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Instructions to authors

  1. Correspondence
  2. Scope
  3. Authorship
  4. Preparation and submission of manuscripts
  5. Language
  6. References and reference list
  7. Illustrations
  8. Supplementary material
  9. Abbreviations and units
  10. Nomenclature
  11. Funding
  12. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses
  13. Randomized controlled trials
  14. Clinical trials registry
  15. Commentaries
  16. Discussion of papers
  17. Proofs
  18. Offprints
  19. Ethical approval human and animal experiments
  20. Copyright
  21. Self-archiving policy from October 2005
  22. Open access option for authors

Please read these instructions carefully and follow them strictly to ensure that the review and publication of your paper is as efficient and quick as possible. The Editors reserve the right to return manuscripts that are not in accordance with these instructions. Papers are accepted on the understanding that they have not been and will not be published elsewhere, and they are subject to editorial revision. All papers submitted for publication in the European Journal of Orthodontics are subject to assessment by independent referees in a double blind review process, in which neither the authors’ nor the reviewers’ identity is revealed.

Researchers should resist slicing studies into small pieces to produce the minimum amount of publishable data. They are encouraged to include data that improves the paper as a whole and forms a well-rounded piece of work.

All material to be considered for publication in the European Journal of Orthodontics should be submitted in electronic form via the journal's online submission website. Please prepare your submission in accordance with the instructions below.


All correspondence relating to publication in the journal should be addressed to

Professor David Rice, Editor (ejo.editorialoffice@oup.com)

The editorial team is open to constructive criticism and suggestions.

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The European Journal of Orthodontics publishes papers of excellence on all aspects of orthodontics including craniofacial development and growth. The emphasis of the journal is on full research papers. Succinct and carefully prepared papers are favoured in terms of impact as well as readability.

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All persons designated as authors should qualify for authorship. The order of authorship should be a joint decision of the co-authors. Each author should have participated sufficiently in the work to take public responsibility for the content. Authorship credit should be based on substantial contribution to conception and design, execution, or analysis and interpretation of data. All authors should be involved in drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content, must have read and approved the final version of the manuscript and approve of its submission to this journal. An email confirming submission of a manuscript is sent to all authors. Any change in authorship following initial submission would have to be agreed by all authors as would any change in the order of authors.

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Preparation and submission of manuscripts

Submission of a paper implies that it reports unpublished work and that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere. Plagiarism, including duplicate publication of the author’s own work, in whole or in part without proper citation is not tolerated by the journal. Submitted manuscripts will be screened with iThenticate software, as part of the CrossCheck initiative to detect and prevent plagiarism. 

Manuscripts should be submitted to the editors via the journal's online submission web site where the authors will be taken through the process step by step. The total size of files uploaded cannot exceed 100MB. See below for submission instructions.


The manuscript text should be submitted in 2 files. The first should bear the names of all authors and their affiliations (no qualifications); from December 2015 authors are asked to use superscript numbers for affiliation designators, instead of asterisks e.g. A. Smith1 and B. Jones2,3. A short running title is required when the full title of the paper exceeds 45 letters. The full 'Address for correspondence', including email address, should also appear in this document. The second file should contain the main body of the text without the authors’ names or affiliations so that the identity of the authors is not disclosed to the referees. Following the title, the text then begins with a Summary (not more than 250 words, except for Randomized controlled trials and Systematic reviews, which have a 330 word limit) followed, where appropriate, by an Introduction, Materials (or Subjects) and Methods, Results, Discussion, Acknowledgement(s), References and Figure Legends. All source files or other files required for processing of the manuscript, e.g. Word doc files and .tex and .bib files for LaTeX submissions.

.doc, .docx or .rtf format are acceptable. Please note concise, well structured and coherent manuscripts are preferred. These would ideally be between 3500 and 5000 words, including figure legends and references, although longer articles can be accepted at the editors’ discretion.

Full corresponding author details, including full name, postal address and email address, plus names and affiliations for all other authors.

The Summary should be in a structured format, and be comprehensible to readers before they have read the paper. It should introduce concisely the subject and aim of the study, highlight the key findings and conclusion and state the importance of the work. It should not contain references. Appropriate subtitles for the Summary include Background/Objectives, Materials/Methods, Results, Limitations, Conclusions/Implications.

Any supplementary material for online-only publication. A manuscript may have additional supporting material that cannot be included within the main manuscript. This may either be because of space reasons, such as long appendices or additional data tables, or because the material is in a multimedia format that cannot be printed (e.g. video/audio clips). This supplementary material can be made available online to accompany the published manuscript. Any supplementary material must also be peer-reviewed, as it forms part of the publication record and is associated with the DOI of the main manuscript.

Articles should have a completed ‘Funding’ statement where applicable from all authors.

Conflict of Interest statement

From June 2016 all manuscripts submitted to EJO must contain a conflict of interest statement, which should be included at the end of manuscript, before the references. Guidance on Conflict of Interests can be found at the following location: http://www.oxfordjournals.org/en/help/faq/authors/conflicts-of-interest.html


All manuscripts should have:

High-resolution versions of figures and illustrations. For more information see the Figure Requirements page.

All figures and tables should be in an editable format so that changes/redrawing and minor edits can be made by the typesetting team if required.

Confirmation of colour requirements – which figures should be published in colour online only or print and online, and whether the author has agreed to pay any applicable charges associated with colour printing.


If previously published tables, illustrations or more than 200 words of text are to be included, then the copyright holder's permission must be obtained. Copies of any such permission letters should be included with the manuscript.

Third-Party Content in Open Access papers

If you will be publishing your paper under an Open Access licence but it contains material for which you do not have Open Access re-use permissions, please state this clearly by supplying the following credit line alongside the material:

Title of content

Author, Original publication, year of original publication, by permission of [rights holder]

This image/content is not covered by the terms of the Creative Commons licence of this publication. For permission to reuse, please contact the rights holder.

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Manuscripts should be in British English. The text should be organised logically, read well and be concise. Particularly if English is not the authors’ first language, the manuscript may well benefit from language editing. This should be done before submission. This is not a mandatory step, but may help to ensure that the academic content of the paper is fully understood by journal editors and reviewers. Language editing does not guarantee that the manuscript will be accepted for publication. If you would like information about such services please click here. There are other specialist language editing companies that offer similar services and you can also use any of these. Authors are liable for all costs associated with such services. Please remember that authors are responsible for an article’s content, including the quality of the language.

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References and reference list

The accuracy of references is the responsibility of the author.

In text: references should be identified in the text by Arabic numerals in rounded parentheses, e.g. (1) or (1, 2) or (1-4) and numbered in the order of appearance in the text. References should normally appear at the end of a sentence with the numbered parentheses followed by a full stop/period, e.g. (1). References of the type Smith (1989) should not be used in the text.

Reference list: All references should be compiled at the end of the article in the Vancouver style (i.e. author-number system) in numerical order of appearance in the text. Complete information should be given for each reference including the title of the article, full journal title, volume and page numbers. For references with more than 10 authors, the first author should be listed, followed by et al. [in italics, followed by full stop/period].
The citation of journals, books, multi-author books and articles published online should conform to the following examples:

1. Gorecki, D.C., Monaco, A.P., Derry, J.M.J., Walker, A.P., Barnard, E.A. and Barnard, P.J. (1992) Expression of four alternative dystrophin transcripts in brain regions regulated by different promoters. Human Molecular Genetics, 1, 505-511.

2. Francis, V. and Bastin, M. (2000) Gene targeting in rat embryo fibroblasts promoted by the polyomavirus large T antigen. Nucleic Acids Research, in press.

3. Maniatis, T., Fritsch, E.F. and Sambrook, J. (1982) Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, Cold Spring Harbor, NY.

4. Huynh, T.V., Young, R.A. and Davis, R.W. (1988) DNA Cloning. In Glover, D.M. (ed.), DNA Cloning - A Practical Approach. IRL Press, Oxford, UK, Vol. 1, pp. 49-78.

5. Qiao, D., Chen, W., Stratagoules, E. and Martinez, J. (2000) Bile acid-induced activation of activator protein-1 requires both extracellular signal-regulated kinase and protein kinase C signaling. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 275, 15090-15098. First published on May 19, 2000, 10.1074/jbc.M908890199

6. Bernhagen, J., Elkine, B., Geiger, G., Tovar, G. and Vitzthum, F. (1999) Patent DE-198198889.2-44; PCT/WO/EP/9

Personal communications (J. Jones, personal communication) must be authorized in writing by those involved, and unpublished data should be cited in the text as (unpublished data).

References to manuscripts submitted, but not yet accepted, should be cited in the text as (B. Jones and L. Smith, manuscript in preparation) and should not be included in the list of references.

Citations of submitted manuscripts should include all authors involved. Authors are encouraged to cite web URLs in parentheses at the appropriate mention in the text.

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IMPORTANT: Please see the Figure Requirements page for full information on preparing figures for submission.

All illustrations including tables should be cited consecutively in the text. Figures should be saved as separate high-resolution image files without their captions (captions should be included with the text of the article). Minimum resolutions are 300 d.p.i. for colour or tone images, and 600 d.p.i. for line drawings. The preferred format is TIFF, but EPS and JPEG formats can also be used. Colour figures should be supplied in CMYK not RGB colours. Font-related problems can be avoided by using standard fonts such as Times Roman and Helvetica. Wherever possible, figures should be submitted in their desired final size, to fit the width of a single column of text (76 mm) or a double column of text (160 mm), and to a maximum height of 160 mm, thereby allowing space for the figure caption. Any lettering should be approximately 2 mm in height and should be in proportion to the overall dimensions of the figure.

Photographs should be of sufficiently high quality with respect to detail, contrast and fineness of grain to withstand the inevitable loss of contrast and detail inherent in the printing process. Line drawings should have clear and sharp lines that are a minimum of 1 point in thickness. Shading used on line drawings should be clear and distinctive; shades of grey will not reproduce well and small patches of white on an otherwise black background are likely to be lost on reproduction. Symbols used in figures should be limited to standard open and closed symbols (circles, squares, triangles and diamonds). Symbols cannot be generated in the legend and should be described rather than indicated by a symbol. Figures and legends should be intelligible without reading the text of the manuscript. Photographs of people must be accompanied by a written consent. Failure to do so will result in the blacking out of the eyes to avoid recognition. Please note that it is not sufficient to use microscope images/slides at a different magnification and allege that they are different images.

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Supplementary material

Only directly relevant experimental data should be included in the full text of manuscripts. Supporting data should be submitted for review as supplementary material, in a separate file from the manuscript, for publication on-line only. Supplementary Material can be published in these formats: .txt, .html, .htm, .jpg, .jpeg, .gif, .mov, .mpg, .avi, .pdf, .xls, .doc, .rtf, .tif.

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Abbreviations and units

All measurements should be expressed in S.I. units except blood pressure which will continue to be expressed in mm Hg.

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Gene names should be in italic type. Protein products should not be italicised. Human genes and loci should be in upper case and Arabic numerals. Nomenclature should be in accordance with established conventions.

For further information please see: Drosophila, HumanMouse, Zebrafish

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Details of all funding sources for the work in question should be given in a separate section entitled 'Funding'. This should appear before the 'Acknowledgements' section.

The following rules should be followed:

  • The sentence should begin: ‘This work was supported by …’
  • The full official funding agency name should be given, i.e. ‘the National Cancer Institute at the National Institutes of Health’ or simply ‘National Institutes of Health' not ‘NCI’ (one of the 27 subinstitutions) or ‘NCI at NIH’ (full RIN-approved list of UK funding agencies) . Grant numbers should be given in brackets as follows: ‘[grant number xxxx]’
  • Multiple grant numbers should be separated by a comma as follows: ‘[grant numbers xxxx, yyyy]’
  • Agencies should be separated by a semi-colon (plus ‘and’ before the last funding agency)
  • Where individuals need to be specified for certain sources of funding the following text should be added after the relevant agency or grant number 'to [author initials]'.

An example is given here: ‘This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health [AA123456 to C.S., BB765432 to M.H.]; and the Alcohol & Education Research Council [hfygr667789].’

Oxford Journals will deposit all NIH-funded articles in PubMed Central. Authors must ensure that manuscripts are clearly indicated as NIH-funded using the guidelines above.

Crossref Funding Data Registry

In order to meet your funding requirements authors are required to name their funding sources, or state if there are none, during the submission process. For further information on this process or to find out more about the CHORUS initiative please click here.

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Systematic reviews and meta-analyses

Systematic reviews and meta-analysis submitted to the EJO are screened for compliance of PRISMA (preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses) guidelines. Therefore, systematic reviews and meta-analyses should be prepared according to PRISMA guidelines. Please download the PRISMA checklist and flow diagram and submit with your article. When submitting your manuscript, click the appropriate box ‘systematic review’.

Summaries for systematic reviews and meta-analyses should be in a structured format and should follow the PRISMA guidelines; when applicable the summary should contain the following subtitles: Background, Objectives, Search methods, Selection criteria, Data collection and analysis, Results, Conclusions, Registration and Conflict of interest. Summaries for systematic reviews should not exceed 330 words.

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Randomized controlled trials

Randomized controlled trials should be prepared according to the CONSORT (consolidated standards of reporting trials) guidelines. Download the CONSORT checklist and flow diagram and submit with your article. When submitting your manuscript, click the appropriate box ‘RCT’.

Summaries for RCTs should be in a structured format and should follow CONSORT guidelines. The summary should include information on Background, Objectives, Trial design, Methods (Participants, Interventions, Objective, Outcome, Randomization, Blinding), Results (Numbers randomized, Recruitment, Numbers analysed, Outcome, Harms), Conclusions, Trial registration, Funding.

Examples of summaries for RCTs can be found on the CONSORT website, as well as in Figure 3 of Fleming PS, Buckley N, Seehra J, Polychronopoulou A, Pandis N. 2012 Reporting quality of abstracts of randomized controlled trials published in leading orthodontic journals from 2006 to 2011. American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics 142: 451-458.

Summaries for RCTs should not exceed 330 words.

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Clinical trials registry

The EJO supports the registration of clinical trials in a clinical trials registry such as www.clinicaltrialsregister.eu/ or www.clinicaltrials.gov. A list of national and international registries can be found at en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clinical_trials_registry. Clinical trials registries usually provide an official catalogue for registering clinical trials which can be accessed by the public free of charge. Clinical trials registries usually provide information on the design of each trial, the sponsor (company or institution), the therapy investigated and the status of the trial. The registration number should be provided in the manuscript methods section, although blocked out during the review process to preserve anonymity of the authors to the reviewers.

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Commentaries are short review reports about original articles published in the EJO. Leading experts are asked to write commentaries after the reviewers of the manuscript have highlighted the high quality of the original article. Commentaries are reserved for articles of particular merit. The original articles are thought to be ground breaking, possibly seminal and are predicted to strongly influence future developments. The commentary will be published together with and will be linked to the original article.

A commentary is a short review of the paper and a short review of the subject. It should state why the subject is important, what are the important recent developments in the field, why the article is noteworthy and give a perspective of where the article fits into the field. Commentaries should have a punchy title and a very short abstract (2-4 sentences). Commentaries should be a maximum 2 printed pages i.e. 500–1200 words and can include one figure (image, schematic diagram or table). References should be kept to a minimum. Commentaries should be submitted with 2–3 months so that they can be published in a timely manner. Commentaries are subject to peer review.

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Discussion of papers

Questions or criticisms concerning recently published papers may be sent to the Editor through the online submission website. The Editor may refer them to the authors. The readers' comments and authors' replies may subsequently be published together. However, whether this correspondence is published is the decision of editor(s). There is no other correspondence section in the Journal.

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Authors will receive a PDF file of the complete paper by email. In the interest of speed, corrections must be returned within 48 hours. No major changes are permissible at this stage and alterations should be restricted to correction of typographical errors. Please check text and figures very carefully. Corrections will not normally be re-printed other than at the expense of the authors.

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The corresponding authors will receive electronic access to their paper free of charge. Additional printed offprints may be purchased using the Oxford Journals Author Services site.

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Ethical approval human and animal experiments

Attention is drawn to the Declaration of Helsinki and the Guiding Principles in the Care and Use of Animals(DHEW Publication, NIH, 80-23). Where applicable, ethical committee approval must have been received and details of such approval included in the text. The editor reserves the right not to accept papers unless adherence to the principles embodied in these documents is apparent.

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It is a condition of publication in the Journal that authors grant an exclusive licence to publish to the European Orthodontic Society. This ensures that requests from third parties to reproduce articles are handled efficiently and consistently and will also allow the article to be as widely disseminated as possible. As part of the licence agreement, Authors may use their own material in other publications provided that the Journal is acknowledged as the original place of publication, and Oxford University Press is notified in writing and in advance.

Authors are reminded that it is their responsibility to comply with copyright laws. It is essential to ensure that no parts of the text or the illustrations have or are due to appear in other journals, without prior permission from the copyright holder.

Upon receipt of accepted manuscripts at Oxford Journals authors will be invited to complete an online copyright licence to publish form.

Please note that by submitting an article for publication you confirm that you are the corresponding/submitting author and that Oxford University Press ("OUP") may retain your email address for the purpose of communicating with you about the article. You agree to notify OUP immediately if your details change. If your article is accepted for publication OUP will contact you using the email address you have used in the registration process. Please note that OUP does not retain copies of rejected articles.

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Self-archiving policy from October 2005

For information about this journal's policy, please visit our Author Self-Archiving policy page.

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Open access option for authors

European Journal of Orthodontics authors have the option to publish their paper under the Oxford Open initiative; whereby, for a charge, their paper will be made freely available online immediately upon publication. After your manuscript is accepted the corresponding author will be required to accept a mandatory licence to publish agreement. As part of the licensing process you will be asked to indicate whether or not you wish to pay for open access. If you do not select the open access option, your paper will be published with standard subscription-based access and you will not be charged. upon publication. After your manuscript is accepted the corresponding author will be required to accept a mandatory licence to publish agreement. As part of the licensing process you will be asked to indicate whether or not you wish to pay for open access. If you do not select the open access option, your paper will be published with standard subscription-based access and you will not be charged.

Oxford Open articles are published under Creative Commons licences.

RCUK/Wellcome Trust funded authors publishing in the European Journal of Orthodontics can use the Creative Commons Attribution licence (CC BY) for their articles.

All other authors may use the following Creative Commons licences:

  • Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial licence (CC BY-NC)
  • Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial No Derivatives licence (CC BY-NC-ND)

More information about the Creative Commons licences.

You can pay Open Access charges using our Author Services site. This will enable you to pay online with a credit/debit card, or request an invoice by email or post. The applicable open access charges vary according to which Creative Commons licence you select. The open access charges are as follows.

Charges for CC BY

  • Regular charge: £2150 / $3400 / €2800
  • Reduced Rate Developing country charge*: £1075 / $1700 / €1400
  • Free Developing country charge*: £0 / $0 / €0

Charges for CC BY-NC/CC BY-NC-ND:

  • Regular charge: £1850 / $3000 / €2450
  • Reduced Rate Developing country charge*: £925 / $1500 / €1225
  • Free Developing country charge*: £0 / $0 / €0

*Visit our Developing Countries page for a list of qualifying countries

Please note that these charges are in addition to any colour charges that may apply.

Orders from the UK will be subject to the current UK VAT charge. For orders from the rest of the European Union, OUP will assume that the service is provided for business purposes. Please provide a VAT number for yourself or your institution, and ensure you account for your own local VAT correctly.

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