisabeth de Valois, as it evolved through their correspondence after Elisabeth’s marriage to Philip II of Spain, with an emphasis on the emotional rhetoric of the letters. Women’s History Review, xxiv

U. McIlvenna studies the music of execution ballads in early modern Europe. Melodies were frequently reused with fresh words. Past and Present, no. 229

Geoffrey Parker’s Global Crisis: War, Climate Change and Catastrophe in the Seventeenth Century (2013) is subjected to significant criticism by P. Warde. Was there really ‘a shared crisis across the globe due to a shared experience of extreme weather’? Yet ‘the Little Ice Age’ is a much disputed category. Does Parker take it for granted that it can be isolated as a global extreme? Does the quasi-Malthusian model of climate change leading to lower harvest yield, leading in turn to demographic crisis, fiscal difficulty and political stress work? Climate change allegedly lowers the threshold at which overpopulation exists. But ‘how do we determine whether a population is low or high without resorting to circular reasoning’? Why did extreme bad weather in the later seventeenth century fail to provoke multiple crises? Does Parker rely too much on the piling-up of examples rather than establishing cause and effect? ‘Synergy’ and ‘tipping point’ are treacherous metaphors: ‘like a baggy suit, they can be made to fit anything but reveal little of what lies beneath’. Past and Present, no. 228

M. Prak offers a reinterpretation of the role of civic militias in early modern Europe, emphasising their role as guardians of citizenship. Past and Present, no. 228

J. Condren examines the marriage between James, duke of York, and the sister of the Duke of Modena, showing that neither England nor France met the expectations of the Este family in terms of support for its claims in Northern Italy. International History Review, xxxvii

F. Soyer highlights the global reach of the Spanish and Portuguese Inquisitions in their empires in their effort to combat heresy with establishments in Latin America and Goa, and illustrates their power through a case-study of a prosecution in Goa. History, c

In a special issue devoted to the ‘Fortunes and Misfortunes of Voyages’, G. Bertrand provides an overview of the importance of travel for Europeans between the sixteenth and eighteenth centuries. Three personal accounts of travels are highlighted: G. Garnier discusses Mrs Anna Cradok in France, 1783–6, with particular reference to hygiene and sleeping conditions; F. Pitou follows Jacques-Louis Ménétra, a glazier, around France between 1764 and 1803; A. Rege uses the writings of Simon-Louis Du Ry (1746–77) to exemplify travelling conditions as a literary theme. The experiences of those journeying as pilgrims or because of their religious faith are discussed by B. Maes (travel conditions for pilgrims in Ancien Régime France), J.-P. Pittion (British pilgrims to Saumur in the seventeenth century), and D. Boisson (the travels of Huguenot refugees), while M. Magdelaine also considers exile and the welcome offered to Huguenots. Sea travel is represented by F. Brezay’s discussion of voyaging in the Mediterranean in the early modern period and P. Haudrère’s account of the joys and hazards of travelling between Europe and the Indian ocean in the eighteenth century; and D. Tempère focuses on the trials and tribulations of Jesuit missionaries journeying to Indonesia and the Far East in that period. Annales de Bretagne, cxxi (2014)

A set of articles on sensibility, morality and ‘living machines’ in the early modern period are brought together in a special issue, guest-edited by A. Waldow. We find new insights on a number of leading thinkers including Locke, Condillac, Rousseau, Kant and Goethe, and assessments of a range of themes including the relationship of sensation to the soul, cognition and epistemology, and varied understandings of human nature. Intellectual History Review, xxv

P. Calcagno reconstructs trading relations between Liguria and Provence in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Mediterranea: ricerche storiche, xxxiii

G. Morgan and P. Rushton examine the fear and reality of arson and treasonable attacks on the navy and naval dockyards in Britain and America during the approaching conflict with the American colonies. New laws on arson and treason were passed in response but had limited impact outside Britain. History, c

P.M. Solar and K. Rönnbäck examine the impact of a major innovation in the age of sail—that of copper sheathing, a new technology that protected vessels from accretions of seaweed and crustaceans and, in tropical waters, infestations of shipworm. From the 1780s this innovation increased sailing speeds, prolonged the life of a ship and, when used in the Atlantic slave trade, reduced the deaths of slaves on the middle passage by about half. It was an investment that could pay for itself in a single voyage and slave shippers were early adopters of sheathing. Economic History Review, lxviii

A.R. Ekirch documents and endorses the claim that pre-industrial people did not sleep through the night but typically went to bed between 9 and 10 p.m. and slept till midnight, remained awake for an hour, and then slept again till morning. Contemporary mentions of ‘first sleep’ and ‘second sleep’ abound. It was in the nineteenth century that sleep in two stages was replaced, for most, by a consolidated single continuous period of sleep, somewhat longer than the ‘first sleep’ it superseded. Was that because of later bedtimes and greater tiredness? Or did it reflect the views of moralising medical critics of ‘second sleep’ who saw it as enervating and leading to men’s wet dreams? Early rising became more and more common among the middle classes, not least as a marker of self-control. Lamps and lights reinforced the trend. Not all agreed. And those who nowadays wake at night and struggle to fall asleep again can take comfort from the likelihood that they may well be sleeping according to pre-industrial rhythms, experiencing what is no more than a period of ‘wakefulness’ between first and second sleep rather than suffering from some more fundamental and inexplicable disorder. Past and Present, no. 226

In an important and wide-ranging article, M. Crook and T. Crook trace the history of the ballot in England, France and the USA between c.1500 and the present, emphasising the slow and varied transition from open and public voting in local and national elections to secret voting and the use of ballot papers, and now to electronic voting. Historical Research, lxxxviii

M. Janse sees British efforts to persuade continental powers to end slavery as tainted by association with British imperialism and protestant missionary zeal, yet, against the thrust of his argument, shows that British influence was nonetheless crucial and rather effective in the medium term, as continental abolitionists eventually organised public meetings and petitioning and, in Holland, pioneered extra-parliamentary political movements. Past and Present, no. 229

B. Vick argues that the decisions at the Congress of Vienna (1814–15) were to some extent influenced by the surrounding vigorous and vital entrepreneurial and associational life. He analyses musical events, including renowned concerts by Beethoven and various musical societies, as well as other aspects of the Congress’s festive culture. Sources include numerous first-hand accounts, newspaper reports and material from Vienna’s Haus, Hof- und Staatsarchiv. Austrian History Yearbook, xlvi

The extraordinary tale of Pope Gregory XVI’s pragmatic response to the case of a Sicilian priest who absconded from his post, married, converted to Islam, and then sought reconciliation, is analysed by C. Korten to suggest the need to modify the pope’s traditional reputation for arch-conservatism and rigidity. Journal of Ecclesiastical History, lxvi

According to the bible, King Solomon imported gold from the land of Ophir. T. Alborn traces the attempts to locate Ophir in the British empire, both in fiction and archaeology: the discovery of gold in South Africa convinced many (erroneously) that these were indeed King Solomon’s Mines. He makes a wider argument about the search for Ophir as a context for the evolving justifications for the transformation from imperialism driven by commercial concerns to the later-Victorian empire of conquest and annexation. Journal of Victorian Culture, xx

Has the invocation of universal, natural and human rights from the nineteenth century been no more than a foundation for empire and continuing imperialist ends? That is the thrust of E. Young’s study of an attack in 1870 on a French ship by Chinese coolies who joined it at Macao on the way to Peru but then murdered the captain and many crew. Astonishingly, John Smale, a radical abolitionist judge in a British court in Hong Kong, ruled in favour of the leader of the mutiny, Kwok-a-sing, on the grounds that he was entitled to free himself from bondage. Slavery had become anathema to British liberals by then. Yet the conditions of the Chinese coolie trade—regulated contract labour—seemed uncomfortably close to slavery. Mortality rates of Chinese on ships to Peru and Cuba were very high. But was the moral weakness of Smale’s position that, while it guaranteed the right freely to enter into contracts of labour, it did not offer the conditions of equality that would allow the truly free exercise of such choice? And all was complicated by the apparent complicity of some Chinese coolies in their own bondage, willingly joining ships, and even, sometimes, behaving more like pirates. An intriguing paper that perhaps chases too many hares at once. Past and Present, no. 227

J. aan de Wiel surveys a century of Franco-Irish relations, exploring the sources of tension between the two countries: France’s anti-clericalism and its geopolitical alignment after 1904 with Britain. International History Review, xxxvii

A special issue of the Journal of the History of Collections arises from the 2009–10 exhibition on ‘Gothic Art in the Gilded Age’ at the John and Mable Ringling Museum of Art, and the accompanying symposium. The articles, edited by V. Brilliant, explore the collection of European Gothic and Renaissance artefacts by American collectors and museums in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, revealing the motivations for acquisition, the processes and networks through which the artefacts were collected, and the exhibitionary modes through which they were displayed. The volume establishes three things very clearly: that motives for collecting were mixed and varied, ranging from Romantic, aesthetic and personal to scholarly, civic-minded and financial; that understanding networks and their role is as important as understanding the individual collectors; and that—while exhibitionary modes were diverse—decontextualisation of the artefacts from their original social and religious milieux proved to be a constant feature of their display, whether in private spaces or public galleries. E. Bradford Smith’s article on ‘William Poyntell and the Sainte-Chapelle medallions’, for instance, explores this Philadelphian merchant’s acquisition of three medallions of French stained glass in the early 1800s, identifying this purchase as an attempt to establish himself as part of a newly confident American cultural elite, while not endorsing the social and religious contexts of Catholic feudalism within which they were originally produced. F. Gennari-Santori, meanwhile, focuses on John Pierpont Morgan’s later collections, stressing that his motivation was neither uncomplicatedly philanthropic nor purely commercial in character, but a complex mixture of both. She also establishes that he should not be seen as an individual connoisseur, but in the context of the team of experts—many of them from the Victoria and Albert Museum—who helped him both acquire and catalogue his collections. Meanwhile, V. Kastner’s article on William Randolph Hearst as ‘maverick collector’ highlights a very different sort of collector: the inspiration for the central figure in Citizen Kane, his collections were highly eclectic and personal. Kastner rightly sees him as similar in spirit to eighteenth-century collectors such as Horace Walpole, who acquired objects primarily to produce aesthetic effects within a personally-designed architectural space. S. Fliegel’s analysis of American collectors of medieval arms and armour confirms this reading of Hearst’s collecting motivations, contrasting him with such scholar-connoisseurs as William H. Riggs and Bashford Dean. How collections were exhibited is a major theme in this special issue. U. Leben’s article on Baron Ferdinand Rothschild’s smoking room at Waddesdon Manor explores how le fumoir acted as an example of the Kunstkammer, an atmospheric and evocative space for the integrated and holistic display of the baron’s collection of Renaissance objects. However, important though the space was for the exhibition of the objects, keeping the collection together was still more of a priority to its owner, who bequeathed it to the British Museum on these terms. Rothschild’s exhibitionary experiment became a precedent for other Gilded Age collectors, including Alva Vanderbilt Belmont, whose Gothic saloon at Newport, Rhode Island, is discussed by P.F. Miller. He reveals the networks which underpinned such collecting and exhibitionary practices, stressing the collaboration between the wealthy woman collector and Richard Morris, the architect whose knowledge and connections to the French firm of Allard and Sons, dealers and interior designers, helped her to create the pioneering period rooms—often eighteenth-century French in character—which preceded the saloon. Art dealers were a key element in the networks of these American collectors, and C.E. Brenner’s article highlights the role of the Brummer brothers’ art gallery and dealership, based in Paris and New York, in encouraging collection of medieval artefacts (among those of other periods), particularly at The Cloisters, the Metropolitan Museum of Art’s medieval wing. R.A. Maxwell’s article amusingly exposes the tensions in the transition of European artworks to American collectors and museums: describing the American craze for twelfth-century French sculpture, he focuses on the case of the Parthenay sculptures, which provoked charges of forgery, theft of national heritage, suicide and even murder. The Isabella Steward Gardner Museum still holds two elders of the Apocalypse with forged feet! J. Hinton’s article is illuminating in terms of the misunderstanding and decontextualisation of artefacts which resulted from their transition into American collections: he explores how the Lit de Justice D’Argentelles, believed to be the dais and canopy for the judicial bench of a nobleman and displayed accordingly, was eventually revealed to be a disparate collection of furniture pieces from an ecclesiastical context. He attributes this mistaken notion to secularising and Romanticising tendencies among collectors, which affected their view of medieval art in the period between 1850 and 1950. As the special issue shows, in the twentieth century, museums as well as wealthy individuals were increasingly significant in the acquisition and interpretation of medieval and Renaissance artworks. S. Fozi’s article on the role of Georg and Hans Swarzenski in developing the medieval collections at the Boston Museum of Art between the 1940s and the 1970s highlights the impact of World War II, both in terms of the art market and the migration of German Jewish art experts to the USA. Fozi notes that, interestingly, these two scholars did not aim to acquire representative works to fill ‘holes’ in the museum’s coverage so much as unique and outstanding pieces, a risky policy which addressed the need of the museum to attract viewers but also resulted in the purchase of several impressive forgeries. The significance of acquiring high-profile items is also highlighted in C. Nelson’s article, which explores the American exhibition and sale of eighty-two liturgical objects from the church of Saint Blaise in Brunswick: she stresses how it made the reputation of the director of the Cleveland Museum of Art, William Milliken. Journal of the History of Collections, xxvii

‘How, by the use of old books, was communal memory created in the nineteenth century, and to what purpose?’ So asks D. McKitterick, who proceeds to examine the role of public monuments (of Dirk Martens in Belgium) and of public exhibitions (Dante in Florence, 1865; Caxton in London, 1877). Archivio storico italiano, clxxii

S. Espuelas explores the origins of the welfare state in European countries with varying degrees of income inequality. As he notes, those countries where inequality was lowest—Scandinavia—were the first to develop welfare states, whilst those where inequality was higher—Spain and Portugal, for example—were slower to do so. This finding suggests that unequal societies were in a sort of inequality trap, where inequality itself was an obstacle to policies of redistribution. Economic History Review, lxviii

M. Mulholland urges that socialists of the Second International saw the nation as the indispensable framework for national advancement and accepted that nations had the right to self-defence when attacked. Socialists could thus join bourgeois governments in the emergency of war. The First World War consequently divided European socialists as they rallied to the defence of their countries. German Social Democrats accepted that Germany’s war was a case of legitimate defence. Lenin condemned the Second International outright. Historical Journal, lviii

Wittgenstein’s concept of modernity and his own times is investigated by D. Gakis on the basis of some of the philosopher’s early writings and the distinctions between modernity and modernism, with particular reference to the importance of the Tractatus logico-philosophicus of 1921. Intellectual History Review, xxv

E. Dykman examines the composition of the staff of the League of Nations secretariat, finding that, although they had an international outlook, they were predominantly European. International History Review, xxxvii

‘Complex, tortuous and little studied’, says F. Caccamo of relations between Italy and Czechoslovakia, 1918–38. He traces this story from post-war Italian military aid, through collaborations and disputes in the 1920s, to the broader differences and polemics between Fascism and democracy in the 1930s (‘great crooks of interplanetary democracy’, Mussolini called Masaryk and Benes), as a common interest in defending Austria’s independence produced no lasting understanding. Nuova rivista storica, xcix

C.A. Osborne and F. Skillen edit a forum of six essays on women in sport in the twentieth century, including, inter alia, C. Tebbutt’s discussion of sport and transgenderism at the 1936 Olympics; E.H.R. Macrae on the role of fitness classes in transforming ideas about healthy pregnancy for middle-class women; and P. Anderson on the ways in which sport enabled women in Argentina to expand the construction of gender, and the backlash against their transgression of the gender order in the caricature of the machona, or masculinised and unattractive sportswoman. Women’s History Review, xxiv

H. Pieper provides a helpful historiographical survey of the literature on the development of German counter-insurgency policy during the Second World War. International History Review, xxxvii

T. Tönsmeyer argues that most historical interest in hunger during the Second World War has been directed towards policy-makers who envisaged starving European populations into submission. By contrast, she seeks to offer a thick description of how the ‘hunger economy’ played out from the point of view of affected populations. As she reveals, starvation under such conditions was not so much the product of a simple lack of foodstuffs but rather of these foodstuffs deliberately not being provided to needy populations. In other words, the author suggests that the reality of wartime hunger shows us not only the exigencies but also the priorities and values of participants in the war. Among Tönsmeyer’s striking findings, two stand out. Firstly, that agricultural producers previously regarded as backwards now became some of the most prosperous and influential economic agents in zones of scarcity. And, secondly, that women were already thrust into the role of breadwinners—quite literally—well before the end of the war, by which point European societies were experiencing the much-remarked scarcity of men. Historische Zeitschrift, ccci

A fascinating comparison of honour practices in post-war Britain and West Germany by C. Bailey draws attention to their nature and persistence. He argues that notions of honour have been ‘pluralized’ (it is worth considering academic matters in this context). Journal of Modern History, lxxxvii

D. O’Reagan compares French with British and American approaches to science and technology transfer from occupied Germany after the Second World War, discerning the origins of post-1945 Franco-German co-operation. International History Review, xxxvii

J. Matz uses Russian and Swedish archival sources to re-evaluate the Soviet–Swedish diplomatic exchanges over the fate of the Swedish diplomat Raoul Wallenberg. International History Review, xxxvii

P. Betts offers a sympathetic account of the attempt by the United Nations’ Education, Scientific and Cultural Organization to organise a multi-volume global history of mankind—much more, he contends, than ‘a quaint relic of early post-war romanticism’. But was it ever much read? Past and Present, no. 228

Focusing on the Nouvelles Équipes Internationales and the Geneva Circles, P. Acanfora shows how Christian Democrats sought to identify ‘European’ values and traditions, 1947–54. Contemporary European History, xxiv

R. Ankit analyses the continuing influence of Louis Mountbatten on Anglo-Indian relations after independence, with particular reference to the questions of Hyderabad, arms sales, and Kashmir. International History Review, xxxvii

Debates over the identity and future of the Catholic Church emerge clearly in E. Foster’s account of contention over the Church and the future of the French empire in the 1950s. Journal of Modern History, lxxvii

M. Föllmer and M.B. Smith introduce a special issue on urban societies in Europe since 1945. R. Dale argues that Soviet post-war reconstruction was both protracted and uneven; N. Vall discusses the impact of Swedish modernism in British post-war urban design and architecture; looking at Dutch urban renewal in the 1950s and 60s, T. Verlaan detects surprising ambivalence towards modernisation among planners and politicians; C. Reinecke discusses the ‘rediscovery’ of poverty in the 1960s and 70s as a specifically urban phenomenon; M. Föllmer argues that the rise of personal choice not only led to suburban domesticity but also to radical experiments in communal living in Western Europe, c.1950s–80s; M.B. Smith shows how the ‘Soviet welfare system shaped Soviet cities’, and vice versa, after 1953. S. Gunn sums up. Contemporary European History, xxiv

M.A. Bracke and J. Mark introduce a special section on transnational activism in Europe, from the 1950s to the 1990s. R. Skinner looks at opposition to nuclear testing in the French Sahara, 1959–62; J. Mark, P. Apor, R. Vučetić and P. Osęka examine solidarity with Vietnam in Eastern Europe; C. Dols and B. Ziemann show how transnational links (notably with Latin America) influenced progressive participation in the Dutch and German Catholic churches, 1965–75; K. Kornetis discusses the role of ‘Third Worldism’ in the radicalisation of Spanish and Greek youth, 1958–74; S. Prince examines the influence of US Black Power on left-wing activists at the beginning of the Northern Ireland ‘troubles’; A. von der Goltz argues that exchanges between activists across the Berlin Wall could ‘actually foster a greater sense of difference’; M.A. Bracke looks at the local, national and transnational influences on Italian feminism in the 1970s; R. Gildea and A. Tompkins examine the impact of the ten-year struggle against the extension of the military base in the Largac plateau; D.A. Gordon reflects on the links between British and French anti-racism since the 1960s; K. Christiaens and I. Goddeeris look at Belgian solidarity related to Nicaragua, Poland and South Africa in the 1980s. Journal of Contemporary History, l

W. Burr examines the efforts of the Eisenhower administration to reduce the risks of nuclear proliferation by controlling the development of gas-centrifuge technology in Britain, the Netherlands, and West Germany. International History Review, xxxvii

J. Byrne examines the evolution of the Non-Aligned Movement after the Bandung Conference, arguing that small nations took the lead and the movement became defined by neutralism rather than by Afro-Asian identity. International History Review, xxxvii

M. Thomas and R. Toye compare the rhetorical justifications for British and French interventions in Egypt in 1882 and 1956. Interesting analyses, notably of similarities between Gladstone’s justification in 1882 and those by Anthony Eden and Guy Mollet in 1956, but the international and political contexts were very different, especially the Algerian war in the mid-1950s. Historical Journal, lviii

A small but interesting corner of the Cold War is analysed (in French) by R. Pedemonte Lavis. He looks at the cultural accords signed between Belgium and the USSR in October 1956. The proposed cultural exchanges were promptly derailed by the Hungarian Crisis, and only gradually were restored in 1960. Journal of Belgian History, xlv

R. Rakove analyses the decline of the Non-Aligned Movement as a mediating element in the Cold War, partly due to the Vietnam War and to growing anti-Americanism. International History Review, xxxvii

In 1968 protest did not only take place in the campuses and on the streets: S. Kraft shows how the Chicago and Berlin trials of activists themselves became the focus for intensified protests. Journal of Contemporary History, l

B. Sewell discusses British policy towards the Kennedy administration’s ‘Alliance for Progress’ in Latin America, stressing the economic considerations that shaped it and its distancing from US views. International History Review, xxxvii

L. Coppolaro assesses the role played by the European Commission in the GATT ‘Kennedy Round’ negotiations of 1963–7. Contemporary European History, xxiii (2014)

S. Onslow uses interviews with leaders as well as archival sources to analyse the role of the Commonwealth in the Cold War. International History Review, xxxvii

E. Mëhilli uses Albanian and Soviet archives to compare the sources of insecurity felt by the leaders of Albania and North Korea during the Cold War. International History Review, xxxvii

M. Albers compares French, British, and West German approaches to seeking détente with China, showing the influences of Gaullism, friction over Hong Kong, and German Ostpolitik, and relating the analysis to broader Cold War developments. International History Review, xxxvii

C. Fink discusses Willy Brandt’s state visit to Israel in 1973, the first by a West German Chancellor. International History Review, xxxvii

M. Haeussler provides a thoroughly researched reassessment of Anglo-German relations and the Wilson Government’s renegotiation of the terms of Britain’s European Community membership. International History Review, xxxvii

J. Warson analyses the ways in which Anglo-French relations affected, and were affected by, Rhodesia’s Unilateral Declaration of Independence, 1965–80. Historical Research, lxxxviii

K. O’Sullivan looks at Irish policy towards the ‘Like Minded Group’ of small and medium-sized Northern states seeking reform of the international economic order. International History Review, xxxvii

A.E. Gfeller shows how—after the Helsinki Final Act of 1975—Members of the European Parliament emerged as leading advocates of human rights, thereby helping the parliament to ‘assert itself in the EC and the Western European political arena’. Journal of Contemporary History, xlix (2014)

A. Chiampan analyses the contrasting American and Western European reactions to the imposition of martial law in Poland in 1981, arguing that the Europeans resisted letting the crisis disrupt their economic ties (particularly via a planned Siberian natural gas pipeline) and their détente with Moscow. International History Review, xxxvii

Making use of foreign office archives, G. Ritter’s compelling article describes the very dynamic diplomatic relations that existed between the Chinese Communist Republic and the two German states at the end of the 1980s. West Germany’s increasingly good relations with Communist China were damaged by the Tiananmen Square massacre, not least because West German parliamentarians felt called upon to condemn the ruling party’s actions. By contrast, East German leaders communicated their support for the strong line taken by the regime in China, seeing it as a preferable alternative to Mikhail Gorbachev’s policy of opening-up and reform. The pragmatics of foreign policy nevertheless trumped ideological leanings: West German and Chinese diplomats found it advantageous to advocate mutual non-intervention in the affairs of foreign states during the era of German reunification and Tiananmen. Historische Zeitschrift, ccci

K. Tribe devastatingly criticises Thomas Piketty’s Capital in the Twenty-First Century, highlighting his approach: typically ‘a striking proposition is confidently advanced, then hedged with qualifications that significantly weaken its apparent force and relevance’. In presenting long-run data, Piketty allegedly pays little attention to life-cycles, business cycles, urbanisation and the increasing participation of women in the world of waged work, all of which raises doubts about the comparability and significance of his data. ‘Capital’ is never clearly defined and is often treated as synonymous with ‘wealth’. Inequality of wealth is not carefully distinguished from inequality of income. There is little consideration of the effects of the modern financial system and in particular the booms and busts of the past generation. And when claiming that there has been a long-term trend towards greater inequality in the distribution of wealth, Piketty offers little by way of explanation. Past and Present, no. 227


R. Smalley tries to identify the provenance of Egyptian textile fragments from the Flinders Petrie textile collections at the Victoria and Albert Museum, using Petrie’s diaries and notebooks. Although she concludes that he was responsible for the donation of some five hundred textile artefacts, mainly dating from the late antique period, she also demonstrates that recording practices were decidedly rudimentary, and many textiles were even cut up and donated to diverse institutions. Journal of the History of Collections, xxvii

V. Stamm describes the substantial amount of written evidence about the views of Muslim people in the northern Niger region. He concentrates on the ‘Treasure of Timbuktu’ from the seventeenth to the nineteenth centuries. Stamm points out that, although Islam plays a central part in most of these writings, they also contain many insights into the political, economic and social history of the region. Whereas it has been assumed that only oral history can form the basis of an understanding of life in this part of Africa, he stresses the need for investigation and collation of the written sources that exist. Judgements like that of Hugh Trevor-Roper that ‘Perhaps in the future, there will be some African history to teach … at present there is none, or very little; there is only the history of the Europeans in Africa’ are already out of date. Historische Zeitschrift, ccxcviii (2014)

In an innovative article, J. Baten and J. Fourie use Court of Justice records from the Dutch Cape Colony, 1692 to 1827, to investigate numeracy among several classes of individuals. A person’s ability to report his or her true age can be used as a proxy for cognitive ability. ‘Age heaping’ is the tendency to report one’s age in round numbers. The education level of most of the non-European population groups did not improve during the first two centuries after contact with Europeans. Dutch and other European settlers, by contrast, already possessed very high levels of human capital at the beginning of the eighteenth century which might, the authors suggest, explain increasing inequality between the two groups. Economic History Review, lxviii

R. Aitken tells the compelling story of how Catholic elites sought to prove their loyalty to Kulturkampf-era Germany by exporting German culture to the new state’s African colonies. Catholic elites were able to publicise their activities to a domestic audience both in print and by bringing ‘success stories’ back to tour around Europe. The author finds that the exchange between German Catholics and Africans was not simply exploitative or instrumental, however; genuine affections developed between teachers and pupils. Furthermore, some Africans who travelled to Europe were able to challenge negative stereotypes of Africans, while those from the most elite families could begin new lives in Europe. German History, xxxiii

In his inaugural lecture as Dixie Professor of Ecclesiastical History in the University of Cambridge, D. Maxwell offers an historiographical survey of the role of missionaries in general and a case-study of William F.P. Burton, co-founder of the Congo Evangelistic Mission in 1915. Missionaries saw themselves as advancing technology, science and civilisation. Their historians between the 1960s and 1980s tended to regard missionaries as cultural imperialists. Here the message is that ‘religion was a process in which different actors made new religious arguments in the context of shifting relations of power’. The photographs taken and the material objects collected by Burton and his ethnographical approach show him as moved by those whom he encountered, and more broadly ‘provide a sense of the contested nature of religious ideas and the contingent nature of religious identities’. Historical Journal, lviii

M.-C. Thoral provides interesting insights into the history of colonial Algeria by analysing different patterns of cross-cultural dressing: Europeans who adopted, or more often adapted, Algerian patterns of dress, and Algerians who adopted European dress. European History Quarterly, xlv

Drawing on the private archives of the East Africa Women’s League, a predominantly white women’s organisation in colonial Kenya, D. van Tol illustrates the tensions of welfare in the twentieth-century British imperial project. Journal of British Studies, liv

F. Gerits argues that President Kwame Nkrumah of Ghana’s adherence to a policy of African non-alignment was strengthened, not weakened, by the 1960 Congo Crisis. International History Review, xxxvii

A. O’Malley argues that the leaders of Ghana and India were able to alter in a neutralist direction the policy of the United Nations towards the Congo Crisis. International History Review, xxxvii

The persistence of a colour bar in the Force Publique (the colonial army) in the Congo is studied (in French) by C. Leloup. It was only in 1960 that the first Black officers began to be admitted to officer training schools, and the frustration of the African personnel fed into the mutiny later that year. Journal of Belgian History, xlv

F. Ribeiro de Meneses and R. McNamara use records of meetings between the Portuguese, South African and Rhodesian secret police to reassess the role of Portugal’s PIDE/DGS during the colonial wars in Africa, 1961–74. Journal of Contemporary History, xlix (2014)

R. Reid offers a gloomy assessment of historical study in post-colonial Africa: ‘national political elites across Africa have sought to “move on” from, carefully manage, or even eradicate the past—perceived in terms of poverty and tribalism—in pursuit of economic growth and political cohesion’. He ends with the hope ‘that as these nations of the future become more assured, they will become more interested in the histories which pre-date them’. Past and Present, no. 229


The consolidation of Calvinism in early seventeenth-century Bermuda provides P. Ha with a case-study that supports an alternative understanding of Protestant colonisation and expansion to that provided by analyses of evolutions in continental North America. Journal of Ecclesiastical History, lxvi

S. White examines a series of narratives from the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries which depict colonists and missionaries in English, French, and Spanish America struggling to mobilise supernatural assistance against adverse weather conditions. Rather than displaying the alleged superiority of Christianity, these encounters often undercut imperial goals by making Europeans look weak and unable to respond effectively to environmental challenges. William and Mary Quarterly, lxxii

According to A. Games, the attempts of English and Dutch colonists to cohabit in the colony of Suriname were eventually unsuccessful, but that they occurred at all was surprising considering the two nations’ hostilities throughout the seventeenth century. The eventual departure of most of the English settlers reshaped the colony, creating the conditions for the rise of both a large Jewish plantocracy and large and long-lasting runaway slave communities. William and Mary Quarterly, lxxii

T. McCormick draws attention to the New England divine Cotton Mather’s repeated citations of a work on quantitative demography published in London two generations earlier, John Graunt’s Natural and Political Observations … upon the Bills of Mortality (1662). For Mather, Graunt’s ideas on population both confirmed his ideas about natural order and implied the limitations of metropolitan scholarship to represent colonial experience. William and Mary Quarterly, lxxii

D. Parrish shows how, between 1702 and 1727, the religious and political controversies centred on Jacobitism were carried across the Atlantic into colonial New England, where they took the form of increasingly bitter disputes between Anglicans—supposedly Jacobite sympathisers—and Congregationalists. Historical Research, lxxxiii

T. Wickman’s article on late seventeenth- and early eighteenth-century Massachusetts depicts English settlers as struggling to survive severe winter weather conditions. According to Wickman, the Wabanaki Indians drew on their long-standing knowledge of the local environment to create ‘winter spaces of power’ which at least temporarily adjusted the balance of local authority in their favour. William and Mary Quarterly, lxxii

By examining the records left by the Scot John Tailyour, a leading Guinea factor in the Atlantic slave trade in the late eighteenth century, N. Radburn depicts the crucial role played by men such as Tailyour both in selecting captives for the Middle Passage and channelling them to particular parts of the plantation Americas. William and Mary Quarterly, lxxii

J. Lennox examines the competing geographical identities of mid-eighteenth-century Nova Scotia, which after coming under British control in 1726 remained home to large populations of French colonists and of several indigenous groups. Territorial power remained balanced until the outbreak in 1744 of the War of the Austrian Succession, after which increasing Anglo-French hostility transformed the region into a war zone. William and Mary Quarterly, lxxii

For F.A. Jonsson, the travel journal of the eighteenth-century Swedish-Finnish naturalist Peter Kalm depicts an aspect of the Enlightenment that was concerned not with the improvement of nature but with its degradation. While Kalm was impressed by the environmental possibilities of North America, he was also alarmed by what he saw as often dangerous mismanagement in colonial government and agriculture. William and Mary Quarterly, lxxii

Z. Dorner illuminates the career of Silvester Gardiner, an eighteenth-century surgeon, druggist, and land speculator in eighteenth-century New England. According to Dorner, the cultivation of particular types of expertise allowed Gardiner not only to gain profits, but to insert himself strategically into networks of imperial power. William and Mary Quarterly, lxxii

A. Zilberstein examines the short-lived enthusiasm of British imperial and scientific elites for Zizania aquatica (North American wild rice) in the late eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. Although this plant seemed to offer the possibility of becoming an alternative to often-unavailable bread throughout Britain’s colonies, the plant’s idiosyncrasies resisted attempts at its improvement, and showed the limits of imperial attempts to manipulate nature. William and Mary Quarterly, lxxii

While American officials insisted that they did not harbour genocidal intentions towards Native Americans, many of the latter remained unconvinced. In J. Ostler’s account of the Ohio Valley and the lower Great Lakes region from the mid-eighteenth through to the early nineteenth centuries, these anxieties encouraged indigenous communities towards paths of both accommodation of and resistance towards white encroachment. William and Mary Quarterly, lxxii

In S.B. Gordon’s account of the governance of a black Methodist church in early nineteenth-century Philadelphia, she argues that the church’s new rules of incorporation represented a rejection of white domination. Through the mechanisms of corporate law, African Americans were able to take control of physical space in a way normally barred to people of colour at this time. William and Mary Quarterly, lxxii

Basing his argument on primarily periodical literature, E. Cassidy analyses representations of German migration to nineteenth-century Brazil and investigates how they affected slave-holding in the host country. One on the one hand, many reports claimed that a Brazilian economy based on slave labour and Portuguese-Brazilian indolence was transitioning to a new model according to which settlers developed a Germanic work ethic and worked the land themselves. On the other, eyewitnesses acknowledged that Germans, like other Europeans, owned slaves. However, these latter reports assured readers that German masters were particularly benevolent, not least because they were committed to teaching their slaves the German language and aspects of German culture such as work discipline. German History, xxxiii

The efforts of the French to build up a sphere of informal empire in the River Plate between the 1830s and the 1850s are explored by E. Shawcross, who emphasises the way in which the French were able to collaborate with the local elites through a common discourse of liberalism. European History Quarterly, xlv

M. Vlha judges Czech-American national consciousness to have been insignificant until the First World War. Český časopis historický, cxiii

R. Graf investigates how concerns over the meat industry became a political issue in the United States in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. The author focuses on abattoirs in Chicago and their treatment in Upton Sinclair’s novel of 1906, The Jungle. The article suggests that the production and regulation of foodstuffs became less rather than more transparent to the public as they made more use of scientific methods. As a result, the potential for media scandals became greater. Historische Zeitschrift, ccci

A.C. Stagner examines American representations of First World War ‘shell shock’. She argues that it was initially regarded as a temporary and curable war wound, but later became a powerful metaphor for governmental neglect during the Great Depression. Journal of Contemporary History, xlix (2014)

A. Macdonald’s life of M.G. Daniel (c.1870–1950), an Assyrian evangelical and swindler from Jilv on the Turco-Persian frontier, latterly in the United States, may illustrate human gullibility more than it advances theories of globalisation. Past and Present, no. 229

P. Valvo uses newly released Vatican archival sources for the pontificate of Achille Ratti, Pius XI, to enlarge understandings of Roman responses to anticlerical policy in Mexico. Revue d’histoire ecclésiastique, cviii

P. León-Aguinaga analyses the formulation of US propaganda policy towards Spain during the Second World War, stressing the differences between ‘idealists’ and ‘realists’ and the influence of the debate on Cold War propaganda. International History Review, xxxvii

J. Munro begins with an account of the civil rights activist Jack O’Dell’s 1956 appearance before the Senate Internal Security Subcommittee, and subsequently (in 1958) before the House Un-American Activities Committee, as a way into the overlapping, but frequently separated, histories of the Cold War African American freedom movement and of US empire. Munro seeks to insert anticolonialism into the better-known nexus of anticommunism and the Black freedom struggle, and argues that understanding anticommunism as imperial illuminates the politics of Black liberation. History Workshop Journal, no. 79

R. de Souza Farias uses Brazilian archival sources to analyse Brazil’s policy towards multilateral trade negotiations, stressing the influence of domestic politics. International History Review, xxxvii

K.I. Wells explores an unresearched area of art history—the history of copies and replicas—in her case-study of the tapestry versions of Picasso’s major canvases commissioned by Nelson A. Rockefeller. She demonstrates how the Guernica tapestry functioned both as a more easily loanable copy of the original, and as a statement about Rockefeller as art collector and patron. Journal of the History of Collections, xxvii

R. Aldrich examines the relationship between the Central Intelligence Agency and the press through the prism of the career of Tad Tzulc of the New York Times, who enjoyed a complex relationship with the organisation over several decades. History, c

S. Willmetts documents the efforts of Allen Dulles to promote the Central Intelligence Agency after his forced retirement in the aftermath of the Bay of Pigs invasion. His attempts signified the breakdown of the immediate post-war consensus on American foreign policy and the Cold War. History, c

L. Scott discusses the role of the Central Intelligence Agency during the Cuban Missile Crisis, arguing that it was crucial to events and decisions. He provides, however, a nuanced assessment which underlines both shortcomings and achievements. History, c

C. Moran considers how the Central Intelligence Agency dealt with the first generation of ‘whistleblowers’ in the 1970s, usually disgruntled employees, who often did more damage than press revelations. The CIA’s heavy-handed reaction also often provoked criticism, anticipating future controversies. History, c

M. Jones examines the relationship between two New York Times journalists, Cyrus L. Sulzberger and Harrison E. Salisbury, and the Central Intelligence Agency in the late 1970s. Their relationship was soured by the accusation by the former that the latter had been regarded as an ‘asset’ by the CIA, though Sulzberger himself also had a collusive relationship with them. Their story brought out some of the complexity of relationships between journalists and the agency. History, c

P. McGarr discusses the campaign, waged from 1991 to his death in 2003, by US Senator Patrick Moynihan for the disbandment of the Central Intelligence Agency. He suggests that, rather than the result of eccentricity, it was the result of his long-thought-through desire, based on experiences in India during the early 1970s, to see a reform of the intelligence services. History, c

T. McCrisken analyses the way in which TV dramas portrayed the Central Intelligence Agency from the 1970s, when it actively sought to improve its public image. He argues that they may not have been especially accurate in representing the role of the CIA, but opened up viewpoints not hitherto available. History, c

The Canadian banking system is of particular interest as Canada escaped the 2007 bank crash, in stark contrast to its larger southern neighbour. The reasons for this—and for earlier examples of avoiding financial crises—are analysed by M.D. Bordo, A. Redish and H. Rockoff. A major consideration is the way the Canadian banking system was set up in the nineteenth century and evolved thereafter—highly concentrated and with a single powerful regulator. This stable structure is contrasted with the crisis-prone US banking system which was weak, fragmented and subject to multiple regulatory authorities. Economic History Review, lxviii


Political relations between the two Korean states of Bohai and Silla, and between Bohai and Tang China, in the eighth century are examined by A. Kim and K. Min. Nuova rivista storica, xcix

A. Finch argues that the persecution and martyrdom of Christian missionaries in Korea from the late eighteenth to the mid-nineteenth century fostered the spread of Christianity and prepared the ground for its eventual toleration. Historical Research, lxxxviii

Building on his paper on the Chinese sense of space and identity (ante, cxxiii [2008], pp. 1470–1503), L.S.K. Kwong looks at the use of the term ‘Zhongguo’ (Middle Kingdom) in the nineteenth century. Historical Journal, lvii

Writing about nineteenth-century colonial India, T. Simpson contends that (perhaps unsurprisingly) in mountains, deserts and jungles far from the centre of colonial power borders were ‘contested and fragmented zones of variable state penetration, knowledge and interest which only intermittently and in limited respects held together as coherent wholes’. Historical Journal, lviii

V.R. Mandala is sceptical about the motivation underlying the conservation of tigers and elephants in colonial India: ‘a mere disguise’ for commercial interests, not a sincere concern for animal welfare. That interpretation is not wholly borne out by the evidence cited of the writings and lobbying of hunters-turned-conservationists. Historical Journal, lviii

In a jargon-laden article, A. Vanaik examines the ways in which space was represented, in maps and lease deeds and at auction, in colonial Delhi, c.1900–47. Historical Research, lxxxviii

J. Cotton traces the early development and political influence of the academic discipline of international studies in New Zealand. International History Review, xxxvii

C.-A. Fidler examines the impact on gender relations and family life of the migration of seafarers of (mainly) Bengali origin in both Britain and South Asia, concluding that the wives of seafarers left behind benefited in some measure by enhanced economic power, but their status could be diminished in other respects, while those who married women in Britain similarly experienced a range of positive and negative consequences. Women’s History Review, xxiv

D. Leach uses case-studies to analyse the internment of ‘friendly aliens’ (Allied nationals) in Australia during the Second World War. International History Review, xxxvii

A tiny number of Aboriginal women escaped (in some measure) the assimilationist policies of Australian governments by joining the Australian military women’s auxiliary services. Officially debarred from doing so by their race, demand for recruits during the Second World War caused the military to disregard the policy, and Indigenous people served in integrated units. N. Riseman uses the oral-history testimony of four Aboriginal women to explore the ways in which they used the education and discipline gained during their service to work in civilian life for the benefit of Aboriginal people. Women’s History Review, xxiv

A. Yechury studies the last years of French rule in India—Pondicherry, Chandernagore, Karikal, Mahé and Yanam remained French till 1954—and presents that period as ‘a moment of uncertainty when many possible futures were being debated and imagined’. The defeat of the French at Dien Bien Phu in 1954 ended those dreams. Historical Journal, lviii

Drawing on new archival sources, C.-T. Hung shows how the editorial staff of the Beijing Daily (established in 1952) struggled to navigate the ‘perilous political and ideological shoals’ of Communist China during the 1950s and 60s. Journal of Contemporary History, xlix (2014)

I. Copland argues that Indira Gandhi’s handling of the crisis over the ‘Great All-Party Campaign for the Protection of the Cow’ (1966–8) ‘proved … to be the making of her as a politician and national leader’. Journal of Contemporary History, xlix (2014)

J. Sarker examines the evolution of India’s nuclear programme in the 1960s and the country’s resistance to involvement in the non-proliferation treaty process. International History Review, xxxvii

Developments in the technologies available to women in Australia to manage menstruation had the paradoxical effect of creating a discourse of ‘liberation’ and a praxis of enhanced secrecy and privacy, C. Pascoe demonstrates. Women’s History Review, xxiv

P. Hamilton assesses the economic and social impact of ‘rest and relaxation’ visits by US servicemen to Hong Kong during the Vietnam War. International History Review, xxxvii

K. Aljunied looks at coffee-houses (or ‘coffee-shops’) in mid-twentieth-century Singapore, proposing that they be viewed as ‘domains of contentious publics’, centres of controversy and controversial politics in a period of political transformation. History Workshop Journal, no. 77 (2014)

East-Central Europe

J. Žemlička looks at the concepts of ius, iura ducis (ducal law) and ius terrae (law of the land) as understood in late medieval Bohemia, Poland and Silesia. Český časopis historický, cxiii

N. Nowakowska analyses the printed work produced by way of anti-Reformation polemic in Poland, 1520–36, showing its origins in official edicts and its production for a readership which included a Latin-literate lay elite. Historical Research, lxxxvii

Z. Cziráki considers the mechanics of seventeenth-century Habsburg diplomacy through a study of Simon Reniger’s appointment as the Habsburg resident in Constantinople. Századok, cxlix

N. Viskolcz examines a broad range of sources to present a portrait of the life of a seventeenth-century Catholic noblewoman, Anna Esterházy. Századok, cxlix

S. Hadler exposes selective historical memory with regard to the city of Brno’s famous repulsion of Swedish forces in 1645. Bohemia, lv

D. Baránek argues that the late nineteenth-century rabbinate lost authority among Moravian and Silesian Jewish communities as an unintended consequence of the mid-century shift from Talmudic to university scholarship. Český časopis historický, cxiii

M. Niedhammer uncovers fin-de-siècle Franco-Bohemian connec tions among those who promoted the Mistral, Czech and other ‘small’ languages. Bohemia, lv

A. Hanning relates the forgotten story of T.G. Masaryk’s nomination for a Nobel Peace Prize in 1913 and 1914. Český časopis historický, cxiii

J.M. Cornwall fascinatingly traces notions of treason, focusing on the use of treason trials by the Habsburg regime against Bosnian Serbs and leading Czech politicians during the First World War, case-studies of ‘how regimes in crisis have used treason as a powerful moral instrument for managing allegiance’. Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, 6th ser., xxv

B. Bodo’s article concentrates on the careers of right-wing leaders in the Hungarian White Terror (1919–21) and afterwards. They exhibited strong anti-Semitism and benefited from significant protection during the Horthy regime. There were some connections between participation in the White Terror and the Holocaust, though generalisation remains difficult. Material from Hungarian archives along with many published primary sources is utilised. Austrian History Yearbook, xlvi

A. Hruboň struggles to integrate Czech and Slovak fascism into Anglo-Saxon methodology. Český časopis historický, cxiii

D. Petrucelli argues that the Polish Women Police were given extensive powers due to their role in the campaign against ‘white slavery’ in the inter-war period. Contemporary European History, xxiv

L.M. Waters examines the work of the Felvidék loyalty commissions set up to test the loyalty of government employees in the Slovakian territory awarded to Hungary in November 1938. Contemporary European History, xxiv

A. Becker analyses British policy towards Hungary during 1938–9 in the context of the latter’s territorial and minority dispute with Czechoslovakia, arguing that Hungary played an important role in Britain’s anti-German strategy. Slavonic and East European Review, xciii

M Röger argues that, despite official prohibition, sexual contacts (commercial, consensual and forced) were widespread between the German occupiers and the occupied population in Poland, 1939–44. Contemporary European History, xxiii (2014)

M Zakić examines the role of the ethnic German minority (Volksdeutsches) in the administration of the Serbian Banat during the Nazi occupation, especially the seizure of Jewish property. Journal of Contemporary History, xlix (2014)

K. Ungváry analyses the decision-making process, and the extent of co-ordination between German and Hungarian authorities, that resulted in the deportation of 440,000 Hungarian citizens in 1944. Századok, cxlix

E. Dragomir provides new evidence to show that the establishment of the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance in 1948 derived from the initiative of the Romanian Communist party and not from Moscow; though the Council as it developed veered away from Romania’s original objectives. Historical Research, lxxxviii

G. Bátonyi explores the arrest and trial of the British businessman Edgar Sanders in Budapest in 1949, who was convicted of espionage and sabotage and sentenced to thirteen years in prison (released after three and a half). The author argues that the case was motivated by hostility on the part of the Mátyás Rákosi regime to the British government and concerns about interference in Hungarian affairs. Slavonic and East European Review, xciii

In Hungary in the 1960s and 1970s, J. Mark and P. Apor show that an anti-imperialist internationalism played a role in elite, intellectual and everyday socialist culture. Journal of Modern History, lxxxvii

J. Peška and K. Volná argue over the uses and possible abuses of Communist-era oral testimony in Czechoslovakia. Český časopis historický, cxiii

The proceedings of a conference held at Regensburg in April 2012 form the basis of a special issue devoted to the broad theme of violence in late-socialist societies. As is often the case with the theme of violence, the individual papers cover a range of subjects, which are perhaps only loosely related to each other. Some, such as a rather slight article by R. Baločkaité on militia forces in Lithuania in 1960s and 1970s Soviet Lithuania, are essentially studies of policing. Others, such as an article by G. Tsipursky on incidents of violence by young males in the Soviet Union in the 1950s and 1960s, relate more to cultures of masculinity and youth. But such everyday violence could also develop a more political edge, as C. Morar-Vulcu demonstrates through an interesting study of male violence in industrial regions in Romania in the 1970s which gradually acquired (or was seen to have acquired) a more political and oppositional character. Some contributions, however, are more explicitly political in focus, and the role of violence more peripheral. Thus, for example, R. Vučetić contributes an interesting article on the demonstrations that occurred in Yugoslavia against American policy in the Vietnam War in the 1960s. These challenged the authority of the regime, and its attempts to balance east and west, and prefigured the subsequent wider loss of legitimacy by the Yugoslav regime. This is reinforced by the article by S. Rutar (the editor of the special issue) on the strike by the dockers in Koper in Slovenia in 1970, which was much influenced by the actions of workers across the border in Trieste. This finds its epilogue in an article by K. Brown which explores the wider shocks caused by the violence perpetrated by state authorities against the inhabitants of a village, Vevčani, in western Macedonia in August 1987. Central to all of this is the issue of who ‘owns’ violence, and this is well discussed in the final article by J. Hayton, which explores the discourses that developed out of an attack by skinheads on a punk concert in East Berlin in 1987. By demonstrating social tensions, this incident also raised much wider issues about the legitimacy of the regime of the GDR. In sum, the value of the special issue lies less in any superficial coherence than in the way in which it demonstrates the uncontrollable diversity of studies of violence. European History Quarterly, xlv

P. Orság looks at the nuts and bolts of Czechoslovak exile publishing in the West after 1968, arguing that dissident writing was more commonly funded by Socialist and even Communist organisations than by democratic ones. Český časopis historický, cxiii

M. Baár rather over-interprets a moving tale of how a man blinded by a landmine while doing obligatory military service led a campaign to set up a centre for training guide-dogs in Hungary, accomplished in 1977. Rather than illustrating the ‘agency’ of disabled citizens, it may just show how difficult it was to get anything done under communism. Two years later the authorities tried to close the training centre down. Although they ultimately allowed it to continue, years of clashes followed. And yet this was the kind of request that would have cost the regime relatively little financially or in principle to allow. The larger claim that ‘the similarities in the situation of disabled people in both capitalist and socialist countries appear to have been greater than the differences’ would require international comparisons not offered here. Past and Present, no. 227


Pierre-Marie Guihard shows how the recent discovery at Alauna (Valognes) of a bronze coin, minted initially in the name of Antoninus Pius (138–161) and then re-stamped with the image of Postumus (260–269), helps inform both our understanding of the reuse of money in the ancient world and the radiate iconography preferred by the so-called ‘restorer’ of Gaul. Annales de Normandie, lxv

Episcopal elections in sixth-century Gaul are studied by S. Cantelli Berarducci: between election by clergy and people, approval by king and consecration by archbishop, she works with the canons of synods and the records of practice (chiefly in Gregory of Tours), to investigate the main areas of tension—imposition by the kings, multiple candidates—within a context of substantial social solidarity between kings and aristocratic families with episcopal vocations. Archivio storico italiano, clxxii

C. de Vasselot suggests a possible origin for the important Lusignan family of Poitou in a cadet branch of the Carolingian Rorgonides. Using patronymic evidence, he deduces that the early members of the family held lands around the monastery of Saint-Maixent, and Hugues le Cher built the castle at nearby Lusignan between 950 and 970. He then demonstrates the importance of family ties, marriages and loyalty to the papacy in creating the dynasty that was to be a thorn in the side of the Plantagenets, make a notable contribution to the early crusades, and patronise the Cistercians. Cahiers de civilisation médiévale, lvii

Through the example of the small monastery of Homblières in Vermandois, F. McNair shows how the creation of records of land transactions approved by local patrons could be important in enabling a tenth-century religious house to defend its property. Journal of Medieval History, xli

G. Gandy presents new hypotheses concerning the tenth-century buildings of Mont Saint-Michel, but struggles to convince in an article that relies on a reading of notoriously difficult evidence as much as on the author’s own unconventional (and as yet unpublished) arguments concerning the early monastic community. Annales de Normandie, lxv

J.-P. Soubigou makes a challenging contribution to the obscure political and institutional history of north-western Brittany by reconsidering the significance of the term ‘kemenet’, used to describe at least seven different areas of varying size and importance (later mainly in the hands of viscomital families), arguing for an origin in grants from Duke Alain Barbetorte (d. 952). Annales de Bretagne, cxx (2013)

A. Lunven argues that the parochial network in eastern Brittany did not result from the division of large primitive parishes dating back to the earliest days of Christianity, but from conscious decisions taken in the eleventh century to link believers to a mother church and its parochia on grounds of domicile. Annales de Bretagne, cxxi (2014)

T. Roche argues that the list of depredations committed against the nuns of Holy Trinity Caen, probably in the 1090s, and found in the cartulary of the house, cannot simply be taken to exemplify the generally disorderly state of Normandy in the time of Robert Curthose. ‘Depredation’ may have taken a variety of forms, which the author explores in detail. Haskins Society Journal, xxvi (2014)

In a thoughtful, well-documented account, F. Mazel investigates the major surviving sources for the early history of the abbey of Saint-Sauveur de Redon to discover how the eleventh- and twelfth-century monks perceived the earlier history of their house, suggesting a valorisation of their Carolingian inheritance at the expense of the contribution of more recent dukes of Brittany in promoting reform and monastic renewal. Annales de Bretagne, cxxii

A. Livingstone sets the long career of Countess Ermengarde (c.1067–1148), wife of count/duke Alan Fergent (d. 1119) and mother of Conan III of Brittany, in context by demonstrating that it was not unusual for aristocratic women to exercise political power, arguing that her role, especially as co-ruler with her son even when he had come of age, was by no means ‘extraordinary’; though the relative wealth of evidence for her career, contacts and friendships is unusual for the period and region. Annales de Bretagne, cxxi (2014)

In a richly detailed and engaging article, N. Paul explores dynastic strife and political instability in medieval Anjou, and sheds new light on an early twelfth-century chronicle of its counts. Elucidating its stylistic conventions and classical allusions, he suggests a possible reading of this chronicle as an edifying text for future generations, as well as reflecting on the role of origin stories in legitimising noble authority in medieval France. French History, xix

V. Launay provides a useful summary of the development of the abbey of Saint-Sulpice-la-Forêt and its dependencies, including three in England, from its foundation c.1112 x 1117 to the mid thirteenth century, paying particular attention to the nomenclature of its benefactions. Annales de Bretagne, cxxi (2014)

K. Dutton draws on a minute examination of acts issued by Geoffrey V, count of Anjou and duke of Normandy, to emphasise his strategic self-presentation as the son of the king of Jerusalem, and persuasively suggests the wider importance of crusading rhetoric, relics and memories to the construction of local authority and ducal identity. French History, xix

B. Franzé offers yet another interpretation of the iconography of Saint-Gilles-du-Gard. She argues for the influence of Rupert of Deutz on the Saint-Gilles monks who conceived some of the imagery. She then ties the main outlines of the programme in with the concerns of Count Raymond V of Toulouse in the 1160s, as he faced the potential danger of being identified as a protector of heretics. According to Franzé, the façade was designed to place Raymond and his allies clearly among the Christians who recognised Christ’s divinity. Cahiers de civilisation médiévale, lviii

A. Chauou speculates on what Chrétien de Troyes’ account of the great feast held by Henry II at Nantes in 1169 (described in Érec et Énide) tells us about the king’s use of the Matter of Britain for political purposes as he asserted his control over Brittany. Annales de Bretagne, cxxi (2014)

W.J. Courtenay uses the seals of Theology Masters at Paris in the period 1190–1308 as sources for identity, highlighting a broad iconographic shift from an emphasis on magisterial authority in teaching (and even identification with a particular intellectual group) to an emphasis on Marian devotion. Speculum, xci

In a lengthy but welcome article, A. Dubois and J.-B. Vincent offer the first comprehensive and critical survey of the abbots and buildings of the abbey of Barbery, from its establishment in the twelfth century to the French Revolution, showing that the site is home, among other things, to one of the rare surviving guesthouses of Cistercian Normandy. Annales de Normandie, lxv

An issue devoted to the Cistercians in north-western France, centring on Maine, introduced by E. Johans, V. Corriol, G. Brunel and L. Maillet, considers three main themes. Institutional developments are traced with respect to two major abbeys, Perseigne from its origins around 1145 to the end of the Middle Ages (B. Doux), and L’Epau, c.1350–1450 (V. Corriol), while G. Baury provides an overview of Cistercian nuns in medieval Maine. Under ‘Figures’, A. Reinbold uses Adam de Perseigne’s correspondence to illustrate the different friendship circles he established between 1188 and 1221; L. Millet discusses Abbot Adam’s missions (on behalf of both his own order and of the papacy) as a spiritual leader and diplomat between 1190 and his death; and the intellectual activities of Thomas of Perseigne are revealed in his commentary on the Song of Songs, written between 1170 and 1189, of which at least seventy-eight copies survive and seven untraced ones are known (D. Bell). Placing these papers in a wider perspective, J.-R. Ladurée considers the foundation and early days of the abbey of Clairmont and its daughter-house Fontaine-Daniel (1150–1204), N.-Y. Tonnerre sketches the place of Cistercian abbeys in the history of neighbouring Anjou at the same period, and A. Grélois reveals the shortcomings of the lists (some going back to 1186) on which many modern scholars have relied for determining the foundation dates and thus the expansion of the Cistercian order in Western France. Finally, V. Gazeau provides a brief conclusion to these conference proceedings, which overall make a helpful contribution to Cistercian studies in the areas considered. Annales de Bretagne, cxx (2013)

T. Anderlini conducts an exhaustive study of the shirt, attributed to St Louis, displayed in Notre Dame de Paris. The garment’s materials, cut and construction all point to a thirteenth-century origin, as do comparisons with other well-attested high-status late thirteenth-century shirts and with contemporary illuminations. There is apparently nothing to suggest that the shirt cannot have belonged to St Louis. Medieval clothing and textiles, xi

M. Lémeillat traces the prodigal life of Pierre de Bretagne (d. 1311), a younger son of Duke Jean II, usefully publishing documents concerning his considerable debts and unruly behaviour. Annales de Bretagne, cxxii

Within the larger centralising kingdom of France, in an ambitious and wide-ranging discussion, L. Moal considers the nature of the frontiers established by emerging principalities, their permanence or impermanence, and the extent to which individual princes had conscious territorial strategies based on an appreciation of geographical borders. Annales de Bretagne, cxxi (2014)

G. Dorandeu sheds light on a rare Norman seal matrix dating from the early fourteenth century, discovered in 2011 and currently in private hands, and argues that the heraldic elements of its design illustrate the links that existed more generally between a seal’s chosen iconography and the name of the individual to whom it belonged. Annales de Normandie, lxv

F. Labaune-Jean describes finds from the Place Sainte-Anne, Rennes (formerly occupied by a medieval hospital), that were discovered during work for the town’s new metro system, including pilgrim badges and other small moulded objects in lead. Annales de Bretagne, cxxi (2014)

M.-M. de Cevins offers a reassessment of the career of St Jean Discalcéat, a parish priest from Rennes who became a Franciscan at Quimper and died during the Black Death in 1349—whose very existence has been queried by some scholars because of the lack of near-contemporary evidence—by vindicating the authenticity of the 1613 copy of his Vita on which all later accounts must depend. Annales de Bretagne, cxxii

É. Faisant unpicks the complicated architectural history of the little-studied church of Notre-Dame-de-Froide-Rue (today Saint-Sauveur de Caen), arguing that its unusual and varied design, comprising elements erected between the fourteenth and sixteenth centuries, is a consequence of the parish’s ever-changing demographics. Annales de Normandie, lxv

The survival of an account of 1478 allows I. Mathieu to examine an important aspect of urban renewal at Angers at the end of the Middle Ages, with valuable details on the reconstruction of stretches of the town wall, the materials employed, and the wages and conditions of employment experienced by the workforce, including provision for those injured during construction. Annales de Bretagne, cxxii

C. Bouvet and A. Gallicé examine the impact of war on Châteaubriant and Ancenis, two towns lying in the march between the duchy of Brittany and the kingdom of France during the War of Breton Independence (1487–8), with particular attention to the sieges they endured, the physical destruction of their defences and implications for concepts of frontier. Annales de Bretagne, cxxii

J.-P. Marchand, V. Bonnardot and O. Planchon exploit the chronicle of Guillaume Le Doyen, notary of Laval, to analyse the climate of western France between 1481 and 1537, suggesting locally a more temperate regime than the ‘little ice age’ observed elsewhere. Annales de Bretagne, cxxii

With the express aim of encouraging the systematic study and publication of Francis I’s correspondence, D. Potter outlines some of the challenges that such an edition should address, not least the problem of royal authorship in the collaborative process of writing, the literary qualities of Francis’ correspondence, and the proper place of writing in the métier du roi. In so doing, he provides an illuminating insight into royal pleasures and concerns, familial and diplomatic relationships. French History, xix

N. Bensoussan’s article ‘From the French galerie to the Italian garden’ is an interesting study of the process and progress of the reception of the Italian Renaissance in France. It shows how Primaticcio’s bronze statues, commissioned by Francis I and copied after famous marble statues in Rome, were originally displayed in a lavish but rather confining gallery at Fontainebleau, but later in formal gardens and architectural niches in the manner of Italian precedents. Journal of the History of Collections, xxvii

G. Goudot contributes to the re-evaluation of state centralisation with a study of public assistance and charity in early modern Clermont, focusing on tensions and convergences between ecclesiastical and municipal management. Highlighting the particularity of this case, notable for the determining role of the Church in a hospital reform that was elsewhere accomplished by municipal bodies, Goudot also throws down a challenge to wider historiographical assumptions about the extent of state power and intervention in this period. French History, xix

C. Peltier traces the career of the sculptor Jean d’Angers (d. 1576), chiefly notable for the dramatic polychrome wooden religious sculptures he produced after moving to Castile in the 1530s. Annales de Bretagne, cxxii

Introduced by D. Feutry and G. Aubert, nine articles on parlements of western France are included in a special issue. Under the heading ‘Parlement et environnement socio-institutionnel’, that of Brittany is discussed by M. Pichard-Rivalan (on its hesitant beginnings), A. Rivault (the ceremonial entries into it of provincial governors between 1554 and 1598), and G. Aubert (on the limited exclusion of commoners after 1670). In ‘Face au roi’, L. Daireau examines how the Parlement de Normandie dealt with the Edict of Nantes and J. Niger considers the Assembly of Chambers within that parlement under Mirosmesnil (1774–87), while O. Chaline looks at the practice of issuing remonstrances in the three parlements at Paris, Rouen and Rennes in the eighteenth century. Under ‘La police des parlements’, the parlement of Brittany again takes centre stage, with J. Le Lec looking at its efforts to regulate the carrying of arms over its whole duration. A.J. Le Maître looks at the ‘arrêts sur remonstrances’ delivered by the king’s attorney general, while G. Aubert, A. Hess-Miglioretti and A. Mergey describe the co-operative project between the departments of history and law at Rennes to study and make available in electronic form some 6,000 of these arrêts surviving from before 1790. D. Feutry then rounds off the issue with some thoughts on the direction of past and present studies of parlements and the sisyphean labours involved. Annales de Bretagne, cxxii

F. Caillou uses extensive archival material from Tours, usually portrayed as a royalist stronghold, to examine internal divisions between royalists and leaguers in a solid prosopographical survey of repression and pardon. Annales de Bretagne, cxx (2013)

P. Hamon argues that, untypically, the town of Redon profited from the difficult political and military circumstances of the Wars of the League—thanks to the enlightened policies of its governor concerning law and order, the support of leading citizens, the presence of a large garrison and a shrewd change of sides in 1595. Annales de Bretagne, cxxi (2014)

Bibliothèque de l’École des Chartes, clxx, is dedicated to an examination of Versailles. After a brief introduction by F. Oppermann, explaining the recent interest at the École des Chartes in what used to be dismissed as history of art, V. Maroteaux edits thirty-three royal charters which shed light on the evolution between 1634 and 1716 of Versailles from a hunting lodge to the normal residence of the court, and of its surroundings into an important town. Maroteaux also gives reasons for the choice of different forms of charter. A. Maral edits and re-dates to 1686 an inventory of marble, bronze and lead statues placed in the gardens at Versailles. The inventory is important because it was drawn up eight years before the catalogue of 1694–5, with the aim of managing and regulating the constantly developing collection. V. Richard describes the king’s Chamber and the changes that took place there in the course of the seventeenth and centuries. In the reign of Louis XIV, the Chamber became the site for lavish rituals glorifying his person, while its officials enjoyed many advantages as a result of their closeness to the king. Later, the reform of court institutions to improve efficiency and save money resulted in a decline in the Chamber’s political and symbolic significance. H. Becquet contrasts the relative absence of female royals in the families of earlier kings with the fourteen princesses born at Versailles in the eighteenth century. The ambivalence of their position lay in their exclusion from rights of succession to the throne while they yet benefited from the possession of royal blood. Since suitable marriages for them could only be found among the small number of Catholic princes possessing sovereign power, only one in each generation married. The rest had to be found both places to live and roles to play in the institutions and etiquette governing court life. G. Boreau de Roincé explains the conflicting aims of those in charge of the Versailles gardens in the eighteenth century. On the one hand, they had to preserve the principle of open access which Louis XIV had granted; on the other, they were bent on restricting the hours of public entry and putting obstacles in the way of ordinary people in order to assert the exclusive rights of the nobility to certain places. Among the courtiers, the formal promenade of the earlier part of the century later gave way to a more relaxed style of enjoyment. R. Gaillard argues that previous historians have underestimated the professionalism and innovation displayed by the auctioneers made responsible for the sale of royal furniture and other property in 1793–5. The operation was both an administrative and a commercial success. Finally, F. Oppermann tells the story of the refurnishing of Versailles in the course of the twentieth century, after it was decided to restore the interior of the palace to its former state. This programme created tension between the directors of Versailles and the directors of those French institutions that possessed some of the original furniture, in particular the director of the Louvre. Bibliothèque de l’École des Chartes, clxx

L. Chauris, who has made such a major contribution to understanding the historic use of stone in medieval and modern Brittany, considers the quarries exploited for the major new naval centre of Lorient following Colbert’s decision to establish the Compaignie des Indes (1664). Annales de Bretagne, cxx (2013)

E. Delobette adroitly exploits for Normandy an extremely informative general inquiry ordered by Colbert in 1665 into the state of the nation’s ports, harbours and navigable rivers. Annales de Bretagne, cxxi (2014)

A. Belmont investigates the production of millstones at Cinq-Mars-la-Pile, near Tours, and their distribution in the seventeenth century, in the light of some 140 surviving contracts. Annales de Bretagne, cxxii

With a sympathetic case study of Louis XIV’s ebullient mistress, the marquise de Montespan, C. Adams makes a strong contention for the centrality of powerful women to the workings of absolutist politics. Adams’s conception of politics deliberately moves beyond formal decision-making to more informal negotiation and patronage—although, as she suggests, Montespan’s influence could be equally effective in both realms. French History, xix

O. Christin uses a case of dishonest and disputed electoral procedures in seventeenth-century Louvain to explore Ancien Régime notions of voting as a privilege exercised within a corporative framework rather than as an individual right. French History, xix

B. Martinetti shows how the Protestant mercantile elite continued to dominate local society in La Rochelle after the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes. Annales de Bretagne, cxxii

The gradual loss of spiritual devotion and the cessation of collective practices amongst religious confraternities in Baugé are traced by A. Folaine and M. Archaleüs. Annales de Bretagne, cxxii

J.-L. Quantin places the condemnation of the Gallican Ecclesiastical History of Père Alexandre Noël O.P. by the Holy See in 1684–7 in the context of the radicalisation of Gallicanism which culminated in the reaction to the Bull Unigenitus which culminated in 1717–18. Rivista storica italiana, cxxvi (2014)

P. McCluskey seeks to rescue the overlooked role of the Duke of Lorraine in the War of the Spanish Succession. The superficial neutrality of the duchy during the war provided little more than a fig leaf of independence from the French Crown, but it did ensure its survival as an entity until its final integration into the French state in 1766. European History Quarterly, xlv

In considering the impact of Louis XIV’s order that the main cities of his kingdom should establish lanterns in public places, S. Reculin traces how, following the great fire of 1720, the town council of Rennes, initially very opposed to their installation, slowly recognised the value of street-lamps in promoting a sense of security among residents. Annales de Bretagne, cxx (2013)

D. Hopkin, Y. Lagadec and S. Pérréon examine the role of town councils, especially in the main ports, and of the army in providing defence along the littoral against British attacks during the frequent Anglo-French wars. Annales de Bretagne, cxx (2013)

How the town of Châteaubriant retained control over public works and, with the assistance of the Estates of Brittany, largely escaped from the authority exercised by the Intendant, is carefully explained by A. Levasseur, exploiting good archival sources. Annales de Bretagne, cxx (2013)

In a study of local government in eighteenth-century Rouen, É. Wauters examines the use of lettres de cachet as a means of correction for women deemed by their (usually male) relatives to have committed a moral crime, showing how the resulting enquiries reveal a change in familial roles and structures rather than any crisis of female identity, as well how the use of such administrative tools differed between the provinces and the French capital. Annales de Normandie, lxv

C. Maunoury analyses how competing royal and seigneurial judicial and legal systems coexisted in a case study of the province of Maine. Annales de Bretagne, cxxi (2014)

The restrictions that the regime of ‘domaine congéable’ (the most common form of lease in western Brittany in the pre-Revolutionary period) placed on tenants wishing to erect new buildings are explored by I. Guégain, who shows how landlords allowed some latitude on signature of new tenancy agreements for a fee, though peasant complaints continued to be reflected in cahiers de doléances. Annales de Bretagne, cxxii

In a study illustrated with several detailed but legible maps, S. Didier demonstrates the development of sub-delegations by the Intendants of Brittany and discusses the implications of fixed administrative boundaries. Annales de Bretagne, cxxi (2014)

J.-P. Moreau shows that the fate of seventy-eight refugee families (363 individuals) from Acadia, who were resettled on Belle-Île-en-Mer in 1765, was less disastrous than traditionally believed, with almost a quarter remaining permanently in the island and 45 per cent establishing themselves in other Breton ports, usually marrying with locals, while the remaining 30 per cent moved to Louisiana. Annales de Bretagne, cxxi (2014)

A nuanced description of the final illness and death of Louis XV offers a valuable corrective to deterministic historiographical theories on the decline and desacralisation of the French monarchy in the later eighteenth century. By paying particularly close attention to the king’s religious concerns, scruples and liturgical participation, A. Byrne offers a thoughtful analysis of his conduct, convictions and conformity. French History, xix

V. Furone explores the question of the French philosophes’ loud assertion of the doctrine of human rights which had been developed in early modern Europe, and relates it to Diderot’s inflammatory formulation of the idea in his edition of Raynal’s Histoire des deux Indes. Rivista storica italiana, cxxv (2013)

The letters of the Société typographique de Neuchâtel serve R. Darnton as a means to assess the demand for literature in pre-Revolutionary France. Journal of Modern History, lxxxvii

P. Valade contributes to the current interest in the history of the emotions with an exploratory study of ‘public joy’ in the early years of the French Revolution. The meanings and textual representations of joy merit more detailed and critical treatment, but Valade is nonetheless sensitive to the historical challenges of reconstructing transitory emotion and of relating micro- to macro-history. French History, xix

M. Linton and M. Harder explore the contested cultures of dining in the Revolutionary years, demonstrating amply that how you ate, where you ate and what you ate could all become subjects of controversy. European History Quarterly, xlv

P. Martin, pursuing his studies of the industrialisation of the Loire estuary, examines the developing production of artificial fertilisers as population increases demanded greater agrarian produce, particularly highlighting the contribution of the Nantais merchant and manufacturer Edouard Derrien. Annales de Bretagne, cxxii

P. Dwyer discusses the symbolism of Napoleon’s coronation in Notre Dame in December 1804, arguing that it highlights his and the French political elite’s ambivalent attitude towards the idea of monarchy and popular sovereignty. History, c

S. McCain spotlights the symbiotic relationship between state and periphery with a case-study of bilingual local elites in the Napoleonic period—men who were required to act both as promoters of official culture and language and as intermediaries between local and national politics. In complex situations of translation and negotiation, such local administrators could often prove fervent champions of local languages and cultures. French History, xix

In a tightly focused piece, J. Arnold details the development of the lay eulogy for deceased members of the Institut de France. These eulogies generated lively discussion on the proper place of religious and secular sentiment, stylistic convention and moral judgement in the commemoration of the dead, and were also constitutive of a bourgeois self-consciousness that depended increasingly on circles of political and cultural sociability. French History, xix

Drawing on a meticulous analysis of mass participation in the municipal elections of Napoleon’s Hundred Days, J. Dunne demonstrates the resilience of electoral processes at a time of rapid and radical regime change. French History, xix

A.J. Counter contributes to the growing historiography of criminality in nineteenth-century France with this exploration of the secrecy and publicity surrounding the case of Antoine Mingrat during the Bourbon restoration. French History, xix

J. Donovan argues for the role of judicial authorities in revising public and legal attitudes towards gender discrimination in the Napoleonic code. Focusing on nineteenth-century Marseille, he highlights significant instances of judicial sympathy towards women in adultery cases, a sympathy undoubtedly strengthened by the growing public intolerance of domestic abuse in this period. French History, xix

A. Le Bloas shows how a public celebration of La Tour d’Auvergne, a local Revolutionary hero, at Carhaix in 1841, while a popular event, failed to meet the political aspirations of its organisers. Annales de Bretagne, cxxii

S. Heywood analyses the development of the French Holy Childhood Organisation from the 1840s to 1914, relating it to changing conceptions of childhood, and the development of forms of religiously inspired internationalism. European History Quarterly, xlv

In a lively and closely argued study that reveals as much of political fantasies as of electoral processes, V. Villette surveys rumours of fraud in the elections of 1848–9. Against an ideal type of electoral conduct and democratic potential in the Second Republic, such rumours became, for Villette, a somewhat invidious means not only of disqualifying individual candidates but also of casting doubts on universal suffrage itself. French History, xix

M. Crook’s groundbreaking analysis of spoiled ballot papers during the plebiscites of the Second Empire offers a fascinating and richly entertaining portrait of political engagement—all the more significant in that the results of the plebiscites were a foregone conclusion. By integrating this case-study with a broader chronology, Crook reveals not only the ingenuity, poetry and even artistic flair of the defiant individual voter, but also the enduring importance of this lesser-known facet of French electoral behaviour. French History, xix

D. Stefanelly shows how a coup d’état on 2 December 1851 dealt a mortal blow to the position of legitimist notables in western France through a close study of one of their number, Paul de Dieuleveult, who represented the legitimist cause in Brittany. Annales de Bretagne, cxxi (2014)

A. Le Bloas examines how historians and the public at large remembered the fate of twenty-six administrators from Finistère, executed at Brest during the Terror in 1794, to whom a memorial was erected in 1865. Annales de Bretagne, cxxi (2014)

S. Tas traces the development over the nineteenth century of the collection of the Musée du Luxembourg, which initially included only works by French artists, towards a more international coverage in the period of the Third Republic. While the purchase of international works was limited to Europe and these works were initially seen as satellites of, or inferior to, French art, increasingly there was a recognition that a collection of modern art needed to represent a range of western artistic outputs. Journal of the History of Collections, xxvii

In a fascinating account, B. Evain dissects the different layers of collective memory and myth-making which has gone into study of Marion de Faouët (1717–55), who was born in modest circumstances and soon turned to crime, was first depicted in oral tradition as a witch and bogeywoman, ‘historically’ discovered in legal records in the late nineteenth century, and later appropriated in the 1960s as a feminist role model and as a social bandit. Annales de Bretagne, cxxi (2014)

Exploiting a newly discovered and extremely detailed genealogy of a family from Cornouaille, F. Boudjaaba and J. Le Bihan re-examine patterns of migration in rural Brittany, usually seen in the context of long-distance emigrations, revealing extensive local movement across several generations within individual families and showing how genealogical records can often modify impressions gathered uniquely from census material. Annales de Bretagne, cxx (2013)

Geneviève Laurent-Pichat (1856–1912) was the illegitimate daughter of a Republican senator and poet. S. Foley uses the almost three hundred extant letters between father and daughter to explore Geneviève’s development of a sense of self and to reflect on the ways in which girls in bourgeois society learned the skills of emotional self-management. Women’s History Review, xxiv

L. Le Gall considers how local politicians and the engineers of the state’s service of Ponts et Chaussées resolved often competing issues relating to the development of the littoral. Annales de Bretagne, cxxi (2014)

J. Vincent shows how the large area of Breton marais lying to the south of the mouth of the Loire and on the border with Poitou was marketed for purposes of tourism in guide-books from the late nineteenth century onwards. Annales de Bretagne, cxxi (2014)

A. Schmitt and J.-N. Renaud scan the pages of the Nouvelliste du Morbihan between 1887 and 1914 to discern the social and political messages for those living under the Third Republic contained in accounts of those who saved fellow-citizens from drowning. Annales de Bretagne, cxxii

J.E. Connolly emphasises both the scale and the very limited success of what he terms ‘respectable resistance’ to the German occupation of the Département du Nord during the 1914–18 war: more a matter of obstructiveness, protests, and appeals to law than of anything more adventurous. Historical Research, lxxxviii

H. Marquis analyses the commemoration of primary school teachers killed in the First World War by examining the records of the Rectorat and Inspection académique of Poitiers. Annales de Bretagne, cxxii

The part played by factories at the mouth of the Loire in supplying chemical weapons during the First World War is analysed by P. Martin, who shows how the war helped to concentrate and expand the industrial development of the estuary. Annales de Bretagne, cxxi (2014)

J.-C. Fichou shows how well-intentioned legislation to help those mutilated in the First World War find employment in the civil service despite their disabilities had to be relaxed in the case of those serving in the Department of Lighthouses and Beacons, following various incidents where the need for able-bodied employees in remote situations became self-evident. Annales de Bretagne, cxxi (2014)

C. Venramini and J.-P. Rivenc examine the implications within Brittany of a Vichy decree published on 25 June 1941 concerning the songs to be used and sung in schools. Annales de Bretagne, cxxi (2014)

The history of wartime Resistance is rendered more complicated by a study by V. Deacon of the actions of Marie-Madeleine Fourcade in the network Alliance. As a woman and a clear supporter of the extreme right (and opponent of de Gaulle) her actions did not sit easily in the mainstream of French Resistance, and led to her marginalisation after the war. Deacon, however, seeks to demonstrate both the effectiveness of her actions, and the importance of understanding her political motivation. European History Quarterly, xlv

C. Marais examines the various strategies employed during World War II by both the French state and local ship-owners in relation to the deep-sea fishing industry at Fécamp, home in 1939 to France’s largest cod-fishing port, which included a failed attempt to relocate the industry to Mauritania; and shows how many former fisherman found themselves later involved in the construction of the Atlantic Wall. Annales de Normandie, lxv

J.-C. Fichou explains how shortages created by war resulted in changes in the quality and taste of tinned sardines which nevertheless continued to sell easily, despite their unpalatability, because of general shortages. Annales de Bretagne, cxxii

J.-B. Blain considers what was to be done after the Second World War with the gigantic (and almost indestructible) U-boat pens built in several western French ports with particular reference to those at Bordeaux and Saint-Nazaire, showing how once they had lost their immediate post-war commercial or industrial functions, they presented town councils with immense problems in regenerating urban wastelands. Annales de Bretagne, cxxii

Y. Guillauma analyses government efforts to launch a left-wing paper immediately after the Occupation ended in order to provide a full spectrum of political opinion in the press, but shows how La République sociale, first appearing at Rennes in April 1945, rejected by the Communists and lacking local news, failed to attract enough readers, and ceased publication in November 1947—also dragging down Maine Libre, whose proprietor, Max Boyer, had tried to keep it afloat. Annales de Bretagne, cxxii

M. Bouder examines how the tensions engendered by the end of the Algerian war were played out in a secondary school in Lannion, becoming a national cause célèbre, when a teenager, originally from Bône, Algeria (a proponent of ‘French Algeria’), was placed under house arrest and denounced by local communists, pitting anti-fascists against supporters of the ‘pied noirs’. Annales de Bretagne, cxx (2013)

E. Chabal presents a detailed study of local politics in Montpellier, focusing on the ability of the populist Socialist mayor Georges Frêche to build support amongst rapatriés Algerian communities (both pieds-noirs and harkis). This was not a ‘neo-colonial arrangement’, but a political strategy that successfully kept the Front National at bay. Contemporary European History, xxiii (2014)

The weight of the Dreyfus Affair plays a major role in Camille Robcis’ analysis of Catholic responses to social liberalism in contemporary France. Journal of Modern History, lxxxvii

Germany, Austria and Switzerland

U. Grupp re-examines Codex Sangallensis 397, a composite manuscript with a computistic collection and martyrology, and decides against Bernhard Bischoff’s view that it was a collection made specifically for Abbot Grimald of St Gall (d. 872), though it could have been used by him. Deutsches Archiv, lxx

D. Bachrach surveys the historiography of German military history in the eleventh century, and suggests that the role of ‘non-milites’ in both battles and sieges was far more important, particularly in the 1070s and 1080s, than has been previously suggested. Journal of Medieval Military History, xiii

Hanging her thesis on a bracteates (a coin-like disc) depicting Henry the Lion and his sceptre-bearing wife Matilda, daughter of Henry II of England, probably issued when the German ruler left on crusade in 1172, J. Jasperse argues that the bracteates’s image typified a class of such objects produced in Germany and intended to show the woman’s authority as consors regni during a period when the husband was absent. Haskins Society Journal, xxvi (2014)

By re-examining the genealogies of the electors and rival candidates in the 1198/9 disputed German succession, E. Hlawitschka pours cold water on Armin Wolf’s theory that the members of the electoral college owed their position to dynastic descent from former rulers. Deutsches Archiv, lxx

M. Heinonen examines the gendered motifs deployed in the Gnadenleben of Friedrich Sunder (d. 1328), chaplain to a female Dominican convent near Nuremberg, noting both the mixture of masculine and feminine roles and the use of erotic metaphors in his depictions of Christian ministry and devotion. Journal of Medieval History, xli

O. Vries traces the conceptual and institutional origins of Frisian liberty in the later Middle Ages. Journal of Medieval History, xli

A quite experimental article by A. Hordt, T. Kohl, B. von Lüpke, R. Nöcker and S. Stern cuts across conventional periodisations, analysing the significance of riots and rebellions as moments that accelerated social change at times of crisis. Using case-studies from twelfth-century Augsburg, fourteenth-century Basel and twentieth-century Mülheim, the authors highlight the significance of disturbances that have often been written off as illegitimate or lacking the goal-orientation of organisation-driven change. The article suggests that groups in riots have been able to translate individual impulses more quickly than organisations could. Nevertheless, these short-term breakdowns of order not only caused change but also revealed important aspects of the norms that they placed into question. They were additionally able to incite collective action in majorities that wanted to preserve the status quo. As such they inspired a unity of action in the majority population that was not previously apparent. Historische Zeitschrift, ccci

M. Boytsov tackles the interesting topic of exiled criminals returning to cities under the protection of newly crowned monarchs in the Holy Roman Empire. Boytsov seeks to debunk the myth that members of the German royalty could pardon criminals through the same charismatic means by which they healed the sick. Finding no evidence for this, Boytsov argues instead that royalty could deliver pardons because they appealed to the primacy of imperial over municipal law. Furthermore, the practice of monarchs pardoning convicts who accompanied them into cities was no innovation of the Holy Roman Empire. It was rather borrowed from medieval French monarchs, who were themselves adapting a practice first introduced by bishops. German History, xxxiii

Using predominantly church ordinances and sermons, P. Hahn assesses how the Reformation affected the practice of bell-ringing in Lutheran Germany. Hahn argues that this ritual was not always simply condemned as a Catholic tradition. Instead, reformers sought to redefine its function, partially as a way of positioning themselves against other reformed communities and partially as a pragmatic response to congregations who remained attached to the practice of bell-ringing. As Hahn explains, Reformation leaders were thus faced with the challenge of training congregations to hear Lutheran rather than Catholic messages in the bells that continued to ring across Protestant Germany. German History, xxxiii

K. Hill is surprised that in 1527 the Augsburg printer Philip Ulhart published an Anabaptist tract, A Christian Instruction, written by Hans Hut, a convicted heretic. If Ulhart printed the book in the belief that it would sell, does that suggest that there were significant numbers of Anabaptists? And do we need to revise assumptions that Anabaptist books were too much of a hot potato for printers to handle? Were some Anabaptist writers’ books tolerated in practice by urban magistrates? Analysis of the online catalogue of early printed books suggests that 71 printers produced 278 such works in a total of 29 towns across Germany in the sixteenth century. And ‘a broad spectrum’ of belief was represented, not least in Ulhart’s workshop. Whether all that information justifies the claim that ‘as physical objects that were manufactured and sold, books can tell us as much about early modern culture as the ideas that appeared on their folios’ is moot. Has the medium really become the message? Past and Present, no. 226

M. Lanzinner describes and analyses the research project of the Alta Pacis westphalicae (APW). This has produced an edition documenting the negotiations in Münster and Osnabrück between 1644 and 1649 which led to the Westphalian peace in the latter year. Historische Zeitschrift, ccxcviii (2014)

In an outstanding Prothero Lecture, T.C.W. Blanning argues that Richard Wagner, despite momentary enthusiasm in 1870, was no political nationalist or imperialist, and he was certainly very critical of German princes. Yet the evidence cited here does seem to show him as a cultural nationalist, even chauvinist, believing in the superiority of German culture, and angry that its purity should be compromised by officially sanctioned foreign influences in a ‘collective act of cultural treason’. He urged Germans to be true to their culture. What was special about German culture was that it always looked beyond the narrowly national to universal human values. Was that a potentially dangerous elision? And is there a dissonance in Die Meistersinger between what are presented as Hans Sachs’ eirenic words and Wagner’s music, very much an assertion of power, bold and forceful, approving? A brilliant and thought-provoking lecture. Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, xxv

H.G. Penny makes the case for studying German communities in Brazil. By doing so, the author seeks to uncover which kinds of German identities were cultivated by those who left Germany but who also sought to preserve German culture in their new homelands. As Penny illustrates, observing Germans acting in non-European contexts allows us to decouple notions of German nationality from the German nation-state. Just as a variety of Central Europeans could claim to be Germans or ‘hyphenated’ Germans, even though they became members of non-German states, so too could Germans in the Americas (particularly in countries other than the United States) preserve their Germanness while also belonging to new political communities. German History, xxxiii

In the centenary of the First World War, M.E. Cox provides compelling new evidence of the impact on the German population of the embargo of shipping by the Allies. It is well known that the so-called Hungerblokade of Germany resulted in a severe reduction of imports of food and fertilisers, but the impact has remained contested. Now, with a newly discovered source for the height and weight of 600,000 German schoolchildren, Cox is able to reveal ‘the grim truth: German children suffered severe malnutrition due to the blockade’. She is also able to show how recovery in physical well-being after the war resulted from a co-ordinated food relief programme largely organised by Germany’s former enemies. Economic History Review, lxviii

The writings of the German military officer and entomologist Ernst Jünger (1895–1998) are re-evaluated, amid accusations of anti-Semitism that have been levelled against him and other German writers of his generation—wrongly so in this case, according to A. Paulsen. Historisk Tidsskrift, cxv

Drawing on Tempo, a popular evening newspaper from Berlin, J. Hung seeks to offer new perspectives on the ideals and realities experienced by women in the late Weimar Republic. Having analysed in particular advice columns and articles dedicated to shifts in fashion, the author finds that the readership was less committed to the much-vaunted ideal of the ‘New Woman’ in the earlier Weimar era than is often suggested in the historiography. Thus, the apparent return to more traditional ideals observed in the early 1930s represents a less dramatic shift than previously thought. German History, xxxiii

Divisions between Protestants and Catholics in the Weimar Republic, T.H. Weir shows, led them to confront separately what they saw as the threat of secularism. Fears of intensifying secularism provided Christians with a justification for allying with the Nazis in 1933 and beyond. Past and Present, no. 229

That the Swiss banking law of 1934 turns out to have been largely a piece of token legislation that enabled the bankers to continue with their existing practices, largely free of state supervision, will surprise few. But the argument is well established in an article co-authored by M. Mazbouri and J.M. Schaufebuehl. European History Quarterly, xlv

M. Cucchiara explores the prosecutions that the Nazi authorities brought against the Catholic Church in 1935–6 for alleged foreign-currency violations, arguing that the trials served the regime’s purposes by leading the Catholic authorities to make further concessions to the state. European History Quarterly, xlv

C. Nübel casts doubt on the widely held belief that the myth of Bismarck had an important influence over Hitler’s propaganda. He argues that, in fact, Hitler only referred to the former German Chancellor when it suited him to stress his admiration for the man who had created German unity in order to stress his own loyalty to the Reich. He wanted to win over supporters from conservative parties who looked back wistfully to the Bismarck era and hoped to restore the Hohenzollern monarchy. As Hitler’s command over the Nazi Party grew stronger during the 1920s, he put more stress on his objectives for the future and became critical of those who were nostalgic for the past. In some of his writings he criticised Bismarck for failing to crush Marxism and for allowing the German Reich to develop into a parliamentary democracy. He also noted that the ‘problem’ of the Jews had not been dealt with. He expressed more enthusiasm for Frederick the Great than for Bismarck. As the economic crisis worsened in the early 1930s, Hitler promised a regime which would create a nation of pure Aryan blood and would not hesitate to employ violence to gain its ends. He made sure that the faithful were taught his vision of the Nazi future and not that of the pre-war past. This did not prevent him from referring respectfully to Bismarck when dealing with influential people in industry or right-wing politics. Yet when he addressed the Nazi party’s national convention he made no mention of Bismarck. He wanted to distance himself from other parties on the right because he was determined to eliminate them or win over their followers to the Nazi cause. Historische Zeitschrift, ccxcviii (2014)

G. Desmet writes interestingly (in Dutch) about the struggles of the small community of German Trotskyist exiles in Antwerp and Brussels from 1933 to 1940. Ideological divisions were accompanied by bureaucratic and material difficulties. Journal of Belgian History, xlv

Primarily using evidence from Braunschwieg, Protestant church-building in Nazi Germany is examined by F. Weber and C. Methuen to offer an initial re-evaluation of the relationship between Christianity and the state, and between the ‘confessing church’ and the ‘German Christians’, in a ‘neglected—perhaps even suppressed—area [of research]’. Journal of Ecclesiastical History, lxvi

Using reports by Nazi ‘race experts’ and the letters of ‘re-Germanized’ domestic helpers, B.J. Nichols’s fascinating article describes National Socialist efforts to make Germans out of those people in conquered Europe who were said to possess the right racial characteristics and cultural potential. The author focuses on Polish housemaids and shows that, while Nazi leaders believed them capable of (re)joining the German Volksgemeinschaft, the host families who were supposed to help re-Germanise them often continued to regard them as foreigners and as culturally inferior. The author also debates to what extent those Polish housemaids who proved willing to be assimilated thereby became perpetrators during an era of racial war. German History, xxxiii

H. Roche studies an interesting kind of eyewitness account from the National Socialist and post-Second World War era: the recollections of those young people who attended elite Nazi schools in the dying days of the Nazi regime. The author is interested in how individuals made sense of an experience that many found to be positive, even though the wider political cause that the schools served became so discredited after 1945. As a result, Roche’s article not only makes a contribution to our understanding of how privileged young people internalised the values of the Nazi regime but also how they preserved elements of their upbringing while living through a period of ideological reconstruction (in both Germanies). German History, xxxiii

V. Harris, B. Könczöl and D. Motadel introduce a special issue on migration in ‘Germany’s age of globalisation’. J.-D. Steinert examines the causes and consequences of the labour-migration agreements concluded with Italy, Spain, Greece and Turkey between 1955 and 1961; O. Sparschuh compares the experience of Italian migrant workers within Italy and in Germany, with special reference to the value of citizenship rights; H. Williams charts recent changes in German elite discourse with regard to immigration, nationality and integration, 2000–2010; drawing on her oral-history project and written testimonies, B. Halicka offers a new approach to the troubled history of the Oder-Neisse region, the scene of forced German emigration in 1945–8; J.-H. Antons examines the emergence of ‘parallel societies’ among Displaced Persons in post-war Germany, focusing on the Ukrainian Camps; P.G. Poutras compares the asylum policies of East and West Germany, from the late 1940s to the mid-70s; N. Kuck examines the role of Berlin as a focus for anti-colonial activism, 1919–33; S. Goeke studies political and labour activism among migrants to Germany in the 1960s and 70s; R. Espahangzizi focuses on the case of Frankfurt in order to study the impact of migration on housing and the urban environment during the same period; M. Möhring shows how many ‘guest workers’ came to establish successful restaurants and other small businesses in Germany; M. Lidola examines the success of Brazilian women in establishing waxing studios in Berlin since 2005. Journal of Contemporary History, xlix (2014)

J. Panagiotidis examines the widespread ‘Germanization’ of the names of ethnic German migrants to Germany, 1953–93, despite the absence of a legal obligation to change names. Journal of Contemporary History, l

T. Grady shows how environmental issues promoted interactions across the German–German border, 1945–72. Journal of Contemporary History, l

Through a detailed account of the checkpoint at Bahnhof Friedrichstrasse, Berlin, A Lüdtke shows how East Germany aspired to ‘total control’ of its borders after the building of the Berlin Wall. Journal of Contemporary History, l

R.M. Kropiunigg takes a micro-historical approach to the Borodajkewycz affair. In the early 1960s, Professor Borodajkewycz made a number of remarks in the course of his history lectures that betrayed pan-German, National Socialist and anti-Semitic sentiments. The subsequent press and political campaign led to a heated polemical debate and street clashes between socialist and right-wing groups, resulting in one death. While the affair gradually faded away, Kropiunigg’s detailed article highlights the ongoing problems of post-war Austrian identity, the denazification process and political division. Oral testimonies, court reports and newspaper articles are marshalled well. Austrian History Yearbook, xlvi

J.M. Schaufelbuehl, M. Wyss and S. Bott discuss why Switzerland, despite its neutrality, delayed diplomatic recognition of North Korea and North Vietnam until the 1970s. International History Review, xxxvii

In a fascinating article, A.I. Port shines a light on the tortuous foreign policies of both Germanies towards Cambodia, as they responded to the overthrow of the Khmer Rouge regime in 1979. In both cases, Port illustrates the primary of foreign policy over domestic political and moral concerns. In spite of increased debate in the late 1970s about how a post-Holocaust (West) Germany must prevent genocide, the SDP/FDP leadership upheld the legitimacy of the Khmer Rouge. Their decision was motivated by a desire to expand trade with the Khmer Rouge’s sponsor, China, and to remain in step with the United States, whose government was pursuing a similar policy of opening up to the Communist regime during the Deng era. The GDR leadership was initially much more critical of the Khmer Rouge, largely because of its loyalty to the Soviet Union, which continued to be hostile to its Chinese rival. Nevertheless, GDR leadership was left relatively embarrassed once the Soviet leadership reconciled with the Chinese in the early 1980s. German History, xxxiii

Great Britain and Ireland

M. Lapidge provides an edition of three Latin poems written on Lindisfarne by Lutting at the end of the seventh century. They constitute the earliest surviving Anglo-Latin poetry, and shed light on the fusion of Irish and Latin metrical practices in the monastery. Anglo-Saxon England, xlii (2013)

P. Wallage and W. van der Wurff consider the vocabulary of affirmation in early Anglo-Saxon England. Anglo-Saxon England, xlii (2013)

Though the first mention of Herefordshire, eo nomine, comes from 1016–35, Stenton held that the tenth-century burh and mint indicated an earlier organisation. Both views, however, assume the artificial imposition on Mercia of a West Saxon shire system. Instead, S. Waddington sees the general Herefordshire area emerging organically, by the seventh or eighth century, ‘as a satellite Mercian province’ comprising a number of distinct Anglo-Saxon or Anglo-British polities that survived into the ninth century. Originally the Magonsaetan had not been the largest of these. But by the late ninth century they had come to dominate the unit, perhaps because of their proximity to Hereford, an episcopal see by 680, with early eighth-century fortifications. This was reconstituted as a Mercian burh in 893. The later creation of such other burhs as Shrewsbury seems to have removed the area north of the present county, for whose defence Hereford had been responsible. But Athelstan apparently brought into the province part of the Dunsaete, once a sub-kingdom of Gwent. Then, in the early eleventh century, seven ‘hundreds’ were transferred to Gloucestershire (perhaps by Eadric Streona), while some ecclesiastical manors passed to Worcestershire. Waddington sees this as reducing Herefordshire’s hides by just over 200, which may account for the difference between the 1,500 attributed to it by three manuscripts of the ‘County Hidage’ and the 1,200 of the fourth (which would then accurately represent the 1,198 that can be counted within the Domesday Book county). Midland History, xl

S. Bassett re-examines both the charters claiming to record grants of land to minsters at Worcester and Evesham by the East Saxon King Offa (retired 709) and the thirteenth-century Chronicon Abbatiae Anglorum, and reconsiders H.P.R. Finberg’s 1961 essay on Offa. Though the sources are flawed, Dr Bassett believes they all record real grants by Offa of lands inherited from his mother, a Hwiccian princess. He also suggests that the grant recorded in the Worcester (S64) charter was originally given to the minster at Stratford-on-Avon. But Hwiccian custom saw such grants as valid only for the life of the benefactor; on his/her death other family members believed it should then pass to them, and sometimes seized lands in order to secure it. Minsters, however, needed perpetual possession. And drawing on an eleventh-century life of the early eighth-century Bishop Ecgwine of Worcester (as relayed in the Chronicon), Bassett views the bishop as negotiating exchanges and permanent re-grants of land that were later recorded (or embellished) in charter form. Midland History, xl

B.A. Saltzman examines the notion of forgetting in Alfred the Great’s Pastoral Care. Anglo-Saxon England, xlii (2013)

N. Sparks records the discovery of two fragments of a manuscript of Bede’s Historia Ecclesiastica, which was written in Werden in the first half of the ninth century. Anglo-Saxon England, xlii (2013)

R. Coates argues that the Anglo-Saxon ethnic name Hwicce was probably of British Celtic origin, possibly meaning ‘the most excellent [ones]’. Anglo-Saxon England, xlii (2013)

N.J. Evans considers the background to the creation of the figure of Albanus, founder of Alba/Scotland, in the Welsh Historia Brittonum, suggesting that it relates to an established political alliance between Gwynedd and the Picts at the time of their Gaelicisation in the ninth and tenth centuries. Journal of Medieval History, xli

R. Naismith analyses the development of the land market in Anglo-Saxon England, the group identities of its main participants, the reasons for their acquisition of land, the forms taken by land purchases, and the media used for such purposes. An important and wide-ranging article. Historical Research, lxxxviii

S. Keynes provides a panoramic survey of Anglo-Welsh relations in the tenth century, focusing on the charters as evidence for the presence of Welsh kings at Anglo-Saxon royal assemblies and contrasting the highly informative ‘Athelstan A’ charters with their rather less helpful successors. Haskins Society Journal, xxvi (2014)

D.A. Woodman considers the production of Latin diplomas by the draftsman known as ‘Æthelstan A’, and his development of the rhetoric of rule between c. 928 and 935. Anglo-Saxon England, xlii (2013)

J. Kershaw and R. Naismith publish a late Anglo-Saxon seal matrix, bearing the name Ælfric found in 2010. Anglo-Saxon England, xlii (2013)

K. Halloran examines the increasingly picturesque accounts of the 946 murder of King Edmund that evolved over the next two centuries. No firm conclusions are possible. But Dr Halloran is attracted by the idea that Edmund’s death resulted not from trouble at dinner with a robber but from ‘a politically motivated conspiracy’. Midland History, xl

C. Downham reassesses the content of Cogad Gáedel re Gallaib, arguing that, while the style may differ in earlier sections, the saga contains an unity of purpose throughout. Irish Historical Studies, xxxix

J. Deangelo sees the poem The Whale, contained in the Exeter Book, as presenting discretio spirituum as the chief skill required to resist temptation, and Pride as the most dangerous spiritual weakness. Anglo-Saxon England, xlii (2013)

C. Vircillo Franklin investigates the transmission of the Vita Aegidii (or Life of St Gilles) to Anglo-Saxon England, and argues for its importance in illustrating the cultural contacts of Upper Lotharingia and England in the late tenth and early eleventh centuries. An appendix includes a new edition and translation of the Vita Aegidii. Anglo-Saxon England, xlii (2013)

L. Neidorf argues that the scribal errors in proper names in the Beowulf manuscript indicate that the scribes were unfamiliar with the traditions presented in the poem, and, therefore, that they were transcribing an old composition rather than a new work. It would appear that the original heroic-legendary traditions were largely forgotten in the ninth and tenth centuries, and that the poem itself was composed two or three centuries before the transcription of the Beowulf manuscript. Anglo-Saxon England, xlii (2013)

C. Cubitt argues that the Last Judgement was a topic of lively debate among intellectuals circa 1000, notably Archbishop Wulfstan of York and Byrhtferth, a monk at Ramsey. Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, xxv

D. Woods argues that the bird on the Agnus Dei penny of Æthelred II represents an eagle rather than a dove, and that the image was intended to look forward to the defeat of the Viking invaders. Anglo-Saxon England, xlii (2013)

T. Licence draws on evidence that reveals the presence of Robert of Jumièges in Paris in 1053 to reconsider the role of the archbishop of Canterbury during his exile, in the years 1052–5. Anglo-Saxon England, xlii (2013)

Not all will agree with S. Reynolds’s argument that ‘tenure’, as applied to medieval English social and legal relationships, is an inappropriate concept which the judicious historian should replace with the word ‘property’. Historical Research, lxxxviii

O. Wyn Jones analyses the Brut y Twysogion, showing that it comprises a family of closely related Welsh chronicles and that it was not wholly a late-thirteenth-century compilation, as is often supposed. The chronicle’s early section, written in the early twelfth century, suggests that the author’s political sympathies were complex and ambiguous. Haskins Society Journal, xxvi (2014)

I. Afanasyev examines the image of the pious Norman dukes, up to Duke William, as it was constructed in twelfth-century England: a fairly insubstantial image, but one which received some support from Henry II, who had an interest in the Norman past of his dynasty. Historical Research, lxxxviii

S. Gordon argues that William of Newburgh’s accounts of encounters with walking corpses in Book V of the Historia rerum Anglicarum should be read as allegorical critiques of the misdeeds of various kinds of ‘social monster’: warmongering kings, rebels and rapacious ministers. Journal of Medieval History, xli

J. Jahner examines contemporary verse commentaries on Innocent III’s imposition of an interdict on England in 1208, notably the Planctus super Episcopis, a work written in defence of the interdict but one which at the same time recognised the conflict of loyalties to which the pope’s actions submitted the English clergy. Thirteenth-Century England, xv

G. Perry discusses the significance of the visit of John of Brienne, the King of Jerusalem, to England in 1223, arguing that, rather than being a curiosity, it was one of a number of ways in which England was part of the fabric of Latin Christendom. History, c

P. Coss dissects the various ‘networks of association’, local, regional and familial, which, in the early thirteenth century, bound together groups of knights and minor barons, promoted the shaping of public opinion, and sometimes contributed to the challenging of royal authority. Thirteenth-Century England, xv

H. Birkett makes good use of Cistercian exempla in order to identify tensions within Cistercian monasteries, particularly those between monks and lay brothers. She finds in these exempla a source of information on the internal workings of these communities unavailable elsewhere. Thirteenth-Century England, xv

In an important article, I. Forrest argues that the expanding role of peasant elites as jurors in the thirteenth century, serving the needs of the Crown, their lords and the church, both reinforced the powers of these superior men and institutions and at the same time enhanced the role and status of the inferior peasant participants—to their benefit as well as to that of their masters. But was such a development more ancient and evolutionary than the author supposes? Thirteenth-Century England, xv

S. Steckel traces the development of Matthew Paris’s increasingly hostile attitude towards the mendicants, and contrasts the English chronicler’s opposition with the comparable but more eschatologically informed criticisms voiced by the Parisian theologian William of Saint-Amour. Thirteenth-Century England, xv

Drawing on the Historia Anglorum as well as the Chronica Majorum, J. Collard discusses the illustrations and marginal imagery which Matthew Paris added to his writings in order to depict claims to, and the loss of, royal, baronial and ecclesiastical authority. Thirteenth-Century England, xv

R. Cassidy analyses the financial role of the sheriffs during the period of baronial reform and rebellion, showing that the fiscal terms on which they held office were amended, to the advantage of their counties, and that their revenues came from a surprisingly miscellaneous spread of local resources. Thirteenth-Century England, xv

J. Hey effectively sorts out the various oaths taken in 1258 relating to reform, carefully distinguishing between the oath of mutual aid taken by the community at Oxford in June and the general oath ordered for the whole realm in October. An important addition to the complex story of the baronial reform movement’s origins. Historical Research, lxxxviii

P. Hoskin sees the activities of the English bishops in the 1250s and early 1260s, both in defence of ecclesiastical liberties and in support of Simon de Montfort, as being guided by notions of natural law, partly mediated through the posthumous influence of Robert Grossesteste—a law infringed by Henry III’s rule over church and state. Thirteenth-Century England, xv

H. Ridgeway provides a lucid and informative survey of Dorset in the period of baronial reform and rebellion, 1258–67, showing that at least one south-western county shared in many of the grievances and conflicts arising from royal government which affected the more closely examined counties of the midlands and eastern England. Historical Research, lxxxvii

F. Oakes discusses Simon de Montfort’s campaign to secure control of royal castles between the battles of Lewes and Evesham, emphasising Montfort’s reluctance to besiege major castles but his success in securing their surrender (with three exceptions) by combining force with political pressure. Thirteenth-Century England, xv

M. Julian Jones investigates the motives of the Welsh marcher baron Thomas Corbet in remaining loyal to the Crown during the barons’ wars, 1263–6. Thirteenth-Century England, xv

In an important article, E. Cavell explores the contribution of two English noblewomen who married into the Welsh ruling dynasty of thirteenth-century Powys, showing how both women exploited a number of channels to further the fortunes of their marital families. Welsh History Review, xxvii

A special issue edited by C.A.M. Clarke contains a collection of essays on later medieval Swansea, focusing on the implication of the town and its residents in the miracles associated with the canonisation of Thomas Cantilupe (d. 1282). Among the highlights are an essay by K.D. Lilley and G. Dean on mapping as a technology for understanding the multiple patterns of activity and development in a medieval town; an essay by H. Fulton on the Welsh-language literary culture of the Glamorgan gentry; and an essay on the De Briouze lords of Gower by D. Power. Journal of Medieval History, xli.

H. Ingram analyses 983 records of sales/purchases of freehold land in Warwickshire, 1284–1345, that were registered with the courts as ‘feet of the fines’. These confirm earlier contentions that most such sales were responses to high grain prices or other catastrophes such as cattle plague; these usually came a good year after the onset of such trouble, and were of small plots or holdings (‘messuages’), not of manors or of substantial land holdings. Dr Ingram interprets them as quick sales to raise money to buy food or alleviate distress. That they were not of manors suggests that the more wealthy classes were less affected. Ingram sees rather few of the sales in her area as reflecting family bonds or relationships. Instead she stresses the activity in the market, not confined to periods of dearth, of a relatively small number of men who followed individual strategies of property purchase. Most, though not all, were of upper gentry rank or above, and they tended to focus on areas of personal influence (often fairly close to market towns). But some were more idiosyncratic—one apparently acting professionally on behalf of an abbey, and another deliberately selling property to accumulate funds for the purchase of advowsons which he used to advance his own career in the church. Midland History, xl

C. Baswell, C. Cannon, J. Wogan-Browne and K. Kerby-Fulton, in a cluster of articles examining manuscript evidence for the acquisition and use of languages including Latin, French, Anglo-Norman and Gaelic Irish in education and administration in the late-medieval British Isles, propose a multilingualism that both disrupts conventional notions of ‘hierarchies of languages’ and suggests a new construal of ‘vernacular’ as tied to a particular locality rather than a particular language. Speculum, xc

L. Johnson uses court rolls to explore the changing official attitudes towards concubines and prostitutes in post-conquest Wales. Welsh History Review, xxvii

G. Henley surveys Welsh chronicle writing in the wake of the Edwardian conquest of Wales, and in particular the use made of English annalistic sources by some of the Welsh chroniclers. Haskins Society Journal, xxvi (2014)

Drawing insights from administrative models utilised in other regions of medieval Eurasia, M. Hill provides an ambitious and comparative study of English governance in high medieval Wales. Welsh History Review, xxvii

B. Wells-Furby reviews the seizure of Gower by Edward II in 1320, and examines the circumstances of the younger Despenser’s interference in this Welsh Marcher lordship, in an article which chiefly reassesses the chronicle evidence. Welsh History Review, xxvii

Drawing particularly on Norwich leet rolls, S. Sagui charts the use of the hue and cry in medieval English towns, noting the probable decline of the procedure in the late fourteenth century but the apparent increase in its invocation by women. Historical Research, lxxxvii (2014)

The notorious murder in 1351 of Thomas of Sibthorpe, a Nottinghamshire cleric, chancery clerk and local justice, by the warden of a college of chantry priests which Sibthorpe himself had founded, may have influenced the terms of the Great Statute of Treasons of 1351–2, as D. Crook convincingly argues. Historical Research, lxxxviii

In a fascinating study of illegitimacy in English late medieval knightly society, B. Wells-Furby examines the career of one such illegitimate knight, Sir Richard de la Ryvere, a man who did so well for himself in Henry of Lancaster’s service that he was able to surrender to his legitimate younger brother an estate granted to him by their father and acquire entirely new estates through the profits generated by his employment. Southern History, xxxvii

E.J. Rozier surveys the portrayal of ‘galaunt’ youths in fourteenth- and fifteenth-century literary sources, focusing particularly on fashionable clothing. The galaunt is seen as a fashion victim whose clothing choices revealed him to be pretending to social status and an ideal of masculinity to which he had no right. Medieval Clothing and Textiles, xi

J. Langton traces the history of the royal forest beyond its usual termination point in the fourteenth century and makes some useful comparisons between the exploitation of royal and of private forests. Historical Research, lxxxviii

There is only one account indicating that Owain Glyndŵr won a battle at Hyddgen in 1401, but it is generally accepted that he did. M. Livingstone suggests that the battle took place in late summer, and, discarding the traditional site, proposes that it was fought lower down the mountain, at Banc Lluestnewydd. Journal of Medieval Military History, xiii

D. Spencer describes the provision of guns for the English expedition to France of 1428. He shows that the English were not as backward in the use of guns as is often suggested. Artillery was constructed and shipped to Normandy with impressive speed. Much of it was used, and lost, in the siege of Orléans of 1428–9. Journal of Medieval Military History, xiii

J. Petre re-examines the factors behind the Clan Donald’s alliance with the English Crown, 1461–3, and the relationship between that alliance and the contemporary Donald raids on the lands of the Scottish Crown. Historical Research, lxxxviii

The conventional view has been that artillery was little used in the Wars of the Roses. D. Fields challenges this in a study of three engagements from 1471. The evidence from the battle of Barnet is unconvincing, but at Tewkesbury Edward IV was able to use guns effectively in the initial stage of the fighting. When Fauconberg attacked London, both sides employed guns to some effect. Journal of Medieval Military History, xiii

Examining the attempts made by the Cinque Ports to secure royal favour in the late fifteenth century, when their economic fortunes were in decline, A.R. Brondarbit demonstrates the towns’ willingness to dig deep into their financial resources to offer douceurs to locally powerful figures with access to the king. Southern History, xxxvii

C.D. Liddy has uncovered interesting evidence of enclosure riots in English towns between 1480 and 1525—seven in Coventry alone, that in Southampton in 1517 involving over three hundred people—directed against hedges, ditches and gates intended to limit or abolish commoners’ rights to land, especially rights to pasture livestock. Townsmen, Liddy claims, were influenced by ‘the ideas and practices of citizenship’ which gave them ‘a language of rights’. The citizens of Norwich protested that if they ‘should surrender any parcel of their liberties it should be a surrender of all their liberties’. Was it such abstract concepts or was it rather agrarian realities that provoked men to riot? Was it the increasing denial of access to common pastures by landlords—sometimes town corporations under severe financial pressure—that was crucial? Past and Present, no. 226

S. Powell provides a useful overview of the textiles mentioned in the household papers of Lady Margaret Beaufort, 1498–1509, archived at St John’s College, Cambridge, and currently being prepared for publication. Items include: everyday purchases and suppliers; specialist commissions and craftsmen; domestic and ecclesiastical furnishings; personal dress. Medieval Clothing and Textiles, xi

What caused price inflation in the sixteenth century? A. Blakeway argues that monetary factors were paramount. Using Scotland, 1500–1545, as a case-study, she examines the strong relationship between debasement of the coinage and Scotland’s above-average level of inflation. As wages failed to keep pace in money terms, real wages fell, but the pain was not equally distributed: rising prices hit the poor harder than the rich, the latter benefitting from cheaper labour. Economic History Review, lxviii

An essay on medieval cross-dressing women, by J.M. Bennett and S. McSheffrey, stands as a corrective to the conventional scholarly focus on cross-dressing as a ‘modern’, Renaissance-onwards phenomenon, and on female cross-dressing as pragmatic rather than ludic, finding it rather to have been, often, an expression of sexual desire. It is also shown that late medieval Londoners understood female cross-dressing as ‘alien’, associated with foreign cultures, as well as erotic. An appendix, based on London court records, summarises all instances of cross-dressing recorded in London between 1540 and 1605. History Workshop Journal, no. 77 (2014)

A. Shepard argues that ‘early modern growth was predicated as much on women’s as on men’s initiative and industry, even if it did not deliver equal benefits’. Rather than focusing on traditional (though not universal) lines of enquiry regarding gender (in)equality in the economy, she seeks to comprehend women’s contribution to the early modern economy on its own terms. She employs witness depositions as evidence for women’s roles in the economy, using a dataset of over 13,500 responses to the standard questions of what witnesses were worth and how they maintained themselves, 25 per cent of which were from women. The article finds that women did make a ‘central contribution to a period of growth’ (p. 19), the nature of which suggests that conventional understanding of opportunities within the early modern economic (and the lack thereof for women) should be revised and expanded. History Workshop Journal, no. 79

In a thoughtful paper, L.M. Kaufmann argues that the Elizabethan church was ‘in relatively good repair’. Mid-century iconoclasm had been destructive. But if rights over churches formerly held by monasteries had been acquired by lay purchasers of ex-monastic land, that did not necessarily mean neglect or secularisation. Lay impropriators did spend on maintenance; only a few chancels were dilapidated and vivid examples do not prove a trend. Historical Journal, lviii

The failure of the Elizabethan Reformation in the Irish Pale is firmly ascribed by H.A. Jefferies to the failure to build a strong Anglican church in the preceding reigns, and the continuity of a strongly resistant Catholicism. Journal of Ecclesiastical History, lxvi

Working outwards from an examination of conceptions of Satan in early modern Scotland, M.D. Brock argues that an internalisation of the demonic was a feature of experiential piety not just in Scotland but throughout the Reformed anglophone world. Journal of British Studies, liv

A. Blakeway analyses the complex factors bearing on the release from captivity in Scotland of the earl of Northumberland, a fugitive there after the 1569 northern rebellion, and the differing interests of the various factions among the Scottish nobility which affected the negotiation of his release to the English. Historical Research, lxxxvii (2014)

N. Younger edits a letter (British Library, Add. MS 27960 fo. 12 [c]) from Sir Edward Clere (1536–1606) to Bassingbourne Gawdy (d. 1590), sheriff of Norfolk, reporting the entertainment of Queen Elizabeth at New Hall, Essex (the country seat of Thomas Radcliffe, third earl of Sussex), in September 1579. In a play, Jupiter and other gods delivered speeches urging the queen to ‘admitte siche a matrimoniall conviction as were meete’, a striking intervention just when François, duke of Anjou, was courting the queen. Anjou’s Catholicism divided the Elizabethan regime. Here Sussex was using the performance of a play to persuade Elizabeth to go ahead. He had also assembled an audience of a remarkable number of noblemen at ‘the more conservative end of the religious-political spectrum’, thereby publicly indicating that the Anjou marriage could enjoy broad-based support. An important paper that complements a study of the politics of Gorboduc, another play performed before the queen (in January 1562) and intended to persuade her to marry (ante, cx [1995], pp. 109–21). Historical Journal, lviii

In a close reading of neglected manuscript tracts, P. Lake seeks to recover the political thought and republican nature underlying Lord Burghley’s interregnum proposals of 1584–5, and by extension to revisit Patrick Collinson’s influential conception of the ‘monarchical republic of Elizabeth I’. Journal of British Studies, liv

With a focus on James Fitzpiers Fitzgerald, R.A. Canning offers an engaging account of the nature of political allegiances in 1590s Ireland. Irish Historical Studies, xxxix

J. Daybell reads correspondence between mothers and daughters for what it can tell us about the nature of mother–daughter relationships between 1530 and 1620. Women’s History Review, xxiv

A.R. Bertolet explores in minute detail a passage in A Midsummer Night’s Dream where Helena reminisces to Hermia about their childhood friendship and collaborative sampler-sewing. She concludes that Shakespeare’s language, while evoking images of embroidery that would have been familiar to his audience, is more impressionistic than strictly accurate. Medieval clothing and textiles, xi

S. Toulalan surveys the multiple ways in which obesity, particularly female obesity, was thought to hinder reproduction in early modern England. Historical Research, lxxxvii (2014)

E. Hubbard reopens the vexed question of female literacy rates in early modern England by paying attention to the precise ways in which women, marked, initialled, and signed legal depositions in early modern London. Journal of British Studies, liv

Francis Bacon’s methods and reasoning in the investigation of light are re-examined by J. Everest, on the basis of Bacon’s Topica inquisitionis and other writings. Intellectual History Review, xxv

In a paper that could readily have developed and sustained its claims at book length, L. Bowen neatly summarises recent writing that challenges older ideas about the hierarchical and broadly consensual nature of early modern politics and society by emphasising the social depth of political opinion and its often critical perspectives on royal government and its local representatives; such views present a dynamic view of politics outside court and parliament, with common people being seen as well-informed about political developments (not least from an increasing flow of libels, songs, petitions) and well-capable of making independent judgments that governments needed to take into account—or face unpopularity. Not so fast, urges Bowen. Such developments largely passed monoglot Welshmen by. Bilingual gentry were the chief conduits of news and consequently there was little criticism of royal government in early modern Wales. It was only when the eighteenth-century Anglican church neglected monoglot Welsh communities that an oppositional politics that would lead to radical nonconformity and a vibrant Welsh-language political culture took hold. Past and Present, no. 228

M. Parry discusses the relationship of the bishops with the Duke of Buckingham, illustrating the divisive role he played but also the support he derived from the anti-Calvinists among them. History, c

Analysing Laud’s role in the parliament of 1626, M. Parry shows that he was a much more active member of the Lords than has usually been supposed, and that he was seen by Charles I and by Buckingham as both an ideological ally and a reliably partisan politician. Historical Research, lxxxviii

E. Kiryanova analyses the Accession Day sermons of Charles I from the personal rule through to his execution, She suggests a development from a godlike royal image to the ‘toiler’ for peace and, even before his execution, to that of the martyr. It led to a more democratised version of ‘the magistrates’ in Westminster, reflecting the changing theological and political ideal of a ruler. History, c

D. Thomas writes on Thomas Hall of King’s Norton and his books. From 1629 Hall was schoolmaster at King’s Norton, and from 1632 also its curate, but was ejected in 1662. An advocate of enforced national Presbyterianism, he spent his life ‘campaigning for his theology and ecclesiology in [his writings and in] pulpit, parish and school’. But his chief importance is as a collector: he spent a third of his income on acquiring a library of 1,428 volumes. He bequeathed his ‘best’ books (chiefly Latin and published before 1629) to the public library in Birmingham ‘as a Monument’, and left a larger, more recent, and less Latin assortment, some to be used by his school, others by local ministers. In 1661 his parishioners erected a building to house these volumes. In addition to discussing the building of Hall’s collection, his theories of reading and his actual practice (as indicated by extensive annotations), Dr Thomas also considers his identification of and with like-minded co-religionists, and his comments on adversaries. Midland History, xl

M.T.P. Robinson re-examines the scale and significance of rape, and the veracity of reports of rape, during the Irish Rebellion of 1641. Irish Historical Studies, xxxix

R.J. Blakemore argues that the decision of most of the fleet to side with parliament in 1642 is to be explained in terms of the factors which agitated Charles I’s opponents generally, especially religion, rather than by looking to exclusively naval issues, such as pay or the government’s failure to ransom sailors captured by Algerian corsairs. Historical Research, lxxxvii (2014)

J. Reeks, in a study of Bristol in the first civil war between 1642 and 1646, shows how the city corporation sought to defend its position by proving its capacity to supply its occupiers—first royalist and then parliamentarian—with revenue. Whether this proves his case that Bristol was a ‘garrison city’ as opposed to a city with a garrison is another matter. Southern History, xxxvii

Using new evidence, G. Hart throws light on the iconoclasm committed by Cromwell’s troops in Ely cathedral in January 1644 and on Cromwell’s directive role in the interruption of evening prayer in the cathedral. Historical Research, lxxxvii (2014)

F. McCall writes on the ‘Settling [of] Scores against the Leicestershire Clergy’, some 37 per cent of whom, an unusually high proportion, were ejected ‘after the First Civil War’. In most parts of the country all that survive are the articles of accusation before Parliamentary Committees. But the Committee for Leicester records often also preserve counter-evidence or statements submitted by the defendants. In addition, the pre-war Leicestershire Archdeaconry records sometimes cast further light on ‘the local conflicts which often pre-figured’ the Committee’s subsequent trials. Her more extensive sources lead Dr McCall to question ‘previous assumptions … about the morality or religious persuasion of those ejected’. Instead she stresses that ‘political considerations drove sequestrations’ in a county where intensely contested civil war had exacerbated ‘pre-existing social, economic, and religious tensions’. ‘Loyalist clergy’, or those who could be painted as royalist, provided ‘a convenient target’ for ‘retribution for war-time losses’, particularly where their livings were well-endowed. Midland History, xl

S. Saracino’s intriguing article investigates how royalists’ ideas about horses in seventeenth-century England reflected their attitudes to political authority. As might be expected, loyalists to the Stuart monarchy saw horsemanship not only as a symbol of aristocratic virtues. They also linked an individual’s ability to show mastery over a horse with his fitness to exercise political authority. Focusing on aristocrats such as the Cavendishes, Saracino further relays a fascinating story of how these idiosyncratic intellectuals (who mixed with Hobbes, among others, while in exile) also reworked the relationship between animals and humans from theological and scientific standpoints. He thereby illustrates another way in which those who sought to uphold monarchical authority had to use innovative means to do so after the rupture of the Civil War. Historische Zeitschrift, ccc

Aided by unusually complete village records, S. Jennings charts the incidence and demographic effects of the 1646 bubonic plague in the village of East Stoke, Nottinghamshire. Brought from Newark after that besieged town’s surrender in May, plague in East Stoke peaked in August and September, killing, in all, 159 people out of a population that Dr Jennings puts at 340. Its intensity probably reflected both the stresses of the war that had raged in the area until May, and the village authorities’ inability to impose a strict quarantine regime analogous to that attempted in larger communities. Family and friends continued to visit the infected households—but also cared for orphaned children after the deaths of their parents. Jennings does not claim any unique discoveries. But whereas most plague studies have been of larger towns, the small scale of his rural community has enabled him more easily to identify the individual infected households, conduct family reconstitutions, and map some familial and neighbourly interactions, assisted by the death-bed instructions given in a number of wills. Midland History, xl

B. Woodford examines the shifting interpretation of the exiled Charles Stuart by the English journalist Marchamont Nedham, in his Mercurius Politicus, during the Interregnum. He notes a change in emphasis after 1651, from Charles as a tyrant and enemy of freedom to Charles as unfit monarch, reflecting the political climate of the time. History, c

J. Wells too optimistically treats the work of the Irish High Court between 1652 and 1654 and the implementation of the Act for Settling of Ireland as conferring moral legitimacy, not just consolidating English power in Ireland. If she is right that ‘the real essence of power is to be obeyed without the use of violence’, it does not follow that ‘power can thus be defined as the legitimate right to exercise sovereign authority’. Who was entitled to judge legitimacy in Cromwellian Ireland? Adherence to legal procedure did not in itself confer legitimacy. And, she shows, English administrators in Ireland all too often relied on hearsay, on deposition statements rather than live witnesses, and on commissioners rather than juries. Past and Present, no. 227

The debates concerning the readmission of the Jews to England in the mid seventeenth century are intriguingly analysed by A. Crome from a perspective which tests them as reflections of contemporary notions of English nationhood and national destiny. Journal of Ecclesiastical History, lxvi

T. Gregory problematises the conventional understanding of John Milton’s disaffection with the Protectorate (which he served as Latin secretary), demonstrating that the passages in his writings thought to be indicative of this mostly post-date Cromwell’s death and are more attributable to the particular crisis of 1659–60. Journal of British Studies, liv

A. Barclay shows that the recovery of Charles I’s goods, more especially his art collection, after the Restoration was not ‘a matter of pure confiscation’, but rested in part on legal process and in part on voluntary surrenders by the goods’ holders, who hoped to gain favour and patronage from the incoming regime. Historical Research, lxxxviii

A number of articles on Robert Boyle, marking the 350th anniversary of the publication of his The Sceptical Chymist, are brought together in a special issue of Intellectual History Review, guest-edited by M. Hunter and E. Boran. We get welcome new assessments of Boyle’s intellectual evolution (by M. Hunter), of the influence of Boyle’s sister, the natural philosopher Lady Ranelagh (M. diMeo), of Boyle’s access to reading after his eyesight was damaged by illness in 1654 (I. Avramov and M. Hunter), of the role of the Dublin Philosophical Society in Boyle’s last years, as well as papers on specific aspects of Boyle’s experimental methods and beliefs (K. Cecon, S. Ricciardo) and his influence on later experimental pedagogy (P.R. Anstey). Intellectual History Review, xxv

A probing study of Tangier between 1662 and 1684 enables G. Glickman to raise important questions about contemporary British debates over imperialism. He shows how it served as a laboratory for the rival confessional, classical and commercial languages through which commentators meditated on the meaning of global dominion. Journal of Modern History, lxxxvii

Through attention to the dispute between the English and the Dutch over the status of Surinam’s Jewish population after its loss to the Netherlands in 1667, J. Selwood recovers an interesting departure from the Crown’s typical rejection of the efficacy of colonial naturalisation. Journal of British Studies, liv

R. Ansell examines the experiences of some Irish protestants who travelled in Europe in the later seventeenth century—journeys seen as ‘the product of trade-offs between means and ambitions’. Emphasis is interestingly placed on careful prior preparation and, somewhat more speculatively, on the contribution of such travels to ‘elite formation’ and protestant hegemony. Historical Journal, lviii

T. Stein traces how the growth of British power in the Mediterranean, and the interaction of British consuls and imperial officials with mariners and merchants, transformed the Mediterranean pass from an identity document into an instrument of imperial protection. Journal of British Studies, liv

S. Sowerby uses a review-article dealing with recent writing on later Stuart religion (which emphasises the increasing polarisation of religious and political life) to reflect on historians’ propensity to find, and to label, groups. He suggests that it is admissible to use labels which those being described would not have recognised: ‘the problem with relying exclusively on self-identification as a means of description is that not all people in the past were entirely open about who they really were and what they were trying to accomplish’. Perhaps; but we can still present what we think they really were and what they were trying to accomplish in language they would have understood. Historical Journal, lviii

For G. Tapsell, the commission for ecclesiastical promotions established by Charles II in 1681 was more an instrument of the King’s own personal rule than a tool to prepare the way for James II. Journal of Ecclesiastical History, lxvi

A. Raffe assesses the impact of James VII’s religious indulgence in Scotland from 1687, arguing that it allowed a brief ‘window’ of multi-confessionalism, before the resumption of religious violence from 1688 at the revolution. He argues that the years 1687–8 revealed how difficult it was to accommodate vital social functions—poor relief and moral discipline—in conditions of religious pluralism. History, c

A. Graham uses a petition drawn up by Robert Ayleway to illuminate the friction in late seventeenth-century Ireland between the established officials and those who followed in William III’s wake. Irish Historical Studies, xxxix

That the version of John Locke’s Two Treatises of Government (Christ’s College, Cambridge, BB. 33. 7a) chosen by Peter Laslett for his influential edition (published in 1960) was not ‘what would have satisfied Locke at the time of his death’ is convincingly shown by D. Soulard. While it contains amendments by Locke, its main purpose was to correct a wayward French translation: there are emendations by Locke’s amanuensis and translator, Pierre Cost. A sounder guide to Locke’s final views is to be found in the posthumous edition published in 1714. Intriguing, and skilfully pursued; yet it is not clear what significant misunderstandings have arisen from reliance on Laslett’s edition. Historical Journal, lviii

A. Shepard examines the business activities of Elizabeth Carter and Elizabeth Hatchett, two married women who worked together as pawnbrokers in early eighteenth-century London. Their eventual quarrel generated legal records which suggest that pawnbroking was ‘another form of married women’s work’ and ‘female enterprise’. Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, xxv

P. Rushton discusses the incidence of prosecutions for seditious words in north-east England and north Yorkshire, noting a decline in prosecutions for sedition after 1700 other than at the time of the Jacobite risings. Northern History, lii

A. Lashman-Davies explores the possible interpretations to be attached to a pamphlet written by James Dundas in 1711 attacking the Glorious Revolution, the settlement of the Crown on the Hanoverians, and the Anglo-Scottish Union of 1707. The pamphlet, published here for the first time, was perhaps not to be taken at face value. Historical Research, lxxxvii (2014)

Against the author’s Jacobite critics (and some more modern ones), D. Szechi vindicates the value of George Lockhart’s Memoir Concerning the Affairs of Scotland (1714) as an account of ‘the final years of the independent Scots polity’. Historical Research, lxxxviii

R.A. Kleer examines the South Sea Bubble of 1720 and finds the conventional accounts lacking. Far from being deliberately engineered by South Sea Company officials in order to enhance their personal fortunes, Kleer argues, the directors of the Company supported the stock price whenever it came under pressure. Economic History Review, lxviii

C. Haydon comes to the defence of Bishop Lavington of Exeter, critic of the Methodists and author of The Enthusiasm of Methodists and Papist Compar’d (1749, 1751), reminding us that in the eighteenth century ‘enthusiasm’ was a pejorative term. Southern History, xxxvii

In an essay which explores the attitudes of the British middle classes towards witchcraft, ghosts, and other superstitions over the period 1750–1900, T. Waters problematises the notional linearity of the decline of belief in magic between the early modern and modern periods. Journal of British Studies, liv

M. Justman and K. van der Beek use Robert Campbell’s 1747 work, The London Tradesman, to demonstrate the strength of market forces in the supply of apprenticeships in London in the mid-eighteenth century. They show that apprenticeship premiums were responsive to market supply and demand. Their findings support the view that apprenticeship played an important role in adapting the English workforce to the skill requirements of the industrial revolution in its early stages, at least in London. Economic History Review, lxviii

M. Zytaruk quarries the collections of the Foundling Museum to assess the objects left as identifiers for the children left at London’s Foundling Hospital in the eighteenth century, construing the practice not merely in terms of institutional necessity but also of artefacts of elegy. Journal of British Studies, liv

Three generations of mother–daughter correspondence are examined in D.G. Barnes’s assessment of the family letters of Lady Mary Wortley Montagu, the Countess of Bute and Lady Louisa Stuart. Women’s History Review, xxiv

K. Smith interrogates the idea of ‘home’ through a reading of the letters of the female members of the Walsh, Strachey and Clive families. For elite families engaged in British imperial projects, ‘home’ had great emotional significance; women played a significant part in the ‘crucial imaginary work’ of turning houses into homes, creating a sense of longing—and belonging—through their letters. Women’s History Review, xxiv

K. Harvey explores changes in eighteenth-century male clothing in the context of the history of sexual difference, gender roles, and masculinity, arguing that the public authority which accrued to men through their clothing was based not on a new image of rational disembodied man, but on an emphasis on the male anatomy and masculinity as intrinsically embodied. Journal of British Studies, liv

S. Conway considers the efforts by British governments after the Seven Years War to reduce colonial purchases of European manufactures: the Americans successfully persisted. Historical Journal, lviii

Striking regional differences between London, the south east and the east Midlands on the one hand and the far west, Wales, Scotland on the other in the numbers of those hanged especially for offences against property are noted and highlighted by P. King and R. Ward. The inability of the regime to impose the ‘Bloody Code’ in regions relatively distant from London is seen as illustrating themes treated by James C. Scott in his The Art of Not Being Governed: An Anarchist History of Upland South-East Asia (2009). The state struggled to govern relatively distant and inhospitable mountainous regions. Consequently there was a stark divide between centre and periphery that reveals ‘the geographical limitations of the reach of the fiscal-military state in the long eighteenth century’. Past and Present, no. 228

R.C. Allen continues the debate on the causes of the British Industrial Revolution in a reply to comments made by Jane Humphries. He restates his case for regarding England as a ‘high wage economy’ in the eighteenth century and contends that the ‘male breadwinner family’ model is the most appropriate as it was the predominant type. High wages, he argues, were the driving force in the invention and use of new technology whether the labour force was male or female. ‘The general prosperity’ of the high wage economy in the eighteenth century, however, gave way to ‘enormous inequality as the industrial revolution unfolded’ in the nineteenth. Economic History Review, lxviii

J. Atherton assesses the reasons for the discrepancy in the compensation payments awarded to the victims of the Gordon Riots (1780) and of the Priestley Riots (1791), and in doing so throws a good deal of light on both legal procedures and social attitudes. Historical Research, lxxxviii

C.E. Lyons re-examines Sylvester O’Halloran’s General History of Ireland (1778), arguing that it represents an attempt to embrace and argue for an Irish role in the British empire. Irish Historical Studies, xxxix

Fuel shortages forced many inhabitants of southern England to abandon home cooking between 1780 and 1815, D. Zylberberg claims. Cheaper fuel allowed northeners to continue cooking their own food, whereas southerners were increasingly likely to buy bread from a baker. Past and Present, no. 229

H. Smith writes on William Hutton’s History of Birmingham (1782) and the continuing ‘myths’ of that city—that its economic growth was the product of the absence of guild or corporate restrictions, and that the prevalence of small workshops (as opposed to large factories) engendered both social mobility and harmonious social cohesion. Hutton expounded both views. Dr Smith sees his History as ‘drawing on the increasingly confident Birmingham identity that developed in the second half of the eighteenth century’, and as contributing powerfully to what Smith describes as the locally ‘hegemonic propertied culture’ in the earlier nineteenth. Its influence cannot be directly quantified, but the work was frequently cited by nineteenth-century writers. Then in the twentieth century, the dominant historical interpretation, inspired in particular by Asa Briggs, referred back to the authority of Hutton and the writings of the nineteenth-century ‘hegemonic culture’ he had influenced. This picture was not, Smith holds, ‘entirely divorced from reality, but neither was it a simple reflection of it’. And Smith clearly sympathises with scholars, such as Clive Behagg, who have recently sought to criticise it. Midland History, lx

Reviewing the debate about the social effects of the parliamentary enclosure movement, J. Chapman argues, contrary to E.P. Thompson, that there is little evidence that the larger landowners sought to expand their holdings at the expense of the lesser. His study is confined to Hampshire, but has wide implications. Southern History, xxxvii

H. French offers new insights into the working of the English Poor Law before 1834 by examining payments made to households in the Essex parish of Terling between 1762 and 1834. He demonstrates the increasing reliance on poor relief: in 1770–04 an average of 65 persons per year received relief; by 1816–34 there was no year in which fewer than 150 persons received some kind of poor relief, a rise far greater than the modest increase in Terling’s population. The evidence from this parish supports the view that after 1795 many able-bodied men sought relief because of low wages and post-war underemployment. Economic History Review, lxviii

By attention to the failure of successive eighteenth-century parliamentary attempts to extend the practice of securing the bodies of executed offenders for anatomist dissection, R. Ward explains how dissection came to be visited on the poor, rather than the criminal, corpse. Journal of British Studies, liv

Consumption of goods in eighteenth century England remains ‘something of a conundrum’, argue S. Horrell, J. Humphries and K. Sneath. Did the majority of people, particularly labouring families, share in the expansion of consumption opportunities in the second half of the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries? If so, was this driven more by fashion-conscious preferences or declining prices? The authors use a new source for this analysis, the proceedings of the Old Bailey, to identify those goods that were commonly stolen as the ‘fashion icons of their day’ and trace these goods back to their original owners. This innovative approach shows that fashion did play a role alongside price and income in determining patterns of consumption. Economic History Review, lxviii

In a creditably wide-ranging piece, B. Lemire explores the role of the British sailor when in port in the long eighteenth century, demonstrating that mariners’ recreation, dress and consumer practices made them important agents of cultural change and indeed transnational exchange. Journal of British Studies, liv

G. Atkins describes the role played by Sir Charles Middleton, Lord Barham (1726–1813) in promoting evangelical religion in the late Hanoverian navy, c.1780–1820, through his manipulation of patronage, and the tensions caused by this policy. Historical Research, lxxxviii

Most evangelicals, far from espousing pacifism, cheered the progress of the war against Napoleon: there were plenty of zealous Christians among officers, especially in the navy, and evangelicals in the Naval and Military Bible Society and the British and Foreign Bible Society lionised heroic Christian warriors—so G. Atkins contends. How much did close study of the Old Testament contribute? Historical Journal, lviii

Evangelicalism and anti-slavery might seem familiar historical terrain, but A.R. Holmes’s discussion points to differences between Irish Presbyterians and their American co-religionists over slavery. Irish Historical Studies xxxix

P. Humfreys’s article on ‘The Third Duke of Bridgewater as a Collector’ explores the duke’s collecting career, particularly the period in the 1790s when he purchased a sizeable part of the famous collection of the duke of Orleans. This readable article puts this well-known purchase in the context of his life and career—he is better known for his canal than his collections!—and the other works in this collection. Journal of the History of Collections, xxvii

H. Shin studies responses to the suspension of cash payments by the Bank of England from February 1797. Demonstrations of willingness to accept paper bank notes took place across the country. But no national crisis occurred. Perhaps William Cobbett exaggerated when characterising this as an event ‘amongst the most memorable in the annals of England’. Historical Journal, lviii

The travel accounts of High Churchmen travelling in nineteenth-century Europe are used to good effect by J.N. Morris to provide an additional context for the evolution of Anglo-Catholicism. Journal of Ecclesiastical History, lxvi

The criteria deployed by critics writing in early nineteenth-century music periodicals are exploited by D. Kennerley to show that positive and sympathetic attitudes to female singers often, if not without some tensions, anticipated ideas of female professionalism and artistry that would become widespread in the second half of the nineteenth century. Historical Journal, lviii

J. Tosh uses a case study of the émigré Jeremiah Goldswain to illuminate the circumstances of what was a significant movement of people out of England (half a million in the first half of the nineteenth century). Goldswain’s own chronicle, written decades after his emigration once he was established in the Cape Colony, is ‘the only surviving authentic narrative’, giving a unique insight into the circumstances which led him to leave England in 1819 under a government scheme of assisted emigration to South Africa (intended to help relieve the economic depression which followed the Napoleonic wars), as well as Goldswain’s experiences as an indentured labourer and long-term settler. History Workshop Journal, no. 77 (2014)

C. Ferguson examines the autobiography of an English tailor, James Carter (1792–1853), for his views on the British Empire during a significant period of its development, While showing knowledge of its existence, he perceived it as a distant entity, and his views suggest, as others have, that there was no monolithic imperial culture in Britain. History, c

In a piece which takes aim at Colleyite notions of pan-Protestant Britishness and the unifying character of imperial identity, J. Sramek shows that religion was frequently a site of division among (Anglican, Presbyterian, and Baptist) Britons in India in the first half of the nineteenth century. Journal of British Studies, liv

M. Chase examines the way in which Yorkshire Whigs capitalised upon the Queen Caroline affair to secure popular support without any commitment to parliamentary support. Their alliance with the popular radicals proved temporary, however, and contributed to their exclusion from power. Northern History, lii

J. Walliss examines the operation of the so-called Bloody Code in Wales between 1805 and 1830. Welsh History Review, xxvii

Using Leeds as a case-study, D. Churchill describes the factors which influenced the organisation and reorganisation of provincial police forces in the nineteenth century—notably the increased control exercised by the central government and the operational practices of comparable forces in other areas. Historical Research, lxxxviii

D. Griffiths discusses the maintenance of order in early industrial Huddersfield, arguing that it was maintained by an elite of Tory and Anglican ‘urban gentry’ rather than by the Whig ‘millocracy’. As JPs they could call on coercive state power when necessary, and also exercised influence through educational and religious institutions. He argues, however, that this was not a concerted deployment of hegemonic control, something he feels may be overstated elsewhere in the West Riding. Northern History, li

In an important essay, C.J. Griffin challenges the belief that the protests of agricultural labourers in Tolpuddle, Dorset, and their repression were exceptional. Rural workers did act collectively in the early nineteenth century in a variety of ways in ‘a robust culture of plebeian combination’. Distinguishing rigidly between two types of protest—overt agrarian trade unionism on the one hand and covert burnings, maiming of plants and animals, anonymous death threats on the other—is seriously misleading. And brutal suppression intended to deter further protests was not a novelty provoked by events at Tolpuddle. There is much incisive comment on the historiography. Historical Journal, lviii

P. Ismay denies that early nineteenth-century friendly societies were insolvent, as actuaries claimed. Their sociability, including annual feasts, processions and drinking in the pub, helped rather than hindered since it reinforced the bonds between members and made it more likely that members would make the voluntary top-up payments on which societies relied when they were stretched. For, while friendly societies did not allow those over thirty-five or obviously ill to join, they did not make nice actuarial calculations. Good fellowship more than mutual aid characterised the Independent Order of Odd Fellows, Manchester Unity. All that, however, changed mid-century. Actuaries carried out calculations based on actual morbidity and mortality rates. Friendly societies came to set out explicitly the benefits members could expect. More members also meant greater potential liabilities. But friendly societies continued to operate as ‘financially precarious but socially powerful mutual aid associations’ rather than turning into insurance companies. Past and Present, no. 226

Those who supported the Opium War against China between 1839 and 1842 knew very well that the use of opium was dangerous and habit-forming, P.E. Caquet compellingly claims, disagreeing in particular with social historians who have argued that notions of drug addiction arose only towards the end of the nineteenth century. Historical Journal, lviii

The surge in popularity of the movement for the Repeal of the Act of Union in Ireland in 1842–3 was, C. Read argues, in part a reaction to Peel’s budget in 1842 reducing tariffs and removing import bans which provoked a severe economic downturn in Ireland as agricultural prices, analysed in detail, fell. ‘Irish tranquillity and economic stability were … more reliant on protection in the 1840s than historians have hitherto recognised’. And the shift towards unilateral free trade had ‘adverse political consequences’ in Ireland. Historical Journal, lviii

In a section dedicated to ‘The Swansea Copper Industry and Globalization’, four articles draw attention to some important questions concerning the economic and cross-cultural nature of the Swansea copper industry and the industrialisation of Wales more generally. Welsh History Review, xxvii

J. Rowlands considers the extent and influence of shipping activity and investment in nineteenth-century Cardiganshire. Welsh History Review, xxvii

P. Morey demonstrates the importance of Léon Faucher’s Études sur l’Angleterre in providing a vivid critique of living conditions in England’s industrial cities during the 1840s, and shows how the author’s laissez-faire principles were modified by the horrors which he encountered. Historical Research, lxxxviii

T. Anbinder and H. McCaffrey examine a new dataset of Famine-era emigrants to estimate Irish county-level immigration to the United States. Irish Historical Studies xxxix

L. Guymer uses the private papers of Lord William Hervey, first secretary of the British embassy in Paris, to shed light on divisions in British policy towards France and Spain, 1846–8, and to illuminate the failure of Palmerston as foreign secretary to carry his policy through the Whig cabinet. Historical Research, lxxxvii (2014)

D. Ritchie discusses the relationship between Calvinism and the doctrine of Evangelical Assurance through a case-study of Ulster Revivalism in the Presbyterian Church of Ireland in the mid-nineteenth century. History, c

R. Strong discusses the attitudes of various religious communities to emigrants and emigration in the mid-Victorian period, contrasting their views with those of more commonly cited secular advocates. History, c

G. Cantor discovers that wonder was a widely expressed emotional reaction to the Great Exhibition of 1851. Journal of Victorian Culture, xx

With particular focus on the Dublin Medical Press and Circular, A. Daly explores the debate to extend the Contagious Diseases Prevention Acts (1864, 1866 and 1869) in Ireland. Irish Historical Studies, xxxix

B. Wallace traces how Nana Sahib, leader of the Indian rebellion in 1857, who allegedly presided over the Cawnpore massacres, was remembered—and feared—in Britain. Historical Journal, lviii

The family values of the radical, nonconformist Ashurst family are the subject of A.S. Belzer’s article, in which she highlights the transmission of political and social ideas across three generations of the family. Journal of Victorian Culture, xx

P. Nestor considers that the letters of the author Elizabeth Gaskell to her daughters provide a wider insight into the ideas and practices of mid-Victorian motherhood. Women’s History Review, xxiv

Emigration societies, which proposed the emigration of (especially) middle-class, ‘superfluous’ women to the colonies, have been studied by historians in some depth. T. Wagner bases her article around a reading of Elizabeth Murray’s 1864 novel, Ella Norman; or, A Woman’s Perils, a work of propaganda opposed to those organisations, in which Murray challenges the belief that emigration provided a solution to the problem of the unmarried woman, and depicts the dangers and difficulties of life in the colonies for women. Journal of Victorian Culture, xx

Railway travel offered women new opportunities for physical and social mobility, but it also provided a new location for sexual assault. R.J. Barrow discusses two moral panics concerning rail travel, in 1864 and 1875, finding them to be based around fears of attack on women travelling alone or of false accusations made by such women. She argues that the division between public and private, male and female space was weakened in railway carriages, and the moral panics were a response to wider fears of women’s increasing freedom. Journal of Victorian Culture, xx

A. August looks at court cases in late Victorian East London, and reveals a campaign against disorderly femininities that paralleled the much better known civilising offensive directed against unruly masculinities. Journal of British Studies, liv

In an article exploring the relationship between shame and media trial reports in nineteenth-century Scotland, D.G. Barrie argues that the print media came to function as both a judicial and an extrajudicial shaming resource. Journal of British Studies, liv

Drawing on records of trials, including reports in newspapers, J. Stoops offers reflections on the trade in pornography in late nineteenth-century Britain and the efforts of campaigners and legislators to abolish it. She is keen to deny that lower-class women were ‘passive subjects of pornography’—citing ‘the performative nature of Victorian photographic pornography’—and to show them as playing ‘critical roles at every point of the production and distribution process’. Purity campaigners are seen as revealing ‘deeply entrenched fears of middle-class vulnerability’ even as they tried to protect lower-class women and children. Historical Journal, lviii

C. Whitehead, in a methodologically innovative article, analyses W.E. Gladstone’s marginalia to show that he had little understanding of the Balkans before he launched his ‘Bulgarian horrors’ agitation. International History Review, xxxvii

A. Skinner looks at the investigation by the Charity Organisation Society (COS) of the circumstances of some 1,400 applicants to the outpatients’ department of the Oxford voluntary hospital, the Radcliffe Infirmary, between June 1878 and November 1880. Dr Skinner first describes the national context (hostility to out-relief on the part of both the Local Government Board and the COS), and the local one (overlapping membership of university-connected leaders on the Radcliffe’s management committee, the ‘Provident Dispensary’, the Board of Guardians, and the COS). She then discussed the COS’s less-than-impeccable investigatory process, noting the bias towards directing applicants towards the (contributory) Provident Dispensary, and the mistakes (of varying seriousness) made in recording information on a third of the cases. As intended, COS activity seems to have led to some reduction in the number of Radcliffe outpatients, and to a rise in Provident Dispensary membership. Midland History, xl

S. Flew makes use of the descriptive entries given to anonymous donations in the financial records of London-based Anglican charities in the nineteenth century to develop a more nuanced explanation for philanthropic motivation than one which has too often emphasised the public benefits to donors of their charitable gifts. Journal of Victorian Culture, xx

Drawing his examples mainly from Oxfordshire, T. Waters shows that witchcraft beliefs and practices survived in the English countryside through the late nineteenth century and into the twentieth, and that the popular profession of their disappearance owed more to a fear of the consequences of speaking about them than to their actual demise. Historical Research, lxxxvii (2014)

S.S. Holton discusses domestic service, emotional labour and cross-class friendship in her analysis of the letters between Eliza Oldham, a general maid, and Helen Clarke, a relation of her employers, asking what ‘friendship’ meant in socially and economically unequal relationships. Women’s History Review, xxiv

The cacophony of opinions unearthed by J.M.R. Bennett’s consideration of the commemoration in Britain of the four-hundredth birthday of Martin Luther in 1883 shows once again that what is said on such occasions is only rarely useful in understanding the person or events commemorated. It tells us more about religious concerns and divisions in 1883—but a satisfying treatment of these would require deeper and more extended contextualisation than the study of a commemoration alone can offer. Historical Journal, lvii

Deploying a quantitative analysis of linguistic data and thereby investigating constituency rather than high politics, L. Blaxill recovers the extensive impact of Joseph Chamberlain’s ‘Unauthorized Programme’ in the 1885 general election, especially among newly enfranchised agricultural labourers. Journal of British Studies, liv

N. Lloyd-Jones reassesses the history of Liberal Unionism in Wales, c.1886–93, showing that Liberal Unionist MPs were often at odds with their constituents on the question of Irish Home Rule, which was optimistically linked by many with progress towards the disestablishment of the Welsh church. Historical Research, lxxxviii

E. Jones argues that Edmund Burke’s somewhat unlikely emergence as the ‘founder of modern conservatism’ occurred between 1885 and 1914. Debates over Irish Home Rule and during the Edwardian constitutional crisis are seen as crucial. Historical Journal, lviii

M. Morris charts the fluctuations and variations in what was nevertheless a consistent critique of empire developed by the leading British socialist H.M. Hyndman, c.1875–1905. Historical Research, lxxxvii (2014)

A. Murray finds a perhaps surprising alliance between Decadent aesthetics and Conservative politics in the pages of The Senator, a monthly journal published between 1894 and 1897. Journal of Victorian Culture, xx

Via an assessment of the writing of J.A. Hobson, D.C.S. Wilson resurrects Hobson’s ethical critique of mechanisation, long eclipsed by his imperial reflections, alongside other late nineteenth- and early twentieth-century contributions to the ‘machinery question’. Journal of British Studies, liv

Drawing on his grandfather’s papers, V. Porter recounts the story of the Rugby branch of the Amalgamated Society of Carpenters and Joiners from 1898 to 1914, providing tables of the branch’s membership, income, benefits expenditure, and contributions through the national union to disputes elsewhere (Rugby was generally strike-free). The branch’s 1898 agreement with local employers confirmed the carpenters’ position as ‘labour aristocrats’. But Porter sees this as gradually undermined by the spread of machine-joinery works, by the side-effects of Lloyd George’s ‘New Liberal’ measures, by the strengthening of national organisation among both employees and employers, and by entanglement with federations of (less skilled) general building workers. Many of these developments came together in a complicated dispute in which the Rugby carpenters were reluctantly enmeshed, and which only ended with the outbreak of the War. Midland History, xl

F. Geary and T. Stark reconsider the suggestion of growing regional inequality in the UK in the half-century prior to the First World War. They conclude that, although there was considerable regional inequality as measured in GDP per head, particularly contrasting London and the South East with the rest of the United Kingdom, the degree of inequality was diminishing and the poorer regions were catching up. Ireland, the UK’s poorest region, was growing faster than Great Britain and catching up in labour productivity. Economic History Review, lxviii

Institutions for the deaf in late nineteenth- and early twentieth-century Wales are the subject of two articles which advocate some rethinking about philanthropy: by M. Mantin on the social and religious connections of philanthropy and deafness and by L. Hulonce on the institutionalisation of blind and deaf children. Welsh History Review, xxvii

In an essay charting late Victorian and Edwardian philanthropy alongside market regulation, S. Roddy, J.-M. Strange and B. Taithe argue that charities eagerly exploited fraud cases in order to underline their own probity and legitimacy, publishing their own accounts in the course of a transformation of the philanthropic market-place. Journal of British Studies, liv

The journalist and campaigner W.T. Stead published a regular newspaper between October 1899 and August 1900, War against War in South Africa, dedicated to opposition to the Boer War. I. Hanson finds that his sensationalist use of counting—both numerically and morally—the cost of the war ultimately proved to be counterproductive, as the final costs of bloodguilt which he assessed were so vast as to be morally ‘unimaginable, unbearable and unpayable’. Journal of Victorian Culture, xx

In an article drawing on the records of the British Cotton Growing Association’s fund-raising campaign of 1908–14, J. Robins revisits the notion of ‘cotton imperialism’ and shows that metropolitan support for cotton projects in the British Empire was far from even. Journal of British Studies, liv

J.D. Fir analyses the young Winston Churchill’s novel, Savrola, suggesting that writing it acted as a means for overcoming depression, and underlining Schopenhauer’s influence on Churchill. International History Review, xxxvii

Food consumption of working-class households at the beginning of the twentieth century is examined by I. Gazeley and A. Newell, using the Board of Trade’s inquiry into the consumption and cost of food in 1904. They conclude that the average unskilled-headed working household was better fed and nourished than previously thought and that, except among the poorest households, early-twentieth-century diets were sufficient to provide energy for reasonably physically demanding work. Economic History Review, lxviii

Sex-trafficking has a long history. R. Attwood examines the early twentieth-century international campaigns of the National Vigilance Association against the ‘white slave’ trade, finding that the association’s activities were based on a culture of victim-blaming, anti-foreign rhetoric and an ingrained sense of British superiority. Women’s History Review, xxiv

Z. Thomas uses the recently discovered archive of the Women’s Guild of Artists to analyse the ways in which women constructed their identities as professional artists. She emphasises the importance to women artists of having their own studios, and the creation of female networks through patterns of sociability. Women’s History Review, xxiv

The letters of two ‘travelling daughters’ to their mothers reveal, B. Caine asserts, generational differences in style and content in the ways in which the daughters (both from the Strachey family) sought to assert and construct their independence from their families. Women’s History Review, xxiv

L.S. Sanders uses the sisters Elizabeth Garrett Anderson and Millicent Garrett Fawcett to discuss sexual politics, gender and class, deploying their differing responses to the campaign to repeal the Contagious Diseases Acts and to the force-feeding of suffragettes to illuminate the difficulties inherent in their attempts to keep the suffrage movement separate from the female body, and particularly the working-class female body. Women’s History Review, xxiv

A. Bähr examines the plethora of publications resulting from the sinking of the Titanic in April 1912 with the loss of 1,500 lives. He pays particular attention to the reactions to this disaster in the USA, Britain and Germany. Some commentators linked the tragedy to what they saw as the excessive enthusiasm for modernity, which they regarded with suspicion. There was criticism of ships like the Titanic, which were designed to look like floating palaces and with speed-obsession in mind, but could be proven inadequate when faced with serious natural obstacles. There was also a strong tendency to explain what had happened as an act of God, punishing those who had claimed that the ship was unsinkable. Bähr begins his survey with the story of a survivor, a retired American colonel, who in the following year published an account of his experience under the title of ‘The Truth about the Titanic’. This starting-point then enables the author to make a series of points about the complexity of early twentieth-century gender, class and generational relations that were so strikingly revealed by the Titanic episode. Historische Zeitschrift, ccxcviii (2014)

L. Mates examines the role of the Durham Miners Association in promoting Labour interests in the Durham coalfield, 1910–14. Historical Research, lxxxvii (2014)

J. Perkins would see British political and humanitarian engagement with the Balkans in the early twentieth century as part of a wider humanitarian movement. The Balkan Committee and the Congo Reform Association should be seen as responding to similar impulses. There was no sharp separation to be made between Europe and empire. Unfortunately, close study of Macedonia shows that ‘the idea of the Balkans as a Christian morality tale could not be reconciled with the complex realities of Balkan nationalism’. Was British liberalism’s uneasy relationship with nationalism marked by wishful thinking? Historical Journal, lviii

R. Dunley discusses intelligence gathering for the Royal Navy by British consuls in Germany and Denmark before 1914, especially about coastal defences. International History Review, xxxvii

N.A. Lambert pulls no punches in an historiographical review assessing the origins and significance of the dreadnought battle-cruiser in the early years of the twentieth century. Was there a relationship between fears of rising German naval power and the decision to build the Dreadnought, as Arthur Marder claimed? Did Admiral Jacky Fisher regard France as the greatest naval threat, as Ruddock Mackay argued? Or did Fisher oppose the construction of the Dreadnought, and were his concerns not primarily with foreign threats but pragmatic responses to finite levels of government funding, as Jon Sumida claimed? Was Germany seen as a threat as early as 1900—but was the real threat from large Atlantic liners preying on commercial shipping, as Matthew Seligmann argued? Seligmann’s The Royal Navy and the German Threat, 1901–1914 (2012) is subjected to a devastating barrage. Historical Journal, lviii

C. Bell examines the impact on British naval policy of the development of Dominion navies before 1914, stressing Winston Churchill’s and the Admiralty’s concern to concentrate warships in European waters. International History Review, xxxvii

J. aan de Wiel provides an important analysis of the role of the Irish Home Rule Crisis in the outbreak of European war in 1914, arguing that it postponed a British decision to intervene and encouraged Germany and Austria–Hungary to take risks. International History Review, xxxvii

D. Monger maintains that in understanding First World War propaganda in Britain, we need to pay more attention to form as well as content, suggesting that the use of well-known local dignitaries and well-worn forms of ritual powerfully stimulated patriotic behaviour and sentiments. 20th Century British History, xxvi

Some interesting and challenging arguments about the consequences of the Great War on Ireland are presented by D. Fitzpatrick. Irish Historical Studies, xxxix

S. Monaghan argues that ex-servicemen were ‘neither invisible nor categorically maligned’ in the Irish Free State, 1918–39. Their continuing public presence shows that the transition to a nationalist state in Ireland took far longer than sometimes thought. Contemporary European History, xxiii (2014)

T. Hulme looks at how the early twentieth-century focus on children’s health and future citizenship was realised in the processes and discourses of school-building. Journal of British Studies, liv

In charting the history of the Boy Scout movement between 1907 and 1929, S. Johnston shows how the movement pulled away from its imperial and militaristic origins to embrace, after the First World War, a more internationalist ideal, though still one with strong imperial overtones. Historical Research, lxxxviii

M.S. Adams explores Herbert Read’s ambiguous responses to, and memories of, the First World War and his own wartime experiences. Historical Research, lxxxviii

M. Jones traces General Gordon’s reputation after 1918. He debunks the idea that, in the inter-war period, the legacy of the Great War and Lytton Strachey’s Eminent Victorians destroyed Gordon’s reputation: he remained widely celebrated as an ideal Christian hero of empire. In the 1950s and ’60s, Gordon’s memory was more often used to engage with debates about sexuality and race, but he remained an important figure in British culture until the 1970s. 20th Century British History, xxvi

M. Crowley discusses the plans laid for the British Post Office in the event of a future war. As Britain’s largest employer from 1914, it raised significant issues for government war-planning and indicated the need for greater collaboration within government in the national interest. History, c

J. Zdanowski explores the tensions between Britain’s anti-slavery policy and its wider strategic objectives in Arabia and Persia in the 1920s. Journal of Contemporary History, l

Margaret McMillan and Grace Owen (both leaders of the Nursery School Association) disagreed about the main purpose of nurseries: the former promoted a care-based model, the latter focused on education. P. Jarvis and B Liebovich observe that these dichotomies continue to inform policy into the twenty-first century. Women’s History Review, xxiv

In a penetrating study, G. Udy examines the protests by Christians in Britain against Soviet religious repression and use of forced labour around 1930, and the obstructive response of Ramsay MacDonald’s government (maintained by its successor). Journal of Ecclesiastical History, lxvi

E. Gordon argues that in Scotland, between 1855 (when civil registration was introduced) and 1939 (when irregular marriages were legally abolished), men and women who lived together without getting married did so largely because they were unable to marry for legal, religious or financial reasons, rather than from some principled objection to marriage. Neighbours were often sympathetic. Historical Journal, lviii

In an examination of the place of the literary lower-middle-class clerk in the English landscape c.1900–40, typified in the works of Arnold Bennett, H.G. Wells, and Shan Bullock, N. Bishop argues that the figure of the clerk helped to popularise the association of medievalism, the south of England and the rural idyll. Journal of British Studies, liv

J.S. Bean uses the New Survey of London Life and Labour, compiled between 1928 and 1932, to throw light on wages earned and hours worked by London’s female labour force. Her main finding is that women worked longer hours at lower wages and that the decision to participate in paid work was related more to household income levels than female rates of pay. At the same time, the number of hours worked was related to wage levels. The impact of the onset of the Great Depression on London women’s employment is also revealed. Economic History Review, lxviii

J. Purcell presents a largely biographical study of Mabel Costanduros, one of the BBC’s earliest radio stars. Women’s History Review, xxiv

M. Taylor charts the rise of British-trained historians, particularly those produced by the Institute of Historical Research, to a position of dominance in the universities of the Commonwealth during the inter-war years, and their decline thereafter. Macaulay and Freeman might have been surprised to learn that they did not carry out ‘what we nowadays call historical research’. Historical Research, lxxxvii (2014)

How much British households spent on leisure activities in the 1930s is used by P. Scott, J.T. Walker and P. Miskell to analyse the intra-household allocation of resources. Did those members of the household who were in paid employment gain an advantage in discretionary expenditure on leisure? Yes. The authors find that the employment status of family members other than the male breadwinner was the key factor in influencing their access to commercial leisure. This supports the view that the breadwinner–homemaker household was characterised by strong power imbalances that concentrated resources in the hands of those family members who brought home a weekly wage. Economic History Review, lxviii

Drawing on personal testimonies, press reports and planning documents, S. Todd winningly redresses the historiographical emphasis chiefly on the role of planners and politicians in post-1945 urban reconstruction, arguing that working-class people were active agents of change in England’s new civic centres. Journal of British Studies, liv

T. Hulme shows the importance of local government in inter-war conceptions of citizenship, and the enduring influence of the ideas of T.H. Green in shaping such ideas of citizenship, which emphasised the exercise of civic responsibility. Citizenship was often conceived as something which took place on a municipal, not a national, level—a conception which faded sharply after the Second World War. 20th Century British History, xxvi

Is there anything real about real wages, asks R. Searle in a history of the official British cost of living index, 1914–62. The index was introduced in 1914 as a device to provide evidence in the tariff reform debate. It became one of the most important measures in the British economy, influencing the wages of millions of workers, despite its acknowledged inadequacies. Searle argues that far from being a neutral statistical measure, the index was ‘essentially political in nature’. Economic History Review, lxviii

B.W. Hurt and R. Carr link the failure of the British eugenic sterilisation campaign in the 1930s to the neglect of potential allies, especially those in the Conservative party, by the Eugenics Society. Historical Research, lxxxviii

N. Fleming reassesses the responses of ‘diehard’ Conservatives towards Hitler. Usually seen as admirers of Nazism, he argues that the dilemma which actually split them was between challenging Germany before it was too late and a conviction that Britain lacked the means to do it. Both views were predicated on the belief Britain needed to accelerate rearmament and that Germany posed a real threat to Britain’s position as a world power. This led to an unprecedented division over the appeasement policy of Chamberlain, though none would countenance colonial concessions. History, c

L. Novotny narrates the discussions between the British Legation in Prague and Czech political leaders in 1937, regarding the issue of the Sudeten Germans, and detecting an important shift in British attitudes. Nuova rivista storica, xcix

The different uses and associations of Herbert Mason’s photograph of London during the Blitz, with its powerful image of St Paul’s unharmed, serves T. Allbeson as a means for considering the variations of cultural memory. Journal of Modern History, lxxxvii

The emergence and development of the south Wales ‘military-industrial complex’ during the preparation and prosecution of the Second World War and in the immediate post-war period, is examined critically by I. Pincombe. Welsh History Review, xxvii

S. O’Connor provides a thought-provoking reflection of the Irish volunteers’ experience of serving in the British armed forces during the Second World War. Irish Historical Studies, xxxix

J. Privilege examines the implementation of health and social care provision in the 1940s by the Unionist government in Belfast. Irish Historical Studies, xxxix

M. Johnes discusses how Welsh history was used to promote Welsh identity in the period after 1945. He argues that its fragmented character sometimes undermined the development of the embryonic nation-state that was emerging at the time. History, c

F. Barry and M. Ó Fathartaigh consider the establishment and expanding influence of the Industrial Development Authority in Ireland during the years 1949–58. Irish Historical Studies xxxix

In a helpful survey of the phenomenon of diary-writing in twentieth-century Britain, J. Moran shows how this was encouraged by mass-circulation newspapers, diary manufacturers, anthologists, and Mass Observation, before reflecting on the methodological problems which they present. Journal of British Studies, liv

L. Butler shows how the early work of Michael Young and the Institute of Community Studies in the 1950s drew on existing currents in the growing disciplines of sociology, psychology and anthropology, but was more profoundly shaped by Young’s and the other founders’ political belief that left politics had neglected the importance of the family as a bulwark against industrial society. 20th Century British History, xxvi

In the winning entry for the 2014 Duncan Tanner Essay Prize, A. Seaton examines the Fellowship for Freedom in Medicine, which organised opposition to the National Health Service in the 1950s and 1960s, and suggests that the process by which the NHS came to be seen as a symbol of national identity was more contested than is generally recognised. 20th Century British History, xxvi

B. Grob-Fitzgibbon surveys the post-war revival and employment of the Special Air Service in British military operations in Malaya, the Middle East, Africa, and Northern Ireland, stressing its value as an implement of British policy. International History Review, xxxvii

In an important review article, S. Green considers religious change and organisational decline based on two recent studies of Leeds and of Birmingham. They reflect the failure of churches to accommodate themselves to popular culture in the late nineteenth century, the decline of family religion, and the loss of a distinctive religious culture from the inter-war years. Northern History, lii

The role of the Scottish churches in the debates about homosexual law reform in the second half of the twentieth century is examined by J. Meek, demonstrating that their stance was not all hostility. Journal of Ecclesiastical History, lxvi

A. Chapman argues that the international context of English secularisation has been neglected, with the language of Christian nationhood in retreat post-1945 due to unpopular white settler governments in southern Africa, and the immigration of non-Christian religious groups. Journal of British Studies, liv

S. Brewitt-Taylor suggests that, while the adoption of a theology of secularisation by the British Student Christian Movement in the early 1960s was a response to a problem that did not actually exist (and in turn led to the movement’s collapse), the adoption of revolutionary theology was nevertheless a bold move to make Christianity a relevant force within the student radicalism of the ’60s and early ’70s. Journal of Ecclesiastical History, lxvi

Having risen from 3 per cent before the Second World War to 7 per cent in 1957 and 12 per cent in 1967, the rate of participation of cohorts of 18-year-olds in British universities abruptly stopped rising and remained on a plateau of 14 per cent in the 1970s and early 1980s until a dramatic surge beginning in the late 1980s lifted the proportion to 30 per cent by 1991, 40 per cent in 2003 and 46 per cent in 2010. In his second Presidential Address, P. Mandler highlights and attempts to explain the stagnation of the 1970s and the remarkable rise since the late 1980s. He sees these trends as driven largely by what he slightly misleadingly calls ‘democratic’ factors, that is to say demand from would-be students for places. The student protests and counter-cultures of the late 1960s and early 1970s had changed the image of higher education for the worse among a broad public. From the early 1970s graduate earnings declined. And consequently applications to universities fell. But by the 1990s a huge, relatively undifferentiated white-collar labour market had grown—and higher education was seen as providing the best means of access. Kenneth Baker, Secretary of State for Education in the late 1980s, is credited with planning for the dramatic and prolonged rise in the numbers of students that then began. All this reads like a story of renewed success, but to use age-participation rates as criteria does rather make the assumption that universities now (and the experiences of students) are much the same as they were a generation ago: staff:student ratios, especially in the humanities, tell a different story. Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, xxv

In his 2014 Pimlott lecture, P. Mandler examines the development of universities in post-war Britain. While the post-war period has seen consistent laments about the supposed decline of the arts and humanities (lambasted as supposedly not helpful for economic growth), in fact the fortunes of the arts subjects were relatively strong throughout the period. This was because parents and students had a different conception of the purpose of university to that of the champions of science and technology-based subjects, and voted with their feet. 20th Century British History, xxvi

Between 1959 and 1966 many British cities were radically redeveloped by modernist architects. In a vivid analysis, O. Saumarez Smith argues that both Conservative and Labour politicians were cheerleaders for this, differing only on whether redevelopment should be funded by the private sector or the state. Such schemes depended on what proved to be an ill-founded economic optimism and were already being set aside on grounds of the cost when a deep and widespread public reaction against brutalist visions of the future arose. Historical Journal, lviii

I. Waites conducts us through Gainsborough (Lincs.) Urban District Council’s development of the 380-dwelling greenfield ‘Middlefield Lane’ housing estate between 1960 and 1965. He writes in the belief that, though such low-rise suburban estates constitute the usual form of council building in the period, they have been less studied than their higher-rise counterparts. He argues that, though ‘post-war council estates have long been criticized as … socially and architecturally problematic’, Middlefield was ‘carefully and thoughtfully planned’. Its general appearance was dictated by the type of construction favoured by the contractors, Wimpey. But the architect’s modernism found some outlet in the central shopping ‘Precinct’ and the linked three-storey maisonettes. The estate’s layout was of the fashionable ‘Radburn’ variety, with houses linked in front by pedestrian routes and lawns, and accessed from behind by segregated car routes (with many more garages than in the 1950s ‘new towns’). Interiors met ‘Parker Morris’ standards; and, though rents were far higher than those of the slums from which many had been transferred, most new residents were delighted. Thought had been given to the preservation of previous communities, with people being offered the option of being housed next to their former neighbours. Dr Waites concedes that Middlefield’s ‘social and physical fabric … deteriorated severely from the late 1970s’, but ascribes this not to its design or management but to the collapse of Gainsborough’s major businesses. Midland History, xl

H. MacDonald traces the quarrels between surgeons and coroners over access to transplant organs between 1960 and 1975, showing that the phenomenon of ‘spare part’ surgery challenged long-held conceptions of the coroner’s role. Journal of British Studies, liv

C. Hughes examines the 1961 diary of the young new-left activist John Hoyland to illuminate self-making, male heterosexuality, generation, and relationships and cultures in the early 1960s British left. Journal of British Studies, liv

S. Dixon examines the reorganisation, commercialisation and professionalisation of the National Trust in the late 1960s following the Benson report. He draws attention to the importance of mass affluence, leisure and consumerism in creating not only increased visitor pressure on the Trust’s property and landholdings, but also a more democratic culture in which the Trust’s aristocratic-dominated ethos seemed outdated. 20th Century British History, xxvi

Against Tom Nairn and Linda Colley, J.O. Nielsen and S. Ward deny that the emergence of Scottish separatism as a viable political force in the 1960s was ‘one of the most tangible and lasting domestic repercussions of imperial decline’, the consequence of the drying up of the material benefits of empire. But if there was little in SNP pamphlets and speeches in the mid-1960s, notably at the time of the Hamilton by-election in 1967 (won by the Scottish Nationalist Winifred Ewing), to substantiate that claim, that may well have been, as the authors recognise, because it would have been far from helpful for the SNP to have presented Scottish separatism as ‘a belated reaction to the sudden disappearance of the fringe benefits of being British’. Pamphlets and speeches may not be the most reliable sources for underlying motivation. And empire resurfaces in the authors’ suggestion that a more plausible influence on Scottish Nationalism might have been the ‘new nationalisms’ that emerged in the former self-styled British dominions, Canada, Australia, New Zealand and (somewhat remarkably included here) Rhodesia in the 1960s, movements aimed at ‘harnessing the mood for national revival, drawing political momentum from their capacity to move the idea of the nation beyond the bounds of Britishness’. Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, xxv

J. Phillips analyses the Labour government’s decision not to halt the closure of Michael Colliery in East Fife in 1967 after a devastating fire. Though National Coal Board (NCB) officials stressed the decision would be taken ‘on economic grounds alone’, Phillips outlines the ultimately political reasons for allowing closure. He suggests that a different ‘moral economy’ governed the NCB’s and government’s approach to pit closures in the 1950s and 1960s, however, emphasising working with the National Union of Mineworkers and bringing alternative industries to an area. 20th Century British History, xxvi

D.M. Doyle examines the relationship between politically motivated murder, martyrdom, and the death penalty in Britain and Ireland, 1939–90, concluding that national security issues and the potential martyrdom of Irish Republicans were pivotal in dissuading British governments from reintroducing the death penalty. Journal of British Studies, liv

In an article devoted to the pre-1969 historiography of the Northern Ireland conflict, B. Lambkin offers a useful overview of historical approaches to a period eclipsed in the popular consciousness by the worst years of the ‘Troubles’ in the 1970s and 1980s. Irish Historical Studies, xxxix

E. Hanna explores the use of photographs in the early Northern Ireland Troubles, particularly in the Scarman and Widgery Tribunals respectively concerning 1969 and Bloody Sunday, showing the range of plausible truths which given photographs were understood to provide. Journal of British Studies, liv

J. Saunders re-evaluates the causes of the industrial militancy of the late 1960s and 1970s, through a study of car workers. He argues that militancy was not a mere response to external pressures, and nor was it simply an outgrowth of ‘traditional class consciousness’. Rather, new forms of non-deferential militancy were forged by younger generations of shop stewards and activists who built up new forms of organisation and social practice to underpin collective action. 20th Century British History, xxvi

In the 1960s and 1970s the BBC and ITV included programmes on sex education among their primary school broadcasts. M. Gregory shows that they presented basic physiological or mechanical information, often drawing on descriptions of the reproductive processes of plants and animals, that they often asserted the importance of marriage and family, and that they voiced conventional fears of the consequences of promiscuity, illegitimate children and venereal diseases. But, she claims, they could also be more than that, ‘with more progressive, and child-centred elements’. The strongest evidence for that, however, comes from broadcasts for secondary schools where children were shown asking questions rather than from the primary schools which are the principal concern here. There is much, perhaps too much, on the appropriate methodology with which to pursue the subject, much on the different views of other students of the subject, yet little explicitly on what an ideal, progressive, school broadcast on sexuality should seek to do. Transactions of the Royal Historical Historical Society, xxv

R. Waters demonstrates the importance of television, the televisation of US and British race politics, and in particular the coverage of the ‘Black Power’ movement, in race politics in Britain in the late 1960s and early 1970s. Journal of British Studies, liv

In a study full of contemporary resonances, E. Smith and M. Marmo describe the inconsistent application of the 1971 Immigration Act and the variety of domestic and international pressures which distorted the Act’s implementation in the 1970s. Historical Research, lxxxvii (2014)

H. McCarthy explores the involvement of the British Foreign Office in the 1975 International Women’s Year. She shows how the FO’s approach—still dominated by Cold War and postcolonial issues—was at odds with that of women’s NGOs and emerging transnational activism. Journal of Contemporary History, l

J. Agar shows that the UK government was thinking about anthropogenic climate change in the 1970s and early 1980s, well before the formation of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change in the 1980s. The interest in long-term thinking and futurology in the 1970s was a significant cause of this, and an official consensus on the significance of climate change was in place by 1979. 20th Century British History, xxvi

N. Armstrong examines how the Church of England managed rising divorce rates and clergy divorces between the liberalisation of the divorce law in 1969 and 1990, when divorcees were allowed to be ordained, illuminating the struggle of the church to uphold traditional values while also accommodating a more modern, compassionate, therapeutic culture. He highlights the role of the Broken Rites group, formed in 1983 to campaign for abandoned clergy wives, in this shift. 20th Century British History, xxvi

T. Leahy examines suggestions that informers and British agents working within the Provisional Irish Republican Army (IRA) between 1976 and 1994 had a significant effect in weakening the IRA, contributing to the ending of its military campaign in the 1990s. He suggests that in fact, agents and informers had a marginal impact, because of the decentralised, cellular structure of the IRA. It was the IRA’s relative strength in the 1990s that meant the British government included Provisional Republicans in talks over a political settlement. 20th Century British History, xxvi


C. La Rocca draws on the letters contained in Cassiodorus’ Variae in order to reassess the building policy of Theoderic, king in Italy from 493 to 526: a policy intended to project an image of good government and a restoration of the past. Haskins Society Journal, xxvi (2014)

The Abbey of Montescalari (Valdarno) was founded in the mid-eleventh century by a middling aristocratic family. I. Santos Salazar investigates this family’s motivations, the abbey’s relations both beneficial and conflictual with other noble families, and the expansion of the abbey’s estate (strategies of acquisition and management). Archivio storico italiano, clxxii

In his analysis and translation of the royal charter issued to the city of Bari by Roger II of Sicily in 1132, P. Oldfield argues that the purpose of the charter was to conciliate and win the support of an important and potentially rebellious city within his new realm. Historical Research, lxxxviii

The discovery of a new fragment of an early glossed version of Frederick II’s Liber Augustalis allows M. Spadacini to identify one of the earliest glossators, hitherto known only as ‘G.’, as Guisandus de Ruvo, a high-ranking judge under Frederick. Deutsches Archiv, lxx

K. Borchardt reconsiders the organisation of the letter collection attributed to Peter de Vinea on the basis of lists of letters in Biblioteca Valcelliana I 29. Deutsches Archiv, lxx

L. Catalioto explores the turbulent history of Sicily in the period of the Vespers through the archive of the episcopate of the Dominican friar Bartolomeo Varelli de Lentino, bishop of Lipari-Patti. Mediterranea: ricerche storiche, xxix (2013)

The Franciscans of Cortona were understandably uneasy about the religious commitment of Margaret (d. 1297), mother and widowed concubine, who arrived there around 1272, even denouncing her as a fraud. Giunta Bevegnati, her confessor for a time, would write the Legenda de vita et miraculis Beatae Margaritae de Cortona that would ultimately lead to her canonisation in the early eighteenth century, but even Giunta had for a while felt that she was ‘indiscreet in her devotions and excessive in her austerities’. Perhaps, far from reflecting tensions between the Franciscans and the laity, Margaret’s behaviour shows how difficult it was for the authorities to handle a passionate lay penitent. Her story is engagingly told by M.H. Doyno. Past and Present, no. 228

S.-G. Heller examines an Angevin-Sicilian sumptuary law of 1290 with a view to showing that fashion was developing systematically in courts and urban areas of Europe during the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. She highlights the influence of different languages in the naming of garments and their materials and sets the passing of the law in the context of the ongoing upheavals in the Sicily of the late thirteenth century and the perceived need for males to concentrate their resources on preparedness for war rather than on luxurious appearance. Medieval Clothing and Textiles, xi

C. Warr uses the image of a woman depicted in the Last Judgment in the Camposanto in Pisa to discuss notions of feminine vanity mentioned in the sermons of mendicant preachers and in collections of exempla. The woman stands at the lower right corner of the scene, wearing an expensive outfit with a train longer than that allowed in successive sumptuary laws. Although the train is not being ridden by the devils of the exempla, it forms the means by which a devil pulls the woman into Hell. Medieval Clothing and Textiles, xi

In the early fourteenth century, the vassals and communities of Teodoro I, marquis of Monferrato, were repeatedly fined for refusal of military service. M. Fasolio edits the relevant documents, prefaced by his discussion of the marquis’ efforts to reform military obligations through parliaments. Bollettino storico-bibliografico subalpino, cxiii

J. Bugbee offers a new interpretation of the steps in Canto IX of Dante’s Purgatorio: not an image of the three parts of penance, but rather (with the sill) a reflection of Augustine’s four-stage history of the human will (innocence, sin, restoration and confirmation). Speculum, xc

M. Zabbia studies the Cronica imagines mundi of the Dominican friar Iacopo d’Acqui, focusing on his working methods: his taste for ‘novelistic’ inserts, his use of multiple sources without mechanical copying, and his non-linear interpretation of history. Bollettino storico-bibliografico subalpino, cxiii

There is only one surviving judicial register from the central institutions of the marquisate of Monferrato in the fourteenth century (1323–5) and P. Buffo presents a study of it, along with a transcription of its contents, examining in turn the political-institutional context, the functioning of the court (mainly dealing with conflicts involving raiding between rural communities) and the vocabulary and rhetoric of the documentation (in the ways that it turned horizontal conflicts into vertical insubordinations). Nuova rivista storica, xcix

The Visconti signoria of Milan has usually been presented as appropriating and exploiting the resources and properties of that city’s archbishopric; so why then, asks A. Cadili, did Archbishop Giovanni Visconti rebuild the archiepiscopal palace? Cadili’s answer becomes a study of the ways in which Visconti interpreted his ecclesiastical role, promoting cults and relations with the mendicant friars, as well as of the location, scale, appearance and decoration of Visconti’s several palaces. Nuova rivista storica, xcix

Webs, hives and nests: B. Figliuolo proposes a new typology of late medieval cities: those connected to commercial networks, those that were centres of production, and those that attracted foreign goods and traders. Bollettino storico-bibliografico subalpino, cxiii

G. Ciappelli fills a gap in knowledge of the Florentine cleric and canon-lawyer, Alberto degli Albizzi (1354–c.1419), narrating his family background, his exile to Padua in the 1370s, his post as secretary to a succession of Avignonese and Pisan popes, his role as ambassador to France, and his contribution to the conclusion of the Schism. Nuova rivista storica, xcix

D. Giusti contrasts two private ricordi from the same fifteenth-century Florentine family (the Gaddi): a priorista, being a list of priors with historical notes and lacking in biographical information, and ricordi, being an amalgam of accounts of business transactions and loans, expenses on diplomatic missions, financial details of marriage and the establishment of a new conjugal household, and an inventory of personal goods. Archivio storico italiano, clxxiii

O.J. Margolis and B.J. Maxson explore the back-story to the Pazzi conspiracy of 1478, noting the efforts of Piero de’ Pazzi to rebuild the Guelf alliance of France, Angevin Naples and Florence in 1461, in defiance of the policy of Cosimo de’ Medici which favoured the Italian League. Journal of Medieval History, xli

M.P. Zanoboni continues her work of publishing unusual documents from the archives in Milan, with ‘one of the few examples yet found of women present in the building sector in Italy’: of 640 workers paid by the day on digging a canal outside Pavia in 1474–5, 281 were women, in teams led by female ‘captains’ and paid one-third less than the men. Archivio storico italiano, clxxii

Contrary to recent concentration on the role of the state in the economic development of the kingdom of Naples, A. Feniello uses documents from the Florentine Carte Strozziane to illustrate the powerful stimulus that came from the external commercial world. He tells the story of the Medici bank’s penetration of Puglia with ‘the precise objective of co-ordinating the distribution and export of local grain’, in two phases (1470s, and 1480s), the first a partnership with the Strozzi bank and merchants from Amalfi, the second co-ordinated directly by the manager of the Medici bank and making direct contact with local traders. Feniello is further able to identify the plethora of small- and medium-scale producers, the ports, ships and shippers used, and the ultimate destination (Venice). Archivio storico italiano, clxxii

C. James describes the way in which Eleonora of Aragon, duchess of Ferrara, used her letters to her young married daughters, Isabella and Beatrice d’Este, to instruct them in their political and marital responsibilities. Women’s History Review, xxiv

G. Seche examines private libraries in Sardinia in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, surveying the book-collections of professionals (clerics, lawyers, medics) and non-professionals (merchants, nobles), and noting their growing importance as cultural objects. Nuova rivista storica, xcix

G. Caridi penetrates the hagiography of Francesco di Paola (canonised in 1519) to uncover his less prophetic and miraculous diplomatic role at the court of Ferdinand I, king of Naples. Mediterranea: ricerche storiche, xxxiii

In an important article, S.P. Vidal revises Chastel’s interpretation of representations of the Sack of Rome: for Chastel, Vidal argues, there were no contemporary Italian images (‘autocensura’), only German ones of the Sack as a military triumph, thus excluding its interpretation as a massacre. Vidal instead points to Italian texts which use the formula of Hell in describing the Sack, to ambiguities in the imperial propaganda images, and, most importantly, to Italian representations in maiolica, which borrow from the iconography of the Massacre of the Innocents. Archivio storico italiano, clxxiii

R. Cancila shows how foreign merchants were integrated into Sicilian society in the later Middle Ages and early modern period. Mediterranea: ricerche storiche, xxxi (2014)

F. D’Avenia provides a survey and summary of the forces at play in the appointment of bishops for Malta during the period of its rule by the Knights of St John, their interests playing off against those of the popes and the rulers of Sicily and Naples. Journal of Ecclesiastical History, lxvi

‘Tutti ai bagni’: the spread of spa-visiting among European elites in the sixteenth century is the theme of a lengthy yet engaging study by R. Mazzei, focusing on their motivations (a mixture of health, rest, sociability, politics and diplomacy), on the frequent presence of members of the Gonzaga family, and on the spas of Lucca and their role as a diplomatic resource to that city. Archivio storico italiano, clxxii

R. Termotto uses notarial archives to establish the conditions, wages, and seasonal migrations of workers in the Sicilian sugar industry. Mediterranea: ricerche storiche, xxv (2012)

A. Mastrodonato explores the internal and external conflicts so characteristic of early modern Neapolitan guilds. Mediterranea: ricerche storiche, xxvii (2013)

Construction of a ‘crescent’ of aristocratic palaces along the port in seventeenth-century Messina, and the relation between space and the representation of power, is the object of a study by M.C. Calabrese. Nuova rivista storica, xcix

Diplomatic representation among the Italian early modern states has been studied afresh in recent years, but personal meetings between Italian rulers have not, claims A. Cont, who presents a study of the reasons, modes and practicalities of meetings among Po Valley princes, 1659–1701, concentrating on the incognito meetings. Nuova rivista storica, xcix

In the 1720s, villagers of Perosa in the Piedmontese Alps came forward to testify against their parish priest for sexual molestation and misuse of charitable funds. M. Bettassa gives a full account of all the testimony, pro and contra, and places the trial in the context of jostling for power within the village elite. Bollettino storico-bibliografico subalpino, cxiii

L. Craxi charts the rise from local to island-wide power and eminence (as dukes of Villarosa) of the Notarbartolo family in the seventeenth to eighteenth centuries. Mediterranea: ricerche storiche xxiv (2012)

N. Cusumano shows how government censors in eighteenth-century Sicily were more exercised by publications that upheld feudal privilege than by emanations of the philosophical Enlightenment. Mediterranea: ricerche storiche, xxi (2011)

R. Cancila examines Bourbon legislation of the 1780s attempting to break up large estates and reduce baronial feudalism in Sicily, and thereby sheds light on the background to the Constitution of 1812. Mediterranea: ricerche storiche, xxvi (2012)

V. Mellone discusses the role of radical groups from Reggio Calabria in the Italian revolution of 1848. Mediterranea: ricerche storiche, xxxv (2012)

E. Fiocchi studies two lawyers from nineteenth-century Piedmont who had decisive influence over the law on watercourses. Bollettino storico-bibliografico subalpino, cxiii

F. Fasari examines the economic motives leading to emigration from Southern Italy to Africa before 1914, especially to Algeria, Egypt, and Tunisia. International History Review, xxxvii

G. Turi surveys the teaching of history at the Istituto di studi superiori, Florence, between 1865 (the arrival of Pasquale Villari) and 1925 (the departure of Gaetano Salvemini): its connections to literature, its civic purpose, its place in Florentine cultural aspirations, its objects and methods. Archivio storico italiano, clxxii

Using unpublished documents from Naples, L. Musella examines Giustino Fortunato’s views on southern Italian brigandage during the years of Unification. Nuova rivista storica, xcix

The demographic effects of the 1918 flu epidemic on Italy are investigated by M. Gennaio, using a range of contemporary sources, noting the variant estimates of mortality, the possible predominance of deaths among women, and the uneven geographical distribution. Nuova rivista storica, xcix

W.L. Adamson calls for a new approach to the Italian fascist ‘sacralisation of politics’ which takes into account fascism’s relationship with the Catholic Church and popular religiosity. The idea of fascism as a ‘political religion’, he argues, is based on an outmoded conception of secularisation. Contemporary European History, xxiii (2014)

Fascist promotion of arms exports by Italian firms to China, 1929–37, were hampered by those firms’ financial and entrepreneurial weaknesses, and dependence on diplomats’ informal relations, argues N. Serri, drawing on papers of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Nuova rivista storica, xcix

Mussolini’s declaration of war against Great Britain and France in June 1940 is reinterpreted by A. Gin as neither incoherent, opportunistic nor bellicose, but as an attempt to ‘preserve a crumbling balance of power’ and Italy’s ‘precarious situation’; he refers to the state of Italy’s armed forces, and to Ciano’s diplomatic initiatives and negotiations, which Mussolini endorsed. Nuova rivista storica, xcviii

Pietro Quaroni, Italian ambassador to Moscow 1944–7 and to Paris from 1947, made his ‘most interesting contribution’ to Italian post-war diplomacy, according to L. Monzali, in his critique of Rome’s attempt to retain political control of African territories, opposing the colonialist traditions of the Foreign Affairs Ministry. Quaroni’s views in those years are extensively quoted, from published documents. Nuova rivista storica, xcix

Arguing that academic study of the journalist and anti-communist campaigner Indro Montanelli is lacking, F. Robbe reconstructs his attitudes to the USA in the period between his months there as correspondent for the Corriere della Sera in 1953 to the revolt of Budapest in 1956, mentioning his critique of American conformism and egalitarianism, his discussions with the US ambassador in Rome (Luce), and the evolution of his responses to the Atlantic political-military umbrella. Nuova rivista storica, xcix

A. Iandolo argues that the problems of the Italian Communist Party in 1956 were not—as commonly supposed—due to events in Hungary and the Soviet Union, but rather to the failure of the PCI in adapting to rapid economic development and growing prosperity. Contemporary European History, xxiii (2014)

I. Favretto considers strikes and demonstrations by Italian workers in Italy from the 1950s to the 1970s, highlighting how managers were mocked and insulted and subjected to mock-trials, suggesting that that this was ‘an aggressive and punitive brand of that rowdy festive culture, a form of folk justice which originated in the middle ages’, notably the charivari and scampanata. Examples can also be found from the early twentieth century. Past and Present, no. 228

C. Stanciu examines the relations between the Communist Parties of Italy and Romania in the 1960s, and their attempts to find common ground against Moscow’s efforts to reassert its control of world communism; they failed in the aftermath of the Prague Spring. Nuova rivista storica, xcix

Middle East

M.S. Fulton discusses the way in which both Crusading and Muslim armies used stone-throwing machines which could be dismantled for carriage. The Byzantines were accustomed to transport siege machinery, and by the mid-twelfth century there is evidence for Muslim forces doing so, with Damascus used as an arsenal. Richard I used prefabricated siege engines on his crusade, and in the thirteenth century Baybars had such machines in large numbers. Journal of Medieval Military History, xiii

R.G. Khamisy discusses the Arabic terms employed in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries for the sappers and miners (naqqabīn) used specifically for siege operations, and the masons (ḥajjārīn) who, among other tasks, were employed to weaken walls by removing stones from them. Journal of Medieval Military History, xiii

Little is known about the role of the Teutonic Knights in the final siege of Acre in 1291, which has sometimes been blamed on a cover-up by chroniclers: against this, H.-E. Mayer explains that they had had difficulty finding a new Master for their Order and this weakened their leadership. Deutsches Archiv, lxx

B. Saletti excavates the historical origin and development of two Christian holy places in Egypt visited by western pilgrims: the Coptic church of Saint Mary ‘of the Cave’ (where the holy family allegedly stayed following their flight to Egypt), and the garden of Matarea (a miraculous spring, in which Mary allegedly washed Jesus, and a garden of balsam). The fourteenth century is presented as key to both sites, and there are interesting comments on the sharing of sacred space at Matarea between Christians and Muslims. Nuova rivista storica, xcviii

M.A. Extremera reviews attempts to establish Turkish printing in the Ottoman empire and asks what cultural factors impeded the development of a print culture there. Mediterranea: ricerche storiche, xxv (2012)

G.C. McIntosh closely examines the relatively neglected second world map, known as the map of 1528, by the celebrated Ottoman admiral Piri Reis. Mediterranea: ricerche storiche, xxxiv

P. Hill throws new light on a group of translators working in Damietta around 1800–1822, sponsored by a wealthy Syrian merchant, who rendered scientific, historical and fictional texts from Greek, French and other languages into Arabic. The translations themselves are considered, as is their impact on both the Greek enlightenment, contemporary work in Constantinople, and contacts between the Ottoman–Arabic and European intellectual worlds. Intellectual History Review, xxv

D. Iner examines the struggles of women to participate in print culture in late Ottoman society: she gives an overview of the circumstances in which women’s magazines and women authors emerged between 1840 and 1920, before considering why such publications were short-lived. She argues that Halide Edib, who had a successful print career, was able to do so because she (exceptionally) did not restrict herself to ‘women’s issues’. Women’s History Review, xxiv

M. Suonpäa examines the reorganisation of the Ottoman Turkish customs administration by the British official Sir Richard Crawford, who was appointed as an adviser in 1909. The article emphasises the obstacles and limits to Crawford’s success. International History Review, xxxvii

G. Nordbruch looks at the experiences of Arab students (principally from Egypt and Syria) in Weimar Germany. Journal of Contemporary History, xlix (2014)

M. Halevi explores the complicated archaeological, religious, political and social contexts of the rebuilding of the church of Gethsemane, Jerusalem, in the 1920s. Historical Journal, lviii

Female suicide was a major issue of public debate in early republican Turkey. N. Maksudyan argues that early twentieth-century reforms allowed women only restricted agency, and that suicide was interpreted (in both sociology and psychology) as a challenge to the control which the state sought to exert over female bodies. Women’s History Review, xxiv

‘To be sure, petitioning reflected rather than caused that decline in the League’s legal usefulness’, N. Wheatley ruefully concedes at the end of her consideration of the changing rhetoric of petitioning to the League of Nations by Jews and Arabs in Mandate Palestine. Past and Present, no. 227

G. Rubin explores the ‘enduring complexity’ of Hannah Arendt’s thinking about Zionism, c.1940–48. He argues that her rejection of both a Jewish and a bi-national state was informed by her commitment to federal solutions in the post-war world. Contemporary European History, xxiv

R. Giladi finds that Israel was surprisingly reluctant to ratify the UN Refugee Convention, in part because Israel’s raison d’être was as a state of refuge. International History Review, xxxvii

G. Heimann argues that the US—primarily out of respect for the UN—led the international opposition before the Six-Day War to recognising Jerusalem as the capital of Israel. International History Review, xxxvii

Netherlands and Belgium

J.-F. Nieus argues that previous scholars have been wrong to dismiss the seal and signet of Robert the Frisian, count of Flanders, as forgeries. The late eighteenth-century monk Charles Dewitte, who reproduced them in his ‘Grand cartulaire’ of Saint-Bertin, was accurate in his drawing; therefore Robert the Frisian was the first count of Flanders known to have used a seal. Furthermore, this seal showed a mounted soldier holding up his sword, almost certainly in approximate imitation of the similar seal produced for William the Conqueror a little earlier. Robert’s seal carried the inscription ‘signum incliti marchionis Flandrie’, and became the exact model for all his successors’ seals until the 1130s. Cahiers de civilisation médiévale, lviii

R. Pokorny is able to show that the eleventh-century Annales Formoselenses from Voormezeele near Ypres made use of the Zürich version of the Annales Alamannici down to 888. Deutsches Archiv, lxx

In a sociological essay, F. Buylaert sees the nobility and urban elites of late medieval Flanders as increasingly bound together, not unlike the model put forward by Philip Jones in The Italian City-State (1997). Urban elites bought rural land but did not withdraw from commerce or from the urban economy. There was no trahison de la bourgeoisie. Noblemen invested in Ghent, Bruges and Ypres and increasingly sat on city councils. Heiresses to seignories might be married to wealthy merchants. The nobility was open to new members. Past and Present, no. 227

J.M.M. van de Ven discusses new evidence in rediscovered letters and texts regarding the mysterious visit of Spinoza to French-occupied Utrecht in 1673, with particular reference to the role of Jean Baptiste Stouppe, the Swiss officer in French service. The true reasons for this attempt at diplomacy are still not clear, but the risks Spinoza took both in crossing enemy lines and in facing a hostile crowd on his return are confirmed. Intellectual History Review, xxv

In an intriguing paper which needed more intensive copy-editing and a clearer thrust, D. van der Heuvel reflects on the prosecution of illegal street-trading in eighteenth-century Dutch towns, claiming that historians have placed too much emphasis on flexibility and ‘negotiation’. Membership of gilds was expensive, preventing many from securing mandatory licences to trade. Regulations were tightly framed and enforced vigorously by gilds, especially against Jews and women. Arrests could lead to embarrassment and confiscation of goods. And yet ‘negotiation’ and leniency come back into the story: if magistrates convicted male strangers, they were markedly less keen to punish deserving poor local people. Historical Journal, lviii

L. Jensen uses three anthologies of occasional poems published in 1748 to celebrate the Peace of Aachen (and commemorate the centenary of the Peace of Münster) to excavate the development of a popular Orangism that was centred on the presence of the stadtholder—Willem IV, appointed in 1747 after the travails of the Second Stadtholderless Period. Tijdschrift voor Geschiedenis, cxxviii

An outbreak of rinderpest in the Austrian Netherlands in 1769 provides F. van Roosbroeck with an opportunity to explore the differences between the lay knowledge of the kooimeesters (one might say, cow whisperers) and the—unsuccessful—experiments of academic doctors in attempting to find a cure. Although neither could supply a speedy cure, the greater success and availability of the kooimeesters meant that the state relied upon them. Tijdschrift voor Geschiedenis, cxxviii

Ranging widely from the late Middle Ages to the twentieth century, D.R. Curtis, in his study of two contrasting rural areas in the Low Counties, shows that the consolidation of landed property in fewer hands did not necessarily lead to population decline or migration to the cities. Historical Research, lxxxvii (2014)

H. De Lannoy contributes to the neglected topic of local party politics in nineteenth-century Belgium with a useful article (in Dutch) on the gradual emergence of the Liberal and Catholic parties in Mechelen (Malines) in the 1830s and 1840s. Journal of Belgian History, xlv

S. Huygebaert analyses (in English) the development of a cult of the constitution in Belgium after the revolution of 1848. Symbolised most visibly by the Column built in Brussels, this cult came to have a significant impact on Belgian political culture. Journal of Belgian History, xlv

State policy towards foreign immigrants to Belgium in the period from 1830 to 1914 is the subject of a co-authored article (in Dutch) by A. Coppens and E. Debackere. Policy was messy and confused, and above all local. Journal of Belgian History, xlv

I. Devos and T. Van Rossem study, in an important co-authored article (in English), patterns of mortality in ten Belgian towns and cities across the period from 1846 to 1910. Their general conclusion regarding the higher mortality in cities is nuanced substantially by study of the differences between cities and between different sections of the population. Journal of Belgian History, xlv

The issue of begging and vagabondage in Belgium from 1890 to 1910 is the subject of a co-authored article (in Dutch) by R. Vercammen and V. Vanruysseveldt. In a theme familiar to much Belgian history, local variations in policy prevailed over any general state policy. Journal of Belgian History, xlv

The distinguished Flemish historian L. Wils contributes (in Dutch) an article which usefully summarises his recent book on the emergence of the sense of an anti-Belgian Flemish movement in Flanders during the German Occupation of 1914–18. Journal of Belgian History, xlv

In an important article, with wider implications, A. Vrints writes perceptively about the strategies deployed by Belgian workers and others in German-occupied Belgium between 1914 and 1918, to respond to food shortages. Raids on the countryside, strikes, and direct action of a variety of forms contradict the all-pervasive image of a population who become the impotent victims of the Occupation authorities. European History Quarterly, xlv

J. Naert makes an important contribution to the history of Resistance, by analysing (in Dutch) the development of the Independence Front in the city of Gent during the Occupation of 1940–44. He rightly emphasises the political pluralism which existed within the movement in the city, as well as the way in which it served locally as a vehicle for wider hopes of political and social renewal. Journal of Belgian History, xlv

A. Vrints and D. Luyten supply a significant reassessment of the importance of the April–May Strikes of 1943—a series of protest strikes that were provoked by the German reimprisonment of all Dutch POWs in the spring of that year. Tijdschrift voor Geschiedenis, cxxviii

J. Deboeuf makes a new contribution to a much-studied subject by analysing (in Dutch) in concrete detail the drafting by King Leopold III of his so-called Testament Politique in January 1944. This substantial and intransigent document would embitter relations between the king and the government, as well as contributing substantially to his subsequent political reputation. Journal of Belgian History, xlv

Electoral propaganda in the Netherlands from 1922 until the 1960s sought to ascribe to women voters a uniform, stereotypical political identity, as mothers and housewives. H. Kaal argues that the dominant confessional parties emphasised the need for women to be ‘educated’ about politics, in order to ‘understand’ that their party-political identity was to be based on characteristics such as class and religious affiliation, and not on ideological conviction or persuasion. These trends were challenged by second-wave feminism from the late 1960s onwards. Women’s History Review, xxiv

J. Gijbels writes (in Dutch) about the development of the Royal Flemish Theatre during the development of Flemish nationalist sentiments in the 1960s and 1970s. Its role as a perceived institution of Flemish emancipation defined its identity, but also restricted its artistic development. Journal of Belgian History, xlv

Beginning with a ‘bloodbath’ perpetrated by the Dutch in the Javan village of Rawagede in 1947, C. Lorenz situates Dutch methods of coming to terms with the nation’s colonial past and the injustices it committed in relation to the German Vergangenheitsbewältigung; and concludes that the former have less recourse to ideas of human rights and historical truth. Tijdschrift voor Geschiedenis, cxxviii

Museum politics provides D. Silverman with a way of probing Belgium’s understanding of its relations with Africa. A rich piece. Journal of Modern History, lxxxvii

Russia, South-East Europe and Byzantium

L. Rădvan surveys perspectives on the emergence of urban centres in the medieval Romanian principalities, with special reference to interpretations of the roles played by natives and foreigners. Anuarul Institutului de istorie ‘A.D. Xenopol’, li

M. Maksudoğlu rails against the use in Western historiography of non-equivalent terms for Ottoman historical institutions (e.g. ‘state’ for devlet, ‘imperial’ for humayun, ‘minister’ for vizir, ‘poll-tax’ for cizye), insisting on their original Arabic meanings. Revista istorică, xxv

Using sixteenth-century Ottoman tax registers, A. Popescu has drawn up a list and map of 123 localities in the kaza of Hırsova on the right bank of the Lower Danube (today’s Hârşova, Romania) leading to broader considerations on the nature of settlement and Ottoman control of the region. Studii şi materiale de istorie medie, xxxiii

A special issue is devoted to aspects of the environmental history of Russia and the Soviet Union. A conceptual introduction by J. Oldfield, J. Lajus and D. Shaw is followed by seven articles: D. Moon (the Steppe environment, with particular focus on the genetic soil science of V. Dokuchaev in the 1870s–80s); A. Kraikovski (north Russia’s marine environment in the seventeenth century); A. Fedotova (insect infestation in south Russia in the late nineteenth century); E. Johnson (food entitlements and the Russian famine of 1891); D. Shaw (the role of geographers in the ‘Great Stalin Plan for the Transformation of nature’, 1948–53); N. Breyfogle (the early years of lake Baikal environmentalism, 1958–61); M. Elie (the contribution of Soviet soil scientists to the global desertification debate, 1968–91). Slavonic and East European Review, xciii

S.P. Papageorgiou explores the career of Vaso Brajović, Christian Montenegrin chieftain who served in the Ottoman army and then transferred to the Greek Revolution, ending his career as a major political and military figure in the Kingdom of Greece. Mediterranea: ricerche storiche, xxxii (2014)

M. Chiper reconstructs an unfulfilled project from the 1880s to bring ethnic Romanians from Oltenia to Iaşi to displace the Jewish population of the city, which sheds light on economic ideas and antisemitic attitudes in the post-independence period. Anuarul Institutului de istorie ‘A.D. Xenopol’, li

J. Choi argues that the sharp rise in the number of fires in peasant communities in late imperial Russia is explained by high pay-outs from zemstvo (local government) mandatory insurance policies. Slavonic and East European Review, xciii

Phylloxera devasted vines in Bessarabia in the 1880s and 1890s. A. Kovalevskii, a leading embryologist, urged the use of pesticide, carbon disulphide, long after it had been shown to be useless in western Europe. In doing so, S.V. Bittner shows, he was putting too much faith in the infallibility of modern science in coming up with a straightforward cure and mistakenly viewing the challenge of phylloxera through Darwinian spectacles as a struggle between species, in this case between European and American grapes. Yet the only solution was to replace infected vines by grafting European scions on to American rootstock, an expensive process, and one that appeared to compromise the purity of Russian grapes. Past and Present, no. 227

K. Windle gives an account of the career of the Russian radical Peter Simonoff, focusing on his role as unofficial Soviet representative to Australia between 1918 and 1921. The author also provides an English-language translation of Simonoff’s own short account of his time as Soviet representative (originally published in Russian in 1922). Slavonic and East European Review, xciii

A. Rappas makes a good case for transnational and entangled histories of imperialism by exploring the patterns of emulation and cross-fertilisation that occurred between the British authorities in Cyprus and the Italian authorities in the Dodecanese from the 1920s to the end of the 1930s. Imitation went along with attempts to emphasise distinctiveness. European History Quarterly, xlv

A. Krylova introduces a forum on the influence of Stephen Kotkin’s Magnetic Mountain (1995) and Soviet modernity; C. Rosenberg focuses on the question of migration and population policy; D. Sweeney places Soviet ‘modernity’ within a broader European context, especially making comparisons with fascist regimes; A. Zimmerman assesses the influence of Foucault on Kotkin’s work. Contemporary European History, xxiii (2014)

O. Khromeychuk examines the recruitment of Ukrainians into the German armed forces and auxiliary bodies and the range of circumstances which led them to do so. She examines some well-known units and other less so. History, c

Presenting recent events in Ukraine as a test for the law that history does not repeat itself, E. Di Rienzo surveys the great-power absorptions, occupations and ‘liberations’ of Ukraine from 1918 onwards, seeing continuities both in geopolitical strategies and in internal politics (Bandera’s nationalism revived in contemporary paramilitary groups), and then reviews the international responses to Russian military action in 2014, seeing them as a decline of the ‘new world order’. Nuova rivista storica, xcviii

Various aspects of Romanian history under socialism are treated, including policy for the reconstruction of Bucharest in 1948–52 (M. Olteanu), the adaptation of Romanian historiography to the Soviet model (M. Stroe), the leadership’s policy on ‘the youth problem’, 1968–71 (C. Stanciu), and the role of the Academy of Social Sciences in Ceauşescu’s ‘new freeze’ of the 1970s (C. Popa). Studii şi materiale de istorie contemporană, xiii

C. Stanciu examines Romania’s role in preventing the world communist movement from condemning China, as the Soviet Union wished, in the late 1960s. The Romanian leader Nicolae Ceauşescu’s approach ‘sought to encourage Moscow’s weaknesses in order to preserve Romania’s autonomy’. Contemporary European History, xxiii (2014)

In 1966, the Communist regime of Nicolae Ceauşescu banned abortion and restricted access to birth control and sex education in Romania. A. Andrei and A. Branda discuss the political context of these pro-natalist policies, and the suffering caused: thousands of women sought illegal abortions, often with damaging—or fatal—consequences. Women’s History Review, xxiv

Was Romania’s position in the Warsaw Pact that of a ‘rebel ally’ of Moscow or of a Trojan horse in Western affairs? S.B. Kelner uses this question to frame her study of Romania’s relations with the Iranian Islamic Republic, focusing on the Revolution and the Iran–Iraq War, and concluding that Romanian independence from Moscow was an attempt to secure political and commercial benefits for the Ceauşescu regime. Nuova rivista storica, xcvii

The orientation of Russian dissident autobiographical texts is analysed by B. Nathans. Journal of Modern History, lxxxvii


In a very worthwhile article, K. Nicholson experiments with reproduction whorls and spindles based on those found in eighth-century Ribe, in western Jutland. The tests establish which weights and shapes of whorl are most suitable for the spinning of particular types of thread. Comparative tests on Neolithic and Bronze Age shaped whorls indicate that they are more efficient at producing thread of a range of types. The whorls from Ribe would have been quite suitable for spinning the gauge of thread found in the textiles excavated at the site, hitherto thought likely to have been imported from elsewhere. Medieval Clothing and Textiles, xi

In a carefully argued re-examination of three Viking age burials in Western Norway, I. ØyIe demonstrates that the fine-quality woollen textiles, once considered to have been imported into Norway, are likely to have been of local production. Medieval Clothing and Textiles, xi

D. Sväborg, lamenting the lack of attention to the writing of history in medieval Sweden, attacks the view that the lists of kings in the Icelandic Langfeðgatal, a twelfth-century genealogy, were simply derived from the several surviving Swedish lists of monarchs. He argues persuasively that the Langfeðgatal also drew substantially on native Icelandic sources, including a strong oral tradition whose traces can be found in runic inscriptions and skaldic works. Historisk Tidskrift, cxxxv

Drawing on a range of Old Norse sources, H. Pires casts doubt on the historicity of the expedition that, according to the Heimskringla, Óláfr Haraldsson, king of Norway, supposedly undertook to Tui and Gibraltar. En la España medieval, xxxviii

In a special edition, a series of authors consider various aspects of money in Swedish history. R. Edvinsson and B. Franzén survey medieval Swedish money and minting, stressing the importance of the distinction between mark penningar, the money of account, and mark silver, the actual coins. They look at the hiatus in the minting of Swedish coins for over a century after 1030 (in contrast to Norway and Denmark), analyse the establishment of a silver economy in Sweden, and consider its consequences. Historisk Tidskrift, cxxxv

In 1220 an apparently insignificant fight occurred at Helgastaðir in Iceland, when Bishop Guðmundr Arason and his followers were attacked. O. Falk uses the event to provide both a general discussion of Icelandic sources and a wide-ranging analysis of the political and social background of the conflict between a reformist bishop and the secular elite. Journal of Medieval Military History, xiii

K. Lenz examines the disappearance of leprosy from Denmark in the later Middle Ages. The disease is found in more than a quarter of the known skeletons from 1100–1530, but appears to dwindle, first in towns and then in rural areas. It has been argued that this decline had something to do with the isolation of patients in leprosy hospitals, but such an explanation can be questioned on the grounds that the disease has a long period of contagion before clear symptoms appear. It seems more likely that the spread of tuberculosis during this same period would have tended to remove latent leprosy sufferers. Historisk Tidsskrift, cxv

G. Jacobsen examines the content of fifty-four printed funeral orations and sermons from the period 1565–1610, all relating to high-status nobles (men and women). As we would expect, these texts focus on family lineage, and although twenty-two women are represented, they are given significantly less detail on official positions and public life. Historisk Tidsskrift, cxv

C. Pihl interestingly considers women’s work in sixteenth-century Sweden, but the attempt to link women’s work to state formation promises more than it delivers. Historical Journal, lvii

In a welcome and refreshing account of alternative systems of coinage in the early modern period, P. Forsberg looks at the multifarious purposes of the tally-sticks that were widely used in the Swedish rural economy as a money of account. Drawing on anthropology and theories of accounting, Forsberg shows how notches on sticks were used to calculate contributions to common obligations, such as harvest or milling, in an egalitarian manner, and provides a useful account of an economy that flourished beyond the reach of analyses based on the purely monetary measures deployed in most accounts by economic historians. Historisk Tidskrift, cxxxv

J. Lindström and A. Mispelaere tackle with gusto the formidable problems facing analysis of wage-labour in seventeenth-century Sweden, where a general shortage of specie meant that wages were often paid irregularly, and were only partially paid in cash. They consider the complex structure of payments in cash and kind to wage-labourers, both female and male, and draw some important conclusions concerning the role of wage-labour in the early-modern Swedish economy. Historisk Tidskrift, cxxxv

Palaeopathology is a growing subdiscipline of history; J. Widenberg uses its techniques to devise a five-stage method for the retrospective diagnosis of Rinderpest in eighteenth-century Sweden, based on the detailed descriptions of cattle disease in the documents she has studied. Her method is designed to distinguish Rinderpest from the many other cattle diseases the sources describe, and is intended to provide a model for other investigations of animal illnesses. The difficulties are considerable—Rinderpest went under ninety-one separate names in eighteenth-century France—but Widenburg builds a thoughtful case in support of her method. Historisk Tidskrift, cxxxv

J. Svenningsen’s article on publicly accessible art collections in Copenhagen during the Napoleonic Era argues that the period saw the opening of many private galleries as a gesture of patriotism and in order to educate public taste—an unsurprising cocktail of nationalism and proto-democratisation. This is, he suggests, a response to the moribund character of the royal collection and the pioneering example of the Moltke Gallery, opened in 1804. These private collections, representative of conventional eighteenth-century Danish taste, were subsequently sold off or absorbed into national collections, blinding us to the significant role of private collections in the democratisation of art in the nineteenth century. Journal of the History of Collections, xxvii

In an interesting article, P. Winton analyses the investments of a range of charitable institutions such as orphanages, schools and hospitals in the Swedish National Debt during the Napoleonic Wars. Long-term government bonds offered interest of around 5 per cent; the income was used for welfare purposes. Unlike private investors, institutions tended to hold onto their bonds. By 1800 thousands of bonds were circulating in Sweden, but the government suspended sales in 1804 owing to increased liquidity caused by the war; institutions had to find other sources of income, and many did not go back to buying bonds when sales were reinstated in 1808, thereby increasing the challenges faced by the royal government. Historisk Tidskrift, cxxxv

N. Götz examines British voluntary humanitarian aid to Sweden in 1808–9, underlining the inefficiency of the distribution process. International History Review, xxxvii

P. Jonsson and K. Lilja examine strategies for dealing with the shortage of money in an original article that shows how second-hand clothes and textiles were used as a store of value and as credit in nineteenth-century Sweden. Although their value was falling in relative terms, textiles and clothes remained an important medium of exchange throughout the period. Historisk Tidskrift, cxxxv

K. Enflo and J.R. Rosés examine unusual patterns of regional income inequality in Sweden in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. In contrast to other countries, Sweden experienced declining inequality from 1860, with the result that today regional income inequality is lower in Sweden than other European nations. One of the main forces in Sweden’s case was internal migration of labour in response to changing employment opportunities in different regions. Economic History Review, lxviii

Close ties are uncovered between the main participants in the first international conference on wireless radiotelegraphic communication, held in Berlin in 1906, and key private companies able to influence government policy, in an article by K. Lykkebo which focuses on Danish perspectives in relation to the interests of the major powers in the early years of the twentieth century. Historisk Tidsskrift, cxv

The Danish constitutional changes of 1915 are re-examined by N.J. Koefoed, with particular focus on the extension of the vote to women and other persons with no independent household. Women’s voting rights were part of wider debates from 1886 on the nature of Danish democracy and gender roles, yet parliamentary discussion was framed firmly within traditional notions of household and society. Historisk Tidsskrift, cxv

A partly personal, partly historiographical plea is made by B. Blüdnikow regarding historical research on the Jewish question in Denmark, 1933–45, suggesting that Danish historians may need to become more aware of international perspectives. Historisk Tidsskrift, cxv

Sweden’s neutrality during the Second World War has left an awkward legacy for many contemporary Swedes. B. Almgren’s article on Nazi propaganda directed at Sweden, which draws on the mass of material in German and Swedish sources, prods vigorously at this controversial sleeping dog. She reveals the role played by the DAAD, the Deutsches Akademie, and other German institutions that have tended to remain silent about activities they would rather forget. She examines the work of the Svensk-Tyska Förening, founded in 1913, and the Uppsala-based Svensk-Tyska Sällskapet, which largely welcomed, and did much to propagate, a Nazi approach that appealed to supposedly common Teutonic values based on language, history, and mythology. Although many Swedes rejected the propaganda, its appeal was greater than modern Swedes might wish. Historisk Tidskrift, cxxxv

M.T. Tureby re-examines Swedish attitudes to refugees and concentration-camp survivors in 1945 through an examination of three Scanian newspapers, concluding that national and gender perspectives need to be deployed to understand contemporary reactions. Historisk Tidskrift, cxxxv

The difficulties that contemporary governments face in determining ethnic categories is considered by L. Wiklander in a case-study of the categorisation of the Swedish travelling community in the twentieth century. Swedish scholars in the mid-twentieth century argued for the essentially Swedish origins of the travelling folk (who had originally been seen as a degenerate racial remnant of earlier Roma immigrants), before the Swedish government formally adopted the policy of self-identification to rebrand the travellers as part of the Roma community—although in practice this decision rested on a linguistic definition of ethnicity, using the survival of Roma elements in the language of travellers as the basis for their identification as an ethnic minority. Historisk Tidskrift, cxxxv

V. Yliaska argues that Finland’s ‘New Public Management’ administrative reforms since the 1970s represented a new decentralised form of state intervention. Contemporary European History, xxiv

Wissensgeschichte—which looks at the ways in which knowledge changes its nature as it circulates—provides the theoretical basis for D.L. Heidenblad’s account of a 1970s public debate on the future of mankind. This was occasioned by the runaway success of a book by the Swedish biochemist Göst Ehrensvärd that predicted disaster for technologically advanced societies, claiming that humanity faced a drastic drop in population after mass starvation and political turmoil. Historisk Tidskrift, cxxxv

R. Mariager examines how the Danish government attempted to cope with party-political disagreements over details of NATO and US policy towards the eastern bloc (1975–88), noting how those issues had a major impact on the stability of government itself. Historisk Tidsskrift, cxv

O. Sjöström examines 2,207 responses to a survey of conscript memories undertaken after the Swedish parliament voted in 2009 to end a century of national service. He uses theories of materiality and identity-formation to interrogate the attitudes of conscripts to objects, from weapons to uniforms and army-issue underwear, drawing conclusions about the ways in which these objects transformed conscript attitudes and identities. Historisk Tidskrift, cxxxv

Spain and Portugal

T. Deswarte and A. Rauwel usefully summarise the history of the Hispanic rite between the seventh and the late eleventh centuries. They emphasise that under Arab rule the rite developed in many local forms now committed to manuscript everywhere in Spain, except in the Spanish March, which submitted to Roman liturgical influence under Carolingian rule. It was therefore the impact of papal reform policies at the end of the eleventh century which virtually destroyed the rite, despite local resistance. Cahiers de civilisation médiévale, lvii

M.C. Vivancos sheds significant light on the process whereby the Hispanic liturgy was replaced by the Roman liturgy in the Iberian Peninsula, by examining certain manuscripts which were in the possession of the monasteries of San Sebastian de Silos and San Millán de la Cogolia by the second half of the eleventh century. Particularly interesting is the evidence in two San Millán manuscripts for opposition to the change. Cahiers de civilisation médiévale, lviii

T. Deswarte traces the ups and downs of royal liturgy, especially the ceremony of anointing a new king, in Asturias and Léon from 711 to 1109. Although the earliest evidence for anointing anywhere in the West comes from Visigothic Spain in 672, the later Asturian and then Léonese monarchy was not usually understood in a sacred context. This changed notably in the reign of Fernando I, but his innovations were short-lived. Papal intervention under Gregory VII, which was accepted by Alfonso VI, meant the introduction of the Roman rite, along with the distinctive absence of royal anointing. Cahiers de civilisation médiévale, lviii

B.G.E. Wiedemann suggestively reframes the relationship between the papacy and secular rulers in the twelfth century by showing that the papal relationship with the kingdom of Portugal was one of protectio, similar to that granted to monasteries, rather than one of feudal superiority. Journal of Medieval History, xli

C. Aillet exposes the very limited influence of Arabic vocabulary and script on the liturgical practices employed by Andalusi Christians. In twelfth- and thirteenth-century Toledo, where the steadfast adherents of the so-called Mozarabic ritual were to be found, there is clear evidence that many Christians spoke and wrote in Arabic, and consulted Arabic religious texts. Other Andalusi Christians possessed Bibles written in Arabic. On the other hand, despite one contrary example, Latin seems to have remained the language of ritual throughout, almost a badge of Christian identity. Cahiers de civilisation médiévale, lviii

Focusing on the evidence from a number of Navarrese ecclesiastical institutions, A. Aragón Ruano highlights the economic importance of transhumance and livestock breeding between Navarre and Guipúzcoa between the twelfth and fifteenth centuries. En la España medieval, xxxviii

Contrary to previously held belief, M.S. Gros I Pujol argues that the six Mozarab parishes of Toledo, described at the beginning of the thirteenth century, were not based on old ecclesiastical structures. Rather, they were created during the twelfth century to cope with the needs of Christian refugees fleeing al-Andalus, especially during the Almohad period. Cahiers de civilisation médiévale, lviii

The development of a system of public-debt financing by the Crown of Aragon from the 1350s onwards is analysed by J. Fynn-Paul. He shows how the elites of the city (both male and female) were attracted to invest in the violari offered by the Crown, and in the process reinforced the resources of the Crown at the time of its conflicts with Castile. European History Quarterly, xlv

N. Agrait provides a wide-ranging account of Castilian naval activity in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. The shipyards, the galleys and ships themselves, and the post of admiral are all examined, as are most of the naval engagements in which Castilian ships were involved. The battle of 1350 known as Les Espagnols sur Mer does not feature; the importance of this engagement was exaggerated by English chroniclers. Journal of Medieval Military History, xiii

J. Villa Prieto examines the diverse Spanish treatises that were produced to assist the training of urban councillors during the later Middle Ages, and emphasises the extent to which many were influenced by Italian works. En la España medieval, xxxviii

A. Morín analyses the significance of the story of Miriam, who supposedly killed and ate her baby during the siege of Jerusalem, as it was reinterpreted in the Castigos del rey don Sancho IV. En la España medieval, xxxviii

The concepts of marginality and otherness are explored in a late medieval Aragonese-Catalan context by C. Cuadrada. En la España medieval, xxxviii

P. Tartakoff revises the conventional explanation for mass voluntary conversions of Jews to Christianity in Spain in 1391, highlighting that these were not underpinned by a long-standing social intimacy and acculturation particular to Christian Spain, but were rather the product of the same pressures of social marginalisaton that characterised the experiences of Jewish people in northern Europe in the period 1200–1391. Speculum, xc

Focusing on the Castilian wars with Granada (1407–10), the conflict between Fernando I of Aragon and the count of Urgel (1413), and the Portuguese campaign to conquer Ceuta (1415), S. González Sánchez shines a light on the activities, membership and effectiveness of the networks of espionage that were active in the Iberian Peninsula. En la España medieval, xxxviii

L.J. Andrew Villalon provides a full account of the career of the worldly Cardinal Pedro González de Mendoza, concentrating on his military role in war with Portugal, and the final stages of the Reconquista. Other aspects of a remarkable career are also discussed, notably his pluralism, his wealth, his intellectual interests, and his concern for his sons. Journal of Medieval Military History, xiii

J.M. Triano Milán and J. Rodríguez Sarria explore the attempt that was made by the Castilian Crown to collect the pedido tax in Seville in 1454 and the resistance that it engendered. En la España medieval, xxxviii

A. Lozano Castellanos explores the strategy that was pursued by the nobility of Talavera de la Reina in order to strengthen its grip on the government of the town council during the latter half of the fifteenth century. En la España medieval, xxxviii

F. Gálvez Gambero traces the creation and subsequent reform of the Castilian financial bond known as the juro al quitar, which was introduced by the monarchy in 1489 as a means to finance the war with Granada. En la España medieval, xxxviii

The role of the Spanish viceroy in the sixteenth century is seen by A. Musi as both an indispensable structural response to the king’s absence and an impossible combination of two complementary elements, the titular and the managerial, as viceroys were both mirrors of absolute sovereignty and balances or safeguards of territorial interests. Nuova rivista storica, xcviii

An article by A. Blank on Domingo de Soto examines how this sixteenth-century theologian and philosopher tackled the long-running concern of how to balance the charitable demands and natural rights of the poor against the moral obligations on the wealthy, with particular reference to issues of hospitality and vagrancy. Intellectual History Review, xxv

J. Hernández Franco examines the opposition to Olivares’ proposed reforms of the ‘purity of blood’ statutes during the 1620s. Mediterranea: ricerche storiche, xxiv (2012)

J.A. Guillén Berrendero analyses the idea of nobility represented in the works of Rodrigo Mendez da Silva, Portuguese genealogist and chronicler in the reign of Philip IV of Spain. Mediterranea: ricerche storiche, xxx (2014)

N. Alessandrini and A. Viola explore the competitive trading networks established in Portugal by groups of Genoese and Florentines in the second half of the seventeenth century. Mediterranea: ricerche storiche, xxviii (2013)

The hispanocentric universe, as depicted on a baroque monument erected in 1661 in the Palazzo Reale of Palermo, is interpreted by R. Cancila as a theatrical device to express the dominance of the Spanish monarchy and the Catholic faith over the four continents. Rivista storica italiana, cxxvi (2014)

A.M. García exploits the rich records of the Military Ecclesiastical Tribunal of Ferrol (Galicia) to examine cases relating to marriage. Annales de Bretagne, cxxi (2014)

In their memoirs of the Peninsular War British officers described visits to Portuguese convents, and flirtation, and more, with the sisters. J. Hurl-Eamon thinks that the behaviour of officers, but not that of men from lower ranks, was influenced by gothic, erotic and romantic literature. Perhaps some caution is needed before concluding that nuns welcomed such temporary rescue from the tedium of religious seclusion. Historical Journal, lviii

G. Paquette considers six writers in Spain and Portugal c.1825–50. Yet when Iberian political thought is treated as ‘a palimpsest upon which multiple convergent historical traces were imposed’, the difficulty of presenting these writers as examples of what could meaningfully be called a shared ‘romantic liberalism’ is laid bare. Historical Journal, lviii

A. Aguado argues that the Spanish Second Republic, 1931–6, witnessed a ‘progressive reformulation, in feminist terms, of the discourse of Socialist popular culture’. Contemporary European History, xxiii (2014)

V. Cárcel Ortí assesses the action of Eugenio Pacelli as Cardinal Secretary of State under Pius XI in relation to the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War. Revue d’histoire ecclésiastique, cviii

F. Molina challenges the ‘myths’ regarding the experience of the Basque country during the Spanish Civil War and under the Franco regime. He argues that modern Basque nationalism was based on a highly selective narrative which emphasised Basque victimhood and downplayed the political divisions between Basques. Journal of Contemporary History, xlix (2014)

M. Vincent writes interestingly about the position of the Protestant minority in Spain in the immediate post-civil war period. The celebratory discourses of a triumphant Catholicism resulted in their marginalisation, but this also gradually gave way to new discourses of ecumenical rapprochement. As always, Francoism ends up looking more complex than a story of uniform repression. European History Quarterly, xlv

The role that football played during the Francoist dictatorship is considered in a thoughtful article by A. Quiroga. Though the regime determinedly used the sport to serve its definition of Spanish nationalism, this did not entail the obliteration of regional identities, which coexisted within the regime as well as to some extent subverting it. European History Quarterly, xlv

O.J. Martin García and F.J. Rodríguez Jimenéz show how Britain and the USA promoted English language-teaching in Spain during the 1960s and 70s, in order to reduce Anglophobia and anti-Americanism. Contemporary European History, xxiv