In recent years, European Union (EU) data protection rules have become a challenge to anti-doping organizations (ADOs) based in EU Member States (MS). While transfers to third countries are submitted to restrictions, ADOs are faced with the expectations of a sports sector that seems largely integrated at the global level, presumably resulting in coordinated expectations regarding the anti-doping fight. Against this backdrop, the inclusion of a reference to transfers to third countries for anti-doping purposes was an achievement which key actors in the sports and anti-doping sector had been lobbying actively for, including the EOC EU Office in Brussels1 as well as the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) itself.2 This reference is now found in Recital 112 of the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR),3 but not in any of the articles....

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