f1
Correspondence: Andrew Steptoe, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, 1–19 Torrington Place, London WC1E 6BT, U.K.

References

1
Adler
NE
, Marmot M, McEwen BS. Socioeconomic status and health in industrial nations: social, psychological and biological pathways. New York: New York Academy of Sciences; 1999.
2
Marmot
M
, Wilkinson RG. Social Determinants of Health. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 1999.
3
Marmot
MG
, Shipley MJ, Rose G. Inequalities in health: specific explanations of a general pattern?
Lancet
 .
1984
;
i
:
1003
–1006
4
Kaplan
GA
, Keil JE. Socioeconomic factors and cardiovascular disease: a review of the literature.
Circulation
 .
1993
;
88
:
1973
–1998
5
Mackenbach
JP
, Kunst AE, Groenhof F. Socioeconomic inequalities in mortality among women and among men: an international study.
Am J Public Health
 .
1999
;
89
:
1800
–1806
6
Marmot
MG
, McDowall ME. Mortality decline and widening social inequalities.
Lancet
 .
1986
;
2
:
274
–276
7
Davey Smith
G
, Hart C, Hole D. Education and occupational social class: which is the more important indicator of mortality risk?
J Epid Comm Health
 .
1998
;
52
:
153
–160
8
Lynch
JW
, Kaplan GA, Salonen R. Socioeconomic status and carotid atherosclerosis.
Circulation
 .
1995
;
92
:
1786
–1792
9
van Rossum
CT
, van de Mheen H, Witteman JC. Socioeconomic status and aortic atherosclerosis in Dutch elderly people: the Rotterdam Study.
Am J Epidemiol
 .
1999
;
150
:
142
–148
10
Steptoe
A
. Psychophysiological bases of disease. Johnston M, Johnston D. Comprehensive Clinical Psychology Vol. 8: Health Psychology. New York: Elsevier Science; 1998. p. 40–78
11
Power
C
, Manor O, Fox J. Health and Class: the early years. London: Chapman and Hall; 1997.
12
Krieger
N
, Williams DR, Moss NE. Measuring social class in US public health research: concepts, methodologies, and guidelines.
Ann Rev Public Health
 .
1997
;
18
:
341
–378
13
Bartley
M
, Sacker A, Firth D. Understanding social variation in cardiovascular risk factors in women and men: the advantage of theoretically based measures.
Soc Sci Med
 .
1999
;
49
:
831
–845
14
Rozanski
A
, Blumenthal JA, Kaplan J. Impact of psychological factors on the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease and implications for therapy.
Circulation
 .
1999
;
99
:
2195
–2217
15
Wilkinson
RG
. Unhealthy Societies: The afflictions of inequality. London: Routledge; 1996.
16
Macintyre
S
. The Black Report and beyond: what are the issues?
Soc Sci Med
 .
1997
;
44
:
723
–745
17
Manuck
SB
, Flory JD, Ferrell RE. Aggression and anger-related traits associated with a polymorphism of the tryptophan hydroxylase gene.
Biol Psychiatry
 .
1999
;
45
:
603
–614
18
Hewitt
JK
, Turner JR. Behavior genetic studies of cardiovascular responses to stress. Turner JR, Cardon LR, Hewitt JK. Behavior Genetic Approaches in Behavioral Medicine. New York: Plenum Press; 1995. p. 87–103
19
Marmot
MG
, Adelstein AM, Robinson N. Changing social class distribution of heart disease.
BMJ
 .
1978
;
ii
:
1109
–1112
20
Wannamethee
SG
, Whincup PH, Shaper G. Influence of fathers' social class on cardiovascular disease in middle-aged men.
Lancet
 .
1996
;
348
:
1259
–1263
21
Lynch
JW
, Kaplan GA, Salonen JT. Why do poor people behave poorly? Variation in adult health behaviours and psychosocial characteristics by stages of the socioeconomic lifecourse.
Soc Sci Med
 .
1997
;
44
:
809
–819
22
Power
C
, Hertzman C. Social and biological pathways linking early life and adult disease.
Br Med Bull
 .
1997
;
53
:
210
–221
23
Suomi
SJ
. Early determinants of behavior: evidence from primate studies.
Br Med Bull
 .
1997
;
53
:
170
–184
24
Barker
DJP
. Mothers, Babies and Health in Later Life. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone; 1998.
25
Egeland
GM
, Burkhart GA, Schnorr TM. Effects of exposure to carbon disulphide on low density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration and diastolic blood pressure.
Br J Ind Med
 .
1992
;
49
:
287
–293
26
Berliner
JA
, Navab M, Fogelman AM. Atherosclerosis: basic mechanisms, oxidation, inflammation, and genetics.
Circulation
 .
1995
;
91
:
2488
–2496
27
Danesh
J
, Collins R, Peto R. Chronic infections and coronary heart disease: is there a link?
Lancet
 .
1997
;
350
:
430
–436
28
Danesh
J
, Peto R. Risk factors for coronary heart disease and infection with Helicobacter pylori: meta-analysis of 18 studies.
BMJ
 .
1998
;
316
:
1130
–1132
29
Pappas
G
, Hadden WC, Kozak LJ. Potentially avoidable hospitalizations: inequalities in rates between US socioeconomic groups.
Am J Public Health
 .
1997
;
87
:
811
–816
30
Goff
DC
, Feldman HA, McGovern PG. Prehospital delay in patients hospitalized with heart attack symptoms in the United States: the REACT trial.
Am Heart J
 .
1999
;
138
:
1046
–1057
31
Alter
DA
, Naylor CD, Austin P. Effects of socioeconomic status on access to invasive cardiac procedures and on mortality after acute myocardial infarction.
N Engl J Med
 .
1999
;
341
:
1359
–1367
32
Cavelaars
AEJM
, Kunst AE, Mackenbach JP. Socio-economic differences in risk factors for morbidity and mortality in the European Community.
J Health Psychol
 .
1997
;
2
:
353
–372
33
Wardle
J
, Farrell M, Hillsdon M. Smoking, drinking, physical activity and screening uptake and health inequalities. Gordon D, Shaw M, Dorling D, Davey Smith G. Inequalities in Health. Bristol: Policy Press; 1999. p. 213–239
34
Jarvis
M
, Wardle J. Social patterning of individual health behaviours: the case of cigarette smoking. Marmot M, Wilkinson RG. Social Determinants of Health. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 1999. p. 240–255
35
Seidell
JC
, Verschuren WMM, van Leer EM. Overweight, underweight, and mortality: a prospective study of 48,287 men and women.
Arch Intern Med
 .
1996
;
156
:
958
–963
36
Willett
WC
, Manson JE, Stampfer MJ. Weight, weight change, and coronary heart disease in women. Risk within the ‘normal’ range.
JAMA
 .
1995
;
273
:
461
–465
37
Shimakawa
T
, Sorlie P, Carpenter MA. Dietary intake patterns and sociodemographic factors in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study.
Prev Med
 .
1994
;
23
:
769
–780
38
Bennett, N, Dodd, T, Flatley, J, Health Survey for England 1993, London, HMSO, 1995
39
Droomers
M
, Schrijvers CT, van de Mheen H. Educational differences in leisure-time physical inactivity: a descriptive and explanatory study.
Soc Sci Med
 .
1998
;
47
:
1665
–1676
40
Marmot
M
. Income, deprivation, and alcohol use.
Addiction
 .
1997
;
92
:
S13
–S20
41
Lantz
PM
, House JS, Lepkowski JM. Socioeconomic factors, health behaviors, and mortality: results from a nationally representative prospective study of US adults.
JAMA
 .
1998
;
279
:
1703
–1708
42
Lynch
JW
, Kaplan GA, Cohen RD. Do cardiovascular risk factors explain the relation between socio-economic status, risk of all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, and acute myocardial infarction?
Am J Epidemiol
 .
1996
;
144
:
934
–942
43
Wamala
SP
, Mittleman MA, Schenck-Gustafsson K. Potential explanations for the educational gradient in coronary heart disease: a population-based case-control study of Swedish women.
Am J Public Health
 .
1999
;
89
:
315
–321
44
van Rossum
CT
, Shipley MJ, van de Mheen H. Employment grade differences in cause specific mortality. A 25 year follow up of civil servants from the first Whitehall study.
J Epidemiol Comm Health
 .
2000
;
54
:
178
–184
45
Matthews
KA
, Kelsey SF, Meilahn EN. Educational attainment and behavioral and biologic risk factors for coronary heart disease in middle-aged women.
Am J Epidemiol
 .
1989
;
129
:
1132
–1144
46
Wamala
SP
, Wolk A, Schenck-Gustafsson K. Lipid profile and socioeconomic status in healthy middle aged women in Sweden.
J Epidemiol Comm Health
 .
1997
;
51
:
400
–407
47
Brunner
EJ
, Marmot MG, Nanchahal K. Social inequality in coronary risk: central obesity and the metabolic syndrome. Evidence from the Whitehall II study.
Diabetologia
 .
1997
;
40
:
1341
–1349
48
Wamala
SP
, Lynch J, Horsten M. Education and the metabolic syndrome in women.
Diabetes Care
 .
1999
;
22
:
1999
–2003
49
Drever
F
, Bunting J, Harding D. Male mortality from major causes of death. Drever F, Whitehead M. Health Inequalities. London: The Stationery Office; 1997. p. 122–142
50
Brunner
E
, Davey Smith G, Marmot M. Childhood social circumstances and psychosocial and behavioural factors as determinants of plasma fibrinogen.
Lancet
 .
1996
;
347
:
1008
–1013
51
Wilson
TW
, Kaplan GA, Kauhanen J. Association between plasma fibrinogen concentration and five socioeconomic indices in the Kuopio Ischemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study.
Am J Epidemiol
 .
1993
;
137
:
292
–300
52
Wamala
SP
, Murray MA, Horsten M. Socioeconomic status and determinants of hemostatic function in healthy women.
Art Thromb Basc Biol
 .
1999
;
19
:
485
–492
53
Stamler
R
, Shipley M, Elliott P. Higher blood pressure in adults with less education. Some explanations from INTERSALT.
Hypertension
 .
1992
;
19
:
237
–241
54
Colhoun
HM
, Hemingway H, Poulter NR. Socio-economic status and blood pressure: an overview analysis.
J Hum Hypertens
 .
1998
;
12
:
91
–110
55
Epel
E
, Adler N, Ickovics J. Social status, anabolic activity, and fat distribution.
Ann N Y Acad Sci
 .
1999
;
896
:
424
–426
56
Belkic
K
, Schwartz J, Schnall P. Evidence for mediating econeurocardiologic mechanisms. Schnall PL, Belkic K, Landsbergis P, Baker D. The Workplace and Cardiovascular Diseases. Philadelphia: Hanley and Belfus; 2000. p. 117–162
57
Everson
SA
, Kaplan GA, Goldberg DE. Hypertension incidence is predicted by high levels of hopelessness in Finnish Men.
Hypertension
 .
2000
;
35
:
561
–567
58
Kubzansky
LD
, Kawachi I, Sparrow D. Socioeconomic status, hostility, and risk factor clustering in the Normative Aging Study: any help from the concept of allostatic load?
Ann Behav Med
 .
1999
;
21
:
330
–338
59
Uchino
BN
, Cacioppo JT, Kiecolt-Glaser JK. The relationship between social support and physiological processes: a review with emphasis on underlying mechanisms and implications for health.
Psychol Bull
 .
1996
;
119
:
488
–531
60
Gliksman
MD
, Kawachi I, Hunter D. Childhood socioeconomic status and risk of cardiovascular disease in middle aged US women: a prospective study.
J Epidemiol Comm Health
 .
1995
;
49
:
10
–15
61
Brunner
E
, Shipley MJ, Blane D. When does cardiovascular risk start? Past and present socioeconomic circumstances and risk factors in adulthood.
J Epidemiol Comm Health
 .
1999
;
53
:
757
–764
62
Brunner
EJ
, Marmot MG, White IR. Gender and employment grade differences in blood cholesterol, apolipoproteins and haemostatic factors in the Whitehall II study.
Atherosclerosis
 .
1993
;
102
:
195
–207
63
Yarnell
JWG
, Sweetnam PM, Rumley A. Lifestyle and hemostatic risk factors for ischemic heart disease: The Caerphilly Study.
Art Thromb Vasc Biol
 .
2000
;
20
:
271
–279
64
Kaplan
JR
, Manuck SB, Clarkson TB. Social stress, environment, and atherosclerosis in cynomolgus monkeys.
Arteriosclerosis
 .
1982
;
2
:
359
–368
65
Manuck
SB
, Kaplan JR, Clarkson TB. Behaviorally induced heart rate reactivity and atherosclerosis in cynomolgus monkeys.
Psychosom Med
 .
1983
;
45
:
95
–102
66
Williams
JK
, Kaplan JR, Manuck SB. Effects of psychosocial stress on endothelium-mediated dilation of atherosclerotic arteries in cynomolgus monkeys.
J Clin Invest
 .
1993
;
92
:
1819
–1823
67
Jayo
JM
, Shively CA, Kaplan JR. Effects of exercise and stress on body fat distribution in male cynomolgus monkeys.
Int J Obesity
 .
1993
;
17
:
597
–604
68
Sapolsky
RM
. Social subordinance as a marker of hypercortisolism. Some unexpected subtleties.
Ann N Y Acad Sci
 .
1995
;
771
:
626
–639
69
Shively
CA
, Clarkson TB. Social stress and coronary artery atherosclerosis in female monkeys.
Arterioscler Thromb
 .
1994
;
14
:
721
–726
70
Kaplan
JR
, Manuck SB. Status, stress, and atherosclerosis: the role of environment and individual behavior.
Ann N Y Acad Sci
 .
1999
;
896
:
145
–161
71
Ely
D
, Caplea A, Dunphy G. Physiological and neuroendocrine correlates of social position in normotensive and hypertensive rat colonies.
Acta Physiol Scand
 .
1997
;
161
:
92
–95
72
Turner
J
, Ward M, Gellman M. the relationship between laboratory and ambulatory cardiovascular activity: current evidence and future directions.
Ann Behav Med
 .
1994
;
16
:
12
–23
73
Steptoe
A
, Vögele C. The methodology of mental stress testing in cardiovascular research.
Circulation
 .
1991
;
83
:
II14
–II24
74
Costa
M
, Steptoe A, Cropley M. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring is associated with reduced physical activity during everyday life.
Psychosom Med
 .
1999
;
61
:
806
–811
75
Taylor
SE
, Seeman TE. Psychosocial resources and the SES-health relationship.
Ann N Y Acad Sci
 .
1999
;
896
:
210
–225
76
Marmot
MG
, Bosma H, Hemingway H. Contribution of job control and other risk factors to social variations in coronary heart disease incidence.
Lancet
 .
1997
;
350
:
235
–239
77
Bosma
H
, Peter R, Siegrist J. Two alternative job stress models and the risk of coronary heart disease.
Am J Public Health
 .
1998
;
88
:
68
–74
78
Barefoot
JC
, Peterson BL, Dahlstrom WG. Hostility patterns and health implications: correlates of Cook-Medley Hostility Scale scores in a national survey.
Health Psychol
 .
1991
;
10
:
18
–24
79
Marmot
MG
, Davey Smith G, Stansfeld S. Health inequalities among British civil servants: the Whitehall II study.
Lancet
 .
1991
;
337
:
1387
–1393
80
Lachman
ME
, Weaver SL. The sense of control as a moderator of social class differences in health and well-being.
J Pers Soc Psychol
 .
1998
;
74
:
763
–773
81
Bosma
H
, Schrijvers C, Mackenbach JP. Socioeconomic inequalities in mortality and importance of perceived control: cohort study.
BMJ
 .
1999
;
319
:
1469
–1470
82
Turner
RJ
, Marino F. Social support and social structure: a descriptive epidemiology.
J Health Soc Behav
 .
1994
;
35
:
193
–212
83
Dohrenwend
BP
, Dohrenwend BS. Stressful life events: their nature and effects. New York: Wiley; 1974.
84
Lynch
JW
, Kaplan GA, Shema SJ. Cumulative impact of sustained economic hardship on physical, cognitive, psychological, and social functioning.
N Engl J Med
 .
1997
;
337
:
1889
–1895
85
Stronks
K
, van de Mheen H, Looman CW. The importance of psychosocial stressors for socio-economic inequalities in perceived health.
Soc Sci Med
 .
1998
;
46
:
611
–623
86
Fiscella
K
, Franks P. Does psychological distress contribute to racial and socioeconomic disparities in mortality?
Soc Sci Med
 .
1997
;
45
:
1805
–1809
87
Turner
RJ
, Lloyd DA. The stress process and the social distribution of depression.
J Health Soc Behav
 .
1999
;
40
:
374
–404
88
Hemingway
H
, Marmot M. Evidence based cardiology: psychosocial factors in the aetiology and prognosis of coronary heart disease: systematic review of prospective cohort studies.
BMJ
 .
1999
;
318
:
1460
–1467
89
Ghiadoni
L
, Donald A, Cropley M. Mental stress induces sustained endothelial dysfunction in humans.
Circulation
 .
2000
;
102
:
2473
–2478
90
Patterson
SM
, Krantz DS, Gottdiener JS. Prothrombotic effects of environmental stress: changes in platelet function, hematocrit, and total plasma protein.
Psychosom Med
 .
1995
;
57
:
592
–599
91
Stoney
CM
, Bausserman L, Niaura R. Lipid reactivity to stress. II. Biological and behavioral influences.
Health Psychol
 .
1999
;
18
:
251
–261
92
Steptoe
A
. Behavior and blood pressure: implications for hypertension. Zanchetti A, Mancia G. Handbook of Hypertension—Pathophysiology of Hypertension. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science; 1997.
93
Steptoe
A
, Sawada Y. Assessment of baroreceptor reflex function during mental stress and relaxation.
Psychophysiology
 .
1989
;
26
:
140
–147
94
Esler
M
, Jennings G, Lambert G. Measurement of overall and cardiac norepinephrine release into plasma during cognitive challenge.
Psychoneuroendocrinology
 .
1989
;
14
:
477
–481
95
Sapolsky
RM
, Romero LM, Munck AU. How do glucocorticoids influence stress responses? Integrating permissive, suppressive, stimulatory, and preparative actions.
Endocr Rev
 .
2000
;
21
:
55
–89
96
Owens
JF
, Stoney CM, Matthews KA. Menopausal status influences ambulatory blood pressure levels and blood pressure changes during mental stress.
Circulation
 .
1993
;
88
:
2794
–2802
97
Lynch
JW
, Everson SA, Kaplan GA. Does low socioeconomic status potentiate the effects of heightened cardiovascular responses to stress on the progression of carotid atherosclerosis.
Am J Public Health
 .
1998
;
88
:
389
–394
98
Carroll
D
, Davey Smith G, Sheffield D. The relationship between socioeconomic status, hostility, and blood pressure reactions to mental stress in men: data from the Whitehall II study.
Health Psychol
 .
1997
;
16
:
131
–136
99
Carroll
D
, Harrison LK, Johnston DW. Cardiovascular reactions to psychological stress: the influence of demographic variables.
J Epidemiol Comm Health
 .
2000
;
54
:
876
–877
100
Singer
MT
. Engagement—involvement: a central phenomenon in psychophysiological research.
Psychosom Med
 .
1974
;
36
:
1
–17
101
Adler
E
, Epel ES, Castellazzo G. Relationship of subjective and objective social status with psychological and physiological functioning: preliminary data in healthy white women.
Health Psychol
 .
2000
;
19
:
586
–592
102
Blumenthal
JA
, Thyrum ET, Siegel WC. Contribution of job strain, job status and marital status to laboratory and ambulatory blood pressure in patients with mild hypertension.
J Psychosom Res
 .
1995
;
39
:
133
–144
103
Siegrist
J
, Klein D, Voigt K-H. Linking sociological with physiological data: the model of effort-reward imbalance at work.
Acta Physiol Scand
 .
1997
;
161
:
112
–116
104
Steptoe
A
, Fieldman G, Evans O. control over work pace, job strain and cardiovascular responses in middle-aged men.
J Hypertens
 .
1993
;
11
:
751
–759
105
Steptoe
A
, Cropley M, Joekes K. Job strain, blood pressure, and responsivity to uncontrollable stress.
J Hypertens
 .
1999
;
17
:
193
–200
106
Suls
J
, Wan CK. The relationship between trait hostility and cardiovascular reactivity: a quantitative review and analysis.
Psychophysiology
 .
1993
;
30
:
615
–626
107
Miller
TQ
, Smith TW, Turner CW. A meta-analytic review of research on hostility and physical health.
Psychol Bull
 .
1996
;
119
:
322
–348
108
Suarez
EC
, Kuhn CM, Schanberg SM. Neuroendocrine, cardiovascular, and emotional responses of hostile men: the role of interpersonal challenge.
Psychosom Med
 .
1998
;
60
:
78
–88
109
Markovitz
JH
, Matthews KA, Kriss J. Effects of hostility on platelet reactivity to psychological stress in coronary heart disease patients and in healthy controls.
Psychosom Med
 .
1996
;
58
:
143
–149
110
Lepore
SJ
. Problems and prospects for the social support—reactivity hypothesis.
Ann Behav Med
 .
1998
;
20
:
257
–269
111
Pike
JL
, Smith TL, Hauger RL. Chronic life stress alters sympathetic, neuroendocrine, and immune responsivity to an acute psychological stressor in humans.
Psychosom Med
 .
1997
;
59
:
447
–457
112
Uchino
BN
, Kiecolt-Glaser JK, Cacioppo JT. Age-related changes in cardiovascular response as a function of a chronic stressor and social support.
J Pers Soc Psychol
 .
1992
;
63
:
839
–846
113
Benschop
RJ
, Brosschot JF, Godaert GL. Chronic stress affects immunologic but not cardiovascular responsiveness to acute psychological stress in humans.
Am J Physiol
 .
1994
;
266
:
R75
–80
114
Kristenson
M
, Orth-Gomér K, Kucinskiene Z. Attenuated cortisol response to a standardized stress test in Lithuanian versus Swedish men: The LiVicordia study.
Int J Behav Med
 .
1998
;
5
:
17
–30
115
Gump
BB
, Matthews KA. Do background stressors influence reactivity to and recovery from acute stressors?
J Appl Soc Psychol
 .
1999
;
29
:
469
–494
116
Light
KC
, Kothandapani RV, Allen MT. Enhanced cardiovascular and catecholamine responses in women with depressive symptoms.
Int J Psychophysiol
 .
1998
;
28
:
157
–166
117
Kirschbaum
C
, Prussner JC, Stone AA. Persistent high cortisol responses to repeated psychological stress in a subpopulation of healthy men.
Psychosom Med
 .
1995
;
57
:
468
–474
118
Pruessner
JC
, Hellhammer DH, Kirschbaum C. Low self-esteem, induced failure and the adrenocortical stress response.
Pers Ind Diff
 .
1999
;
27
:
477
–489
119
Seeman
TE
, Berkman LF, Gulanski BI. Self-esteem and neuroendocrine response to challenge: MacArthur studies of successful aging.
J Psychosom Res
 .
1995
;
39
:
69
–84
120
Verdecchia
P
. Prognostic value of ambulatory blood pressure.
Hypertension
 .
2000
;
35
:
844
–851
121
Ockenfels
MC
, Porter L, Smyth J. Effect of chronic stress associated with unemployment on salivary cortisol: overall cortisol levels, diurnal rhythm, and acute stress reactivity.
Psychosom Med
 .
1995
;
57
:
460
–467
122
Rosmond
R
, Dallman MF, Bjorntorp P. Stress-related cortisol secretion in men: relationships with abdominal obesity and endocrine, metabolic and hemodynamic abnormalities.
J Clin End Metab
 .
1998
;
83
:
1853
–1859
123
McEwen
BS
. Protective and damaging effects of stress mediators.
N Engl J Med
 .
1998
;
338
:
171
–179
124
Marmot
M
, Theorell T. Social class and cardiovascular disease: the contribution of work.
Int J Health Serv
 .
1988
;
18
:
659
–674
125
Light
KC
, Brownley KA, Turner JR. Job status and high-effort coping influence work blood pressure in women and blacks.
Hypertension
 .
1995
;
25
:
554
–559
126
Matthews
KA
, Raikkonen K, Everson SA. Do the daily experiences of healthy men and women vary according to occupational prestige and work strain?
Psychosom Med
 .
2000
;
62
:
346
–353
127
Brandtstadter
J
, Baltes-Goltz B, Kirschbaum C. Developmental and personality correlates of adrenocortical activity as indexed by salivary cortisol: observations in the age range of 35 to 65 years.
J Psychosom Res
 .
1991
;
35
:
173
–185
128
Schnall
PL
, Landsbergis PA, Baker D. Job strain and cardiovascular disease.
Ann Rev Public Health
 .
1994
;
15
:
381
–411
129
Brisson
C
. Women, Work and CVD. Schnall PL, Belkic K, Landsbergis P, Baker D. The Workplace and Cardiovascular Diseases. Philadelphia: Hanley and Belfus; 2000. p. 49–57
130
Steptoe, A, Perceptions of control and cardiovascular activity: an analysis of ambulatory measures collected over the working day, J Psychosom Res
131
Steptoe
A
, Cropley M, Griffith J. Job strain and anger expression predict early morning elevations in salivary cortisol.
Psychosom Med
 .
2000
;
62
:
286
–292
132
Schulz
P
, Kirschbaum C, Pruessner J. Increased free cortisol secretion after awakening in chronically stressed individuals due to work overload.
Stress Med
 .
1998
;
14
:
91
–97
133
Jamner
LD
, Shapiro D, Hui KK. Hostility and differences between clinic, self-determined, and ambulatory blood pressure.
Psychosom Med
 .
1993
;
55
:
203
–211
134
Linden
W
, Chambers L, Maurice J. Sex differences in social support, self-deception, hostility, and ambulatory cardiovascular activity.
Health Psychol
 .
1993
;
12
:
376
–380
135
Raikkonen
K
, Matthews KA, Flory JD. Effects of hostility on ambulatory blood pressure and mood during daily living in healthy adults.
Health Psychol
 .
1999
;
18
:
44
–53
136
Pope
MK
, Smith TW. Cortisol excretion in high and low cynically hostile men.
Psychosom Med
 .
1991
;
53
:
386
–392
137
Unden
AL
, Orth-Gomér K, Elofsson S. Cardiovascular effects of social support in the work place: twenty-four-hour ECG monitoring of men and women.
Psychosom Med
 .
1991
;
53
:
50
–60
138
Horsten
M
, Ericson M, Perski A. Psychosocial factors and heart rate variability in healthy women.
Psychosom Med
 .
1999
;
61
:
49
–57
139
Baum
A
, Cohen L, Hall M. Control and intrusive memories as possible determinants of chronic stress.
Psychosom Med
 .
1993
;
55
:
274
–286
140
Vedhara
K
, Cox NKM, Wilcock GK. Chronic stress in elderly carers of dementia patients and antibody response to influenza vaccination.
Lancet
 .
1999
;
353
:
627
–631
141
Steptoe
A
, Roy MP, Evans O. Psychosocial influences on ambulatory blood pressure over working and non-working days.
J Psychophysiol
 .
1996
;
10
:
218
–227
142
Kamarck
TW
, Shiffman S, Smithline L. Effects of task strain, social conflict, and emotional activation on ambulatory cardiovascular activity: daily life consequences of recurring stress in a multiethnic adult sample.
Health Psychol
 .
1998
;
17
:
17
–29
143
Smyth
J
, Ockenfels MC, Porter L. Stressors and mood measured on a momentary basis are associated with salivary cortisol secretion.
Psychoneuroendocrinology
 .
1998
;
23
:
353
–370
144
Steptoe
A
. Stress, social support and cardiovascular activity over the working day.
Int J Psychophysiol
 .
2000
;
37
:
299
–308
145
Checkley
S
. The neuroendocrinology of depression and chronic stress.
Br Med Bull
 .
1996
;
52
:
597
–617
146
Schwartz
JE
, Warren K, Pickering TG. Mood, location and physical position as predictors of ambulatory blood pressure and heart rate: application of a multi-level random effects model.
Ann Behav Med
 .
1994
;
16
:
210
–220
147
Van Eck
M
, Berkhof H, Nicolson N. The effects of perceived stress, traits, mood states, and stressful daily events on salivary cortisol.
Psychosom Med
 .
1996
;
58
:
447
–458
148
Stein
PK
, Carney RM, Freedland KE. Severe depression is associated with markedly reduced heart rate variability in patients with stable coronary heart disease.
J Psychosom Res
 .
2000
;
48
:
493
–500
149
Appels
A
, Bar FW, Bar J. Inflammation, depressive symptomtology, and coronary artery disease.
Psychosom Med
 .
2000
;
62
:
601
–605
150
Everson
SA
, Lynch JW, Chesney MA. Interaction of workplace demands and cardiovascular reactivity in progression of carotid atherosclerosis: population based study.
Br Med J
 .
1997
;
314
:
553
–558
151
Shapiro
PA
, Sloan RP, Bagiella E. Cerebral activation, hostility, and cardiovascular control during mental stress.
J Psychosom Res
 .
2000
;
48
:
485
–491
152
Matthews
KA
, Flory JD, Muldoon MF. Does socioeconomic status relate to central serotonergic responsivity in healthy adults?
Psychosom Med
 .
2000
;
62
:
231
–237
153
Gump
BB
, Matthews KA, Raikkonen K. Modeling relationships among socioeconomic status, hostility, cardiovascular reactivity, and left ventricular mass in African American and White children.
Health Psychol
 .
1999
;
18
:
140
–150
154
Jackson
RW
, Treiber FA, Turner JR. Effects of race, sex, and socioeconomic status upon cardiovascular stress responsivity and recovery in youth.
Int J Psychophysiol
 .
1999
;
31
:
111
–119
155
Wilson
DK
, Kliewer W, Plybon L. Socioeconomic status and blood pressure reactivity in healthy black adolescents.
Hypertension
 .
2000
;
35
:
496
–500
This content is only available as a PDF.

Comments

0 Comments