The title of this anthology is homage to the well-known fisheries biologist Daniel Pauly; it paraphrases the heading of his 1995 article, “Anecdotes and the Shifting Baselines Syndrome in the Fisheries.” In an essay that marked a turning point in the fisheries science and in marine ecology, Pauly criticized the way depleted fish species were evaluated by scientific expertise and the consequences of these estimations for the management of fisheries and the ecosystem. According to Pauly, fisheries biologists failed to set a precise “baseline” population size, that is, how abundant fish species used to be before human exploitation began; instead, they routinely used the state of the fishery at the start of their careers as a baseline. Since 1995...

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