Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) paved the way for the development of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). First derived and described by James Thomson in 1998, hESCs demonstrated that human pluripotent stem cells could be cultivated and could differentiate into all three germ layers, albeit as part of a teratoma in a mouse ( 1 ). Importantly, the development of hESC lines established media recipes and cell culture techniques comprising the cornerstone for iPSC derivation ( 1 ). Furthermore, they enabled researchers to gain experience culturing these somewhat peculiar and difficult stem cells and establish differentiation protocols ( 1–5 ). The lack of patient-specific hESCs prompted focus to be shifted to establishing banks of hESCs that would be representative of entire populations ( 6 ). In parallel, the use of somatic cell nuclear...

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