The receptors involved in the recognition of Salmonella typhimurium and S. typhi by murine macrophages were identified, and their relevance to phagosome-lysosome fusion was also investigated. Phagocytosis of S. typhimurium by murine macrophages was dependent on the opsonization with normal fresh serum, although the opsonin had no triggering activity in phagosome-lysosome fusion. In contrast, the opsonization of S. typhi with normal fresh serum efficiently triggered both phagocytosis and following phagosome-lysosome fusion. Anti-murine CR1 antibody suppressed phagocytosis of S. typhimurium by 36%, whereas anti-CR3 antibody, mannan, and advanced glycosylation endproducts (AGE)-BSA all failed to prevent phagocytosis of S. typhimurium, suggesting that CR1 may only contribute to the recognition of S. typhimurium and may possibly play a minor role. Other receptors involved may also influence the outcome phagocytosis in terms of phagosome-lysosome fusion. In the case of S. typhi, only anti-CR3 antibody significantly inhibited not only phagocytosis of S. typhi but also following phagosome-lysosome fusion. Treatment with K76COONa, an inhibitor of C3bINA (I factor), resulted in a marked inhibition of phagosomelysosome fusion in S. typhi-infected macrophages, although no significant inhibition was observed on phagocytosis of S. typhi. These results suggest that S. typhimurium and S. typhi may be recognized at least in part by CR1 and CR3, respectively, and that the recognition by CR3 but not CR1 is functionally associated with subsequent phagosomelysosome fusion in murine macrophages.