Air pollution is severe in some areas of Central and Eastern Europe but the quality and representativeness of measurements are not consistent. Studies in the Czech Republic and Poland have shown an impact of air pollution on overall mortality, post-neonatal mortality and lung cancer. Estimates in this paper suggest that air pollution may cause up to 3% of all-cause, all-age mortality in the Czech Republic, which is some 9% of the mortality gap between this country and Western Europe. The impact in other countries of Central and Eastern Europe is probably smaller.

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