Experiments on incentives have a long history in survey research, particularly in mail surveys but increasingly in other modes too. Most of this work has focused on variations in incentive type, timing, and amount on response rates. There has been relatively little research examining the effect of different incentives on nonresponse error. Furthermore, most of the studies on incentives have been within a single mode. No studies, to our knowledge, have examined the effect of incentives in a study using more than one mode. This paper adds to the methodological literature on incentives in several ways. Although we compare a cash incentive vs. an in-kind incentive, which has been done several times, we examine these effects in both...

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