Abstract

Aims To examine the acute effect of red wine and de-alcoholized red wine on endothelial function.

Methods and Results High frequency ultrasound was used to measure blood flow and percentage brachial artery dilatation after reactive hyperaemia induced by forearm cuff occlusion in 12 healthy subjects, less than 40 years of age, without known cardiovascular risk factors. The subjects drank 250ml of red wine with or without alcohol over 10min according to a randomized procedure. Brachial artery dilatation was measured again 30 and 60min after the subjects had finished drinking. The subjects were studied a second time within a week of the first study in a cross-over design. After the red wine with alcohol the resting brachial artery diameter, resting blood flow, heart rate and plasma–ethanol increased significantly. After the de-alcoholized red wine these parameters were unchanged. Flow-mediated dilatation of the brachial artery was significantly higher (P<0·05) after drinking de-alcoholized red wine (5·6±3·2%) than after drinking red wine with alcohol (3·6±2·2%) and before drinking (3·9±2·5%).

Conclusion After ingestion of red wine with alcohol the brachial artery dilated and the blood flow increased. These changes were not observed following the de-alcoholized red wine and were thus attributable to ethanol. These haemodynamic changes may have concealed an effect on flow-mediated brachial artery dilatation which did not increase after drinking red wine with alcohol. Flow-mediated dilatation of the brachial artery increased significantly after de-alcoholized red wine and this finding may support the hypothesis that antioxidant qualities of red wine, rather than ethanol in itself, may protect against cardiovascular disease.

f1
Correspondence: Stefan Agewall, MD, PhD, Department of Cardiology, Huddinge University Hospital, S-14186 Huddinge, Sweden.

References

1
Bofetta
P
, Garfinkel L. Alcohol drinking and mortality among men enrolled in an american cancer society prospective study.
Epidemiology
 .
1990
;
1
:
342
–348
2
Fuchs, CS, Stampfer, MJ, Colditz, GA, N Engl J Med, 1995, 332, 1245, 50
3
Maclure
M
. Demonstration of deductive meta-analysis: Ethanol intake and risk of myocardial infarction.
Epidemiol Rev
 .
1993
;
15
:
328
–351
4
McEldoff
P
, Dobson AJ. How much alcohol and how often? Populatation based case-control study of alcohol consumption and risk of a major coronary event.
BMJ
 .
1997
;
314
:
1159
–1164
5
Klatsky
AL
, Armstrong MA. Alcoholic beverage choice and risk of coronary artery disease mortality: Do red wine drinkers fare best.
Am J Cardiol
 .
1993
;
71
:
467
–469
6
Grønbeck
M
, Deis A, Sørensen TIA, Becker U, Schnohr P, Jensen G. Mortality associated with moderate intake of wine, beer or spirits.
BMJ
 .
1995
;
310
:
1165
–1169
7
Gaziano
JM
, Buring J, Breslow JL. Moderate alcohol intake, increased levels of high-density lipoprotein and its subfractions, and decreased risk of myocardial infarction.
N Engl J Med
 .
1993
;
329
:
1829
–1834
8
Renaud
SC
, Beswick AD, Fehily AM, Sharp DS, Elwood PC. Alcohol and platelet aggregation: The caerphilly prospective heart disease study.
Am J Clin Nutr
 .
1992
;
55
:
1012
–1017
9
Cohen
R
. The role of nitric oxide and other endothelium-derived vasoactive substances in vascular disease.
Prog Cardiovasc Dis
 .
1995
;
38
:
105
–128
10
Kugiyama
K
, Ohgushi M, Motoyama T. Intracoronary infusion of reduced glutathione improves endothelial vasomotor response to acetylcholine in human coronary circulation.
Circulation
 .
1998
;
97
:
2299
–2301
11
Taddei
S
, Virdis A, Ghiadoni L, Magagna A, Salvetti A. Vitamin C improves endothelium-dependent vasodilatation by restoring nitric oxide activity in essential hypertension.
Circulation
 .
1998
;
97
:
2222
–2229
12
Solzbach
U
, Hornig B, Jeserich M, Just H. Vitamin C improves endothelial dysfunction of epicardial coronary arteries in hypertensive patients.
Circulation
 .
1997
;
96
:
1513
–1519
13
Teissedre
PL
, Frankel EN, Waterhouse AL, Peleg H, German JB. Inhibition of in vitro human LDL oxidation by phenolic antioxidants from grapes and wines.
J Sci Food Agric
 .
1996
;
70
:
55
–61
14
Frankel
EN
, Kanmer J, German JB, Parks E, Kinsella JB. Inhibition of oxidation of human low-density lipoprotein by phenolic substances in red wine.
Lancet
 .
1993
;
341
:
454
–457
15
Maxwell
S
, Cruikshank A, Thorpe G. Red wine and antioxidant activity in serum.
Lancet
 .
1994
;
344
:
193
–194
16
Whitehead
TP
, Robinson D, Allaway S, Syms J, Hale A. Effect of red wine ingestion on the antioxidant capacity of serum.
Clin Chem
 .
1995
;
41
:
32
–35
17
Beth
M
, Galloway MT, Karim M, German JB, Kappagoda CT. Effect of red wine on endothelium-dependant relaxation in rabbits.
Clin Sci
 .
1997
;
93
:
507
–511
18
Agewall
S
, Whalley GA, Doughty RN, Sharpe N. Handgrip exercise increases post-occlusion hyperaemic brachial artery dilatation.
Heart
 .
1999
;
82
:
299
–305
19
Somers
TC
, Evans ME. Spectral evaluation of young red wines: anthocyanin equilibria, total phenolics, free and molecular SO2, chemical age.
J Sci Fd Agri
 .
1977
;
28
:
279
–287
20
Fitzpatrick
DF
, Hirschfield SL, Coffey RG. Endothelium-dependent vasorelaxing activity of wine and other grape products.
Am J Physiol
 .
1993
;
265
:
H774
–778
21
Andriambeloson
E
, Kleschyov AL, Muller B, Bertetz A, Stoclet JC, Andriantsitohaina R. Nitric oxide production and endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation induced by wine polyphenols in rat aorta.
Br J Pharmacol
 .
1997
;
120
:
1053
–1058
22
Plotnick
GD
, Corretti MC, Vogel RA. Effect of antioxidant vitamins on the transient impairment of endothelium-dependent brachial artery vasoactivity following a single high-fat meal.
JAMA
 .
1997
;
278
:
1682
–1686
23
Kawano
Y
, Abe H, Kojima S. Acute depressor effect of alcohol in patients with essential hypertension.
Hypertension
 .
1992
;
20
:
219
–226
24
Greenberg
SS
, Xie J, Wang Y. Ethanol relaxes pulmonary artery by release of prostaglandin and nitric oxide.
Alcohol
 .
1993
;
10
:
21
–29
25
Criscione
L
, Powell JR, Burdet R, Engesser S, Schlager F, Schoepfer A. Alcohol suppresses endothelium-dependent relaxation in rat mesenteric vascular beds.
Hypertension
 .
1989
;
13
:
964
–967
26
Mayhan
WG
. Responses of cerebral arterioles during chronic ethanol exposure.
Am J Physiol
 .
1992
;
262
:
H787
–791
27
Beilin
LJ
, Puddey IB. Alcohol and hypertension.
Clin Exper Hyper Theory Practice
 .
1992
;
A14
:
119
–138
28
Rubanyi
GM
, Romero C, Vanhoutte PM. Flow-induced release of endothelium-derived relaxing factor.
Am J Physiol
 .
1986
;
250
:
1115
–1119
29
Joannides
R
, Haefeli WE, Linder L. Nitric oxide is responsible for flow-dependent dilatation of human peripheral conduit arteries in vivo.
Circulation
 .
1995
;
91
:
1314
–1319
30
Anderson
TJ
, Uehata A, Gerhard MD. Close relation of endothelial function in the human coronary and peripheral circulations.
J Am Coll Cardiol
 .
1995
;
26
:
1235
–1241
31
Lieberman
EH
, Gerhard MD, Uehata A. Flow-induced vasodilation of the human brachial artery is impaired in patients <40 years of age with coronary disease.
Am J Cardiol
 .
1996
;
78
:
1210
–1214

Comments

0 Comments