A small number of pneumococcal clones dominate the population of antibiotic-resistant pneumococci. The emergence of fluoroquinolone resistance in these clones predicts the dissemination of fluoroquinolone resistance in countries where the clones are present and community use of fluoroquinolones for respiratory infections is common. The molecular basis of resistance to a number of classes of antimicrobials can be used to predict the likelihood of dissemination of the resistance genes.


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