Gene therapy is a promising therapeutic alternative for Lysosomal Storage Disorders (LSD), as it is not necessary to correct the genetic defect in all cells of an organ to achieve therapeutically significant levels of enzyme in body fluids, from which non-transduced cells can uptake the protein correcting their enzymatic deficiency. Animal models are instrumental in the development of new treatments for LSD. Here we report the generation of the first mouse model of the LSD Muccopolysaccharidosis Type IIID (MPSIIID), also known as Sanfilippo syndrome type D. This autosomic recessive, heparan sulphate storage disease is caused by deficiency in N-acetylglucosamine 6-sulfatase (GNS). Mice deficient in GNS showed lysosomal storage pathology and loss of lysosomal homeostasis in the CNS and peripheral tissues, chronic widespread neuroinflammation, reduced locomotor and exploratory activity and shortened lifespan, a phenotype that closely resembled human MPSIIID. Moreover, treatment of GNS-deficient animals with GNS-encoding adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors of serotype 9 delivered to the cerebrospinal fluid completely corrected pathological storage, improved lysosomal functionality in the CNS and somatic tissues, resolved neuroinflammation, restored normal behaviour and extended lifespan of treated mice. Hence, this work represents the first step towards the development of a treatment for MPSIIID.

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