As medicine has become increasingly sophisticated and technologically complex, medical education and medical care have come to rely on increased specialization (Moore & Showstack, 2003). Dividing providers into specialties, however, has also led to a fragmented care delivery system in which a patient might go to one clinic for a check-up, a mental health service provider for treatment of anxiety, another service provider for rehabilitation after addiction, urgent care for a toothache, a specialist for diabetes management, and an imaging center for cancer screening. Fragmentation leads to lapses in communication among providers, which can be costly in dollars (when care is duplicated) and in outcomes (when prescription errors occur, for instance, or when diagnoses fail to take mental health into account). This fragmentation has measurable consequences: The number of specialty physicians per population has been associated with higher mortality, shorter life...

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