In England and Wales, general practitioners receive extra payments when they meet the set targets that certain percentages of their youngest patients are immunized. Fifty-eight primary health care practitioners were interviewed about their views on childhood immunization and how targets with financial incentives might affect parents' choice about Immunization. They were asked about 2 responsibilities which can potentially be in conflict: to increase rates of childhood immunization, yet also to respect parents' voluntary choice about whether their child is to be immunized. Professionals' reported uncertainties and disagreements are described and the view that these can be resolved through training in communication skills is discussed.