## Instructions to Authors

### Scope

Geophysical Journal International is one of the world's leading primary research journals in geophysics. The Board of Editors is international in representation. Geophysical Journal International publishes top quality research papers, letters and book reviews on all aspects of theoretical, computational, applied and observational geophysics. It welcomes submissions at any time from scientists world-wide via http://mc.manuscriptcentral.com/gji/. A guide to submission is below or on the submissions website. You should prepare your manuscript as a single file including all figures and tables, in PDF, Word, RTF or plain text format. GJI aims to publish all papers in a timely fashion. Authors who submit a paper are expected to be able to certify that the paper is original work, has not been published before and is not being considered for publication elsewhere.

## GENERAL INFORMATION

### Licence to Publish Form

Upon receipt of accepted manuscripts at Oxford Journals authors will be invited to complete an online copyright licence to publish form.

### Express Letters

Geophysical Journal International aims to publish all papers in a timely fashion but expedites Express Letters through the system. Express Letters should address exciting topics, or present new ideas and data on a topic of broad interest. There is a strict 5 page limit.

### Oxford Open

Geophysical Journal International authors have the option to publish their paper under the Oxford Open initiative; whereby, for a charge, their paper will be made freely available online immediately upon publication. See below for details.

### Key words

The journal uses a list of keywords. You may have up to six key words in your paper.

### LaTeX class file and documentation

Authors may create their articles using any LaTeX class file that works, but they must provide all the style/bibliography etc. files needed to compile their article successfully. Alternatively, a GJI LaTeX class file and associated guides are available as a single zip file. Details of the files are given in the zip file and below.

### No Page Charges

There are no page charges for publication.

### Pre-submission English-language editing

Papers must be written in good scientific English – authors should express their work clearly and succinctly. Poor quality English leads to delays in peer-review and production, and if language difficulties render the manuscript difficult to understand the paper may be returned to authors for improvement before it is considered for publication.
Language editing, particularly if English is not your first language, can be used to ensure that the academic content of your paper is fully understood by the journal editors and reviewers. Language editing does not guarantee that your manuscript will be accepted for publication. If you would like information about independent suppliers of editing services please see the list here. Several specialist language editing companies, for example https://earthscriptediting.wordpress.com, offer similar services and you can also use any of these. Authors are liable for all costs associated with such services.

### Sections

The journal is arranged in sections of interest for readers. The sections are:

- Geodynamics and tectonics

- Geomagnetism, rock magnetism and palaeomagnetism

- Gravity, geodesy and tides

- Heat flow and volcanology

- Marine geosciences and applied geophysics

- Rock and mineral physics, rheology

- Seismology

- Book reviews (invited reviews only please)

Authors should choose the section most appropriate for their paper.

### Supplementary Material

Supporting material that is not essential for inclusion in the full text of the manuscript, but would nevertheless benefit the reader, can be made available by the publisher as online-only content, linked to the online manuscript. The material should not be essential to understanding the conclusions of the paper, but should contain data that is additional or complementary and directly relevant to the article content.

Data Policy - GJI aims to make its papers more useful to the research community by asking authors to provide supplemental material in digital form that will allow others to use or reproduce their results.

### Online publication

Once a paper has been accepted for publication, it will be forwarded by the RAS to the publishers, Oxford University Press (OUP). An uncorrected version of your manuscript will appear online on the Advance Access page within 24 hours of you completing your Licence to Publish form. Appearance in Advance Access constitutes publication and establishes precedence. Papers published in Advance Access are citeable using the DOI and publication date. The paper will then be copy-edited and typeset from the supplied electronic files. After proof correction, the final version of your article will be immediately published in an online issue, and the uncorrected proof will be taken off the Advance Access page. Once published in an issue, articles can be cited by year, volume and article page number. OUP aims to publish all GJI papers online within 30 days of receipt in the production office. All articles are also published in print.

### Ethics

Authors who submit a paper must be able to certify that the paper is original work, has not been published before and is not being considered for publication elsewhere. GJI is governed by the RAS Editorial Code of Practice, whose terms must be followed by all authors, editors and referees. Authors should familiarize themselves with their obligations under the Editorial Code. In particular, authors are reminded that any of the following are considered to be serious breaches of scientific ethics, which will result in the immediate rejection of their paper:

• Submitting a paper to more than one publication at the same time.
• Plagiarism, including self-plagiarism.
• Personal attacks directed at referees, editors or other authors.

### Main Editorial Office

Royal Astronomical Society
Burlington House
London
W1J 0BQ
UK
gji@ras.org.uk (Editorial Staff)
Tel: 44 (0)20 7734 3307/4582
Fax: 44 (0)20 7494 0166

### Production Office

Geophysical Journal International
Oxford University Press
Great Clarendon Street
Oxford
OX2 6DP
UK
gjiras@oup.com (Production Editor)
Tel: +44 1865 35 3122/5358

### Oxford Open

Geophysical Journal International authors have the option to publish their paper under the Oxford Open initiative; whereby, for a charge, their paper will be made freely available online immediately upon publication. After your manuscript is accepted the corresponding author will be required to accept a mandatory licence to publish agreement. As part of the licensing process you will be asked to indicate whether or not you wish to pay for open access. If you do not select the open access option, your paper will be published with standard subscription-based access and you will not be charged.

If you choose the Open Access option you can pay the charges using our Author Services site. This will enable you to pay online with a credit/debit card, or request an invoice by email or post. The charge for Open Access is £1600/$2800/€2400. Discounted rates (50% or 100%) are available for authors based in some developing countries (see the list of countries) as well as for RAS Fellows and DGG Members (see here). Please note that these charges are in addition to any colour/page charges that may apply. Orders from the UK will be subject to the current UK VAT charge. For orders from the rest of the European Union, OUP will assume that the service is provided for business purposes. Please provide a VAT number for yourself or your institution and ensure you account for your own local VAT correctly Licence to Publish Form It is a condition of publication for all Oxford Journals that authors that authors either assign copyright or grant an exclusive licence to Oxford University Press or the sponsoring Society. This ensures that all of the necessary rights needed for publication of the article are in place including provision for any requests from third parties to reproduce content from the journals are handled efficiently and consistently by OUP, enabling the content to be as widely disseminated as possible. Upon receipt of accepted manuscripts at Oxford Journals authors will be invited to complete an online copyright licence to publish form. Any queries about the licence form should be sent as soon as possible to Rights and Permissions so that any issues can be resolved quickly and to avoid any delay in publication. As part of the terms of the licence agreement, Authors may use their own material in other publications written or edited by themselves provided that the journal is acknowledged as the original place of publication and Oxford University Press as the publisher. As the Author(s), copyright of the Article remains yours (or your employer’s if your employer claims copyright in your work). See the Rights and Permissions page here for more information on Oxford Journals' copyright policy and the rights retained by you/your institution under the terms of the licence. Please note that for any content published as part of the Oxford Open program, there is an extended range of rights retained by you as the Author. For more details, please go to: https://academic.oup.com/journals/pages/open_access/licences. Please note that by submitting an article for publication you confirm that you are the corresponding/submitting author and that Oxford University Press ("OUP") may retain your email address for the purpose of communicating with you about the article. You agree to notify OUP immediately if your details change. If your article is accepted for publication OUP will contact you using the email address you have used in the registration process. Please note that OUP does not retain copies of rejected articles. Work submitted for publication must be original, previously unpublished, and not under consideration for publication elsewhere. If previously published figures, tables, or parts of text are to be included, the copyright-holder’s permission must have been obtained prior to submission. For more information on how to obtain permissions, please consult Rights and Permissions. ## PREPARATION OF MANUSCRIPTS Manuscripts should be in the English language. Spelling, grammar and syntax should follow normal English practice and the Oxford English Dictionary. Please indicate in which section of the journal you wish the paper to be published. Submit your paper online via http://mc.manuscriptcentral.com/gji/ . A guide to submission is available in the online system. Manuscripts should be prepared using LaTeX (Geophysical Journal International class and style files are available as a single Zip file) or in RTF or Word format. Footnotes are strongly discouraged. Except where common practice in geophysics dictates otherwise, units should follow the Système Internationale (SI). Pages must be numbered sequentially. The manuscript should be arranged as follows: • Title page, containing authors names, affiliations and e-mail addresses • Summary and keywords • Main body of the paper • Reference list • Tables - with header at the top* • Figures - with captions on the same page* • Appendices* Sections marked (*) are discretionary. All others are essential. The form of each section is described below. Title page : In the format: o The full title of the paper as it will appear in the journal o Authors' names o Authors' affiliations, linked to the list of names, if appropriate, by superscript numbers o History dates, for use by the receiving Geophysical Journal International office: Accepted date. Received date; in original form date o An abbreviated title suitable for page headings o Name and contact details of the corresponding author including phone/fax/e-mail. Summary : All papers must begin with a summary (except for Errata, which do not have summaries) of no more than 500 words (no more than 250 words for Express Letters) and by an abbreviated title suitable for page headings. The summary should be a single paragraph that briefly states the nature of the investigation and summarizes the goals, methods and conclusions drawn. References must not be cited in the summary and abbreviations should be avoided or, if unavoidable, should be introduced. The summary should be understandable to a wide audience and should be able to stand alone and allow readers to quickly see what the paper is about and help them to decide whether to read the full document. It should not include speculation or material that is not in the main document. It should be written from the perspective of providing a balanced "report on contents" and thus differs significantly from the "conclusions" section that may emphasize speculative implications and an outlook. Keywords : Authors should provide a list of up to six key words, representative of the content of their paper. The keywords will be printed at the end of the summary and used for indexing purposes. The list of keywords is therefore important in ensuring that your paper reaches its target audience. [The list of key words ] Main Body of Paper : Text should be laid out across the width of the page in a single column. Double-space the text to allow room for reviewers to make annotations. Word documents should use a minimum font size of 11pt. Units should always be according to the Système Internationale (SI) unless common practice in geophysics dictates otherwise. Abbreviations of names or concepts should be defined at first occurrence. Indicate in the margin the location of figures and tables. Sections and subsections should be clearly headed, but the numbering of sections is optional. Leave extra space between the end of a section and the heading of the following section. Equations should be numbered sequentially with Arabic numerals. All equations should be numbered regardless of whether or not they are referred to in the text. Punctuate equations as part of the sentence to which they relate. Special typefaces (e.g. Greek), and the placing of subscripts and superscripts should be indicated clearly. Text is normally printed down two columns per page; papers with long equations will be printed across the whole page at the production editors discretion or at the request of the author. Note that the journal style for vectors is Bold Roman Times; matrices should be Bold Roman Univers; tensors should be Bold Italic Times and variables and scalars should be italicized. Modifiers are set in Roman type. Reference List : References should be listed in alphabetical order at the end of the paper. The abbreviations for the names of periodicals used in Geophysical Journal International are those given in the World List of Scientific Periodicals, 4th edition. If this is not available, examine the reference lists of papers in any recent issue to find the abbreviations, otherwise, give the title of the journal in full, and the Geophysical Journal International copy editor will substitute the correct abbreviation on acceptance. References should be cited in the text by giving the authors name with the year of publication in parentheses. When referring to a work by three or more authors use only the first name followed by et al. even on first use, for example, 'Adams et al. (1997)'. Where several papers by the same first author and from the same year are cited and the citations would otherwise take the same form, put the letters a, b, c, etc. after the year of publication to distinguish them, for example, '(Adams et al. 1997a; Adams et al. 1997b)'. Examples: In text: Smith & Jones (1990); (Smith & Jones 1990); (Smith, private communication, 1990); (Smith et al. 1990) Three authors, listing only the first author even on first mention. Author, A.B., Author, C.D. & Author, E.F., 1990. Full article title, J. Title Abbrev. , 000, 000--000. Author, A.B., Author, C.D. & Author, E.F., 1990. Book Title , 2nd edn, Vol. 2, pp. 000--000, Publisher. Author, A.B., Author, C.D. & Author, E.F., 1990. Chapter title, in Book Title , pp. 000--000, ed. Author, G.H., Publisher. Author, A.B., 1990. Thesis title , PhD thesis, University, Place. Authors preparing their papers using the GJI class file may wish to use the [extra] option, which allows the use of \cite{} commands and is compatible with natbib.sty. Tables and Figures : Numbers and captions must be provided for every table and figure; all must be cited in the text of the paper in the correct numerical order. Captions should appear directly beneath and above the relevant figure or table, respectively. Tables must be un-ruled and units should be placed at the head of each column. Artwork : Figures are to be submitted electronically. Refer to figures in text as '...Fig. 1(a)' or '...Figs 2 and 3' or '... (Fig. 1a); (Figs 1a and b)'. [NOTE: if referring to figures in another paper, a lower-case f' must be used: fig. 1(a)', `figs 2 and 3' etc.] Authors are strongly encouraged to submit computer-generated figures in digital form. Note that the process of scanning material such as typical laser printer output can reduce the quality of the printed figure, sometimes very substantially, and this step should be avoided. The publishers can accept figures in TIFF, EPS or PDF format, and where possible, these should be produced directly from the originating programs. Bitmapped elements should be produced at an effective resolution (i.e. at final printing) of 300 dpi or greater. Artwork guidelines are available here . Colour Figures : Colour illustrations are welcome, but should only be used when details cannot be adequately observed on black and white photographs. Note that many readers may only have access to grey-scale printers and so authors should be considerate of these readers when preparing their colour images. Also note that the journal is printed in CMYK, which does not reproduce some particularly bright colours possible in RGB mode. A standard fee of £200/$325/€250 (plus VAT if applicable) is now levied for any paper that uses colour figures, regardless of the number of figures involved. Payment for colour artwork is via the Oxford Journals Author Services site.

Appendices : A title is required for each appendix. Appendices should appear after the references and should be named A, B, C, etc. Equations in an appendix should be numbered (A1), (A2), etc. If Appendices are greater than 25 journal pages the journal may choose to publish the material via electronic means only. File size : The file used for the review should be <10MB. Authors may need to reduce the quality of their figures to meet this requirement. Higher quality figures can be uploaded as source files (no size limit) and are used for publication.

Crossref Funding Data Registry : In order to meet your funding requirements authors are required to name their funding sources, or state if there are none, during the submission process. For further information on this process or to find out more about the CHORUS initiative please click here.

Submitting a revised version : The revised version of the manuscript should be uploaded to ScholarOne Manuscripts by logging in, opening the Author Centre, and clicking on the purple button marked ‘Click here to submit a revision’. Do not use the blue ‘submit a new manuscript’ button for revised papers. Changes to the manuscript should be highlighted (e.g. in bold or colour), to assist the referee and editor. The response to the previous report should be as specific as possible, and directly address each of the points raised by the editor and/or referee. Authors should also upload a clean file (remove bold font or track changes) for the publisher, since uncorrected versions of accepted manuscripts are now published online ahead of the proof corrected versions (see Online publication above).

Errata : Errata are short corrections to previously published papers. Errata may only be submitted by the authors of the original paper, and should be used to correct errors which may lead to significant misunderstandings or incorrect conclusions. Errata should be prepared in the same way as other papers, with the following exceptions:

• The title should be ‘Erratum: [original title]’. In most cases the author list will be the same as the original paper.
• There should be no abstract. Key words should be the same as the original, but with the addition of ‘errata, addenda’ at the start of the list (even if this results in 7 key words).
• The first sentence should identify the original paper, which should be followed by a description of the error. There should be an explanation of how the error arose, what needs to be changed (e.g. replacement figure or table, new text), how these affect the conclusions of the earlier paper, and the erratum should finish with any references. See errata published in recent volumes of the journal for examples of the format.
• When submitting on the ScholarOne website, select Erratum as the manuscript type, enter ‘Erratum’ instead of an abstract, and in the cover letter quote the original manuscript ID and give a one or two sentence explanation of why an erratum is required.

Express Letters : Express Letters are expedited through the system and should address controversial topics, introduce innovative concepts in a field of broad interest, or present new gap-filling data or data that will trigger further work by various groups. On submission authors have to provide a cover letter in which they state arguments why their manuscript is suitable for an Express Letter. The cover letter should also include a list of four scientists or research groups who, according to the authors’ perception, would be particularly interested in the research covered by the submission.
There is a strict 5 page limit. As an approximate guide, papers should be no more than 5000 words including figures; each figure will be judged to occupy the space of 300 words. Authors should be prepared to provide a word count during the submission process.

Charges : There are no page charges for publication .
Reprints may be ordered at prices quoted on the Oxford Journals Author Services site, provided that the order is placed with the publishers prior to publication.
Colour figures can often convey an authors' message powerfully and concisely, and recent developments in printing technology have significantly reduced the cost of producing pages in colour. The cost of publishing colour work is £200/\$325/€250 (plus VAT if applicable).
Authors may be charged for excessive alterations made in proof.
Unusual costs incurred by the journal (e.g. in preparing inappropriately drafted figures for press) may be recovered from authors.

LaTeX Class File and Documentation : The distribution ( gji-latex.zip ) contains a LaTeX2e documentclass file (gji.cls), and an associated guide (gjilguid2e). It also includes extra style files and packages including a preliminary version of a BibTeX style file (gji.bst) which will reproduce the order and configuration of GJI references for use with the [extra] option to gji.cls (compatible with natbib.sty and encouraging the use of \cite{} commands). The zip file also contains the LaTeX2.0.9 style files and support files.

Electronic Submission of Manuscripts : The Editorial Office welcomes submissions at any time from scientists world-wide via http://mc.manuscriptcentral.com/gji/ . A guide to submission is available. Contact the Editorial Staff if you need advice.

Electronic Submission of Final Copy : Authors should upload their editable source files in a single .tar or .zip archive to ScholarOne Manuscripts (formerly known as Manuscript Central) as a supplementary file. Once the article is accepted this archive will be sent to the publisher. As mentioned above authors are strongly encouraged to submit computer-generated figures in digital form at high quality, guidelines are available here .
In the event that a .tar or .zip file is not uploaded then files may be transmitted by ftp to the publisher after acceptance. Very large files should be compressed.

Editorial review - Decisions: Based on the reports of the reviewers, the editor will choose to make one of the following decisions on each paper:
Accept – the paper is immediately accepted for publication and forwarded to the publishers. Minor/Moderate/Major revision – changes to the content of the paper are required before it can be published. The nature of the revisions required will be explained in the report. Once these changes have been made the paper will be reconsidered by the editor. The paper might be sent out for review again depending on the revised manuscript and the response letter.
The editor may choose to make the following decisions, which will be confirmed by a second editor:
Revise and Resubmit – the editor feels that the paper is not suitable in its present state due to poor presentation or being incomplete, but may be rewritten and submitted as a new paper in the future.
Reject – the editor feels that the paper is not suitable for publication, either through poor quality or out of scope, and cannot be made so through modification. No future submission of this paper will be considered.

Proofs :Authors are sent page proofs by email. These should be checked immediately and corrections, as well as answers to any queries, returned to the publishers as an annotated PDF via email or fax within 3 working days (further details are supplied with the proof). It is the author's responsibility to check proofs thoroughly, particularly equations and other numerical matter. When updating the reference list, please be careful to update textual citations as well if the year has changed. Proofs should be returned by the date requested if at all possible - delay in returning the proofs will lead to delay in publication of the paper. Authors should keep their own alterations to a minimum - it may be necessary to charge authors for excessive alterations for which they are responsible. If it is suspected that extensive proof changes may alter the science in any significant way, the paper will be put on hold and referred back to the RAS for approval.

Offprints :Authors will receive electronic access to their paper free of charge. Printed offprints may be purchased in multiples of 100 via the Oxford Journals Author Services site. Late orders submitted after the Journal has been printed are subject to increased prices.

Further Advice : The editors will be glad to advise authors on any special points of difficulty. See the contact addresses above and on the Editors page.