In ecocriticism, “pastoral” has a history of being used as a term of disparagement.1 In Pastoral, Terry Gifford imagines two examples in which it might be employed in such a “pejorative,” “critical, [and] dismissive sense”: a “Greenpeace supporter might use the term as a criticism of the tree poem if it ignored the presence of pollution or the threat to urban trees from city developers” and a “farm worker might say that a novel was a pastoral if it celebrated a landscape as though no-one actually sweated to maintain it on a low income” (2). In Ecocriticism, a title published in the same series as Pastoral, Greg Garrard elaborates the use of “pastoral” in Gifford’s examples. In...

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