Abstract

This review describes the background to Jenner's first vaccination, his later work, and the dissemination of information about vaccination and the vaccine itself. Although based on relatively slender evidence, Jenner's theories were basically sound and he merits the credit given him. Given the circumstances, particularly the slow speed of travel and the lack of information about the duration of immunity, vaccination became established very quickly in many countries.

References

[1]
Baron
J.
(
1838
)
Life of Edward Jenner
 ,
2
Vols.,
624+471
pp.
Colborn
,
London
.
[2]
Baxby
D.
(
1981
)
Jenner's Smallpox Vaccine; the Riddle of Vaccinia Virus and its Origin
 ,
214
pp.
Heinemann Educational Books
,
London
.
[3]
Baxby
D.
(
1985
)
The genesis of Edward Jenner's Inquiry of 1798; a comparison of the two unpublished manuscripts and the published version
.
Med. Hist.
 
29
,
193
199
.
[4]
Jenner Centenary Number
(
1896
)
Br. Med. J.
 
I
,
1246
1312
.
[5]
Creighton
C.
(
1889
)
Jenner and Vaccination
 ,
360
pp.
Sonnenschein
,
London
.
[6]
Crookshank
E.M.
(
1889
)
History and Pathology of Vaccination
 ,
2
Vols.,
466+610
pp.
Lewis
,
London
.
[7]
Fisk
D.
(
1959
)
Dr Jenner of Berkeley
 ,
288
pp.
Heinemann
,
London
.
[8]
Lefanu
W.
(
1985
)
Biobibliography of Edward Jenner
 ,
160
pp.
St. Paul's Bibliographies
,
Winchester
.
[9]
Razzell
P.E.
(
1977
)
Edward Jenner's Cowpox Vaccine; the History of a Medical Myth
 ,
130
pp.
Caliban
,
Firle
.
[10]
Saunders
P.
(
1982
)
Edward Jenner; the Cheltenham Years 1795–1823
 ,
469
pp.
University Press of New England
,
Hanover and London
.
[11]
Hopkins
D.
(
1983
)
Princes and Peasants; Smallpox in History
 ,
380
pp.
University of Chicago
,
Chicago
.
[12]
Miller
G.
(
1957
)
The Adoption of Inoculation of Smallpox in England and France
 ,
355
pp.
University of Pennsylvania
,
Philadelphia
.
[13]
Fitz
R.
(
1942
)
Something curious in the medical line
.
Bull. Hist. Med.
 
11
,
239
254
.
[14]
Dudgeon
J.A.
(
1963
)
Development of smallpox vaccine in England in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries
.
Br. Med. J.
 
I
,
1367
1372
.
[15]
Bowers
J.Z.
(
1981
)
The odyssey of smallpox vaccination
.
Bull. Hist. Med.
 
55
,
17
33
.
[16]
Smith
M.H.
(
1974
)
The Real Expedicion Maritima de la Vacuna in New Spain and Guatemala
.
Trans. Am. Phil. Soc. n.s.
 
64
,
1
74
.
[17]
Wujastyk
D.
(
1987
)
‘A Pious Fraud’: the Indian claims for pre-Jennerian smallpox vaccination
. In:
Studies on Indian History
  (
Wujaskyk
D.
Meulenbeld
G.J.
, Eds.), pp.
131
167
.
Foster
,
Groningen
.
[18]
Baxby
D.
Bennett
M.
(
1994
)
Cowpox virus
. In:
Encyclopedia of Virology
  (
Webster
R.G.
Granoff
A.
, Eds), pp.
261
267
.
[19]
Herrlich
A.
Mayr
A.
Mahnel
H.
Munz
E.
(
1963
)
Experimental studies on transformation of the variola virus into the vaccinia virus
.
Arch. ges. Virusforsch.
 
12
,
577
599
.
[20]
Fenner
F.
Henderson
D.A.
Arita
I.
Jezek
Z.
Ladnyi
I.
(
1988
)
Smallpox and its Eradication
 ,
1460
pp.
W.H.O
,
Geneva
.
[21]
Esposito
J.J.
Knight
J.C.
(
1985
)
Orthopoxvirus DNA: A comparison of restriction profiles and maps
.
Virology
 
135
,
230
251
.
[22]
Esposito
J.J.
Baxby
D.
Black
D.
et al
(
1995
)
Poxviridae
. In:
Virus Taxonomy: 6th Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses
  (
Murphy
F.
Fauquet
C.M.
Bishop
D.H.L.
et al
, Eds), pp.
79
81
.
Springer-Verlag
,
Vienna and New York
.