# Instructions to Authors

## SCOPE

JAT accepts articles relating to the isolation, identification, quantitation, and interpretation of potentially toxic substances and their biotransformation products in specimens of human and animal origin. The articles should pertain especially to the monitoring of drugs and therapeutic agents and environmental and industrial contaminants, clinical reports of poisonings (with analytical data), the development of analytical techniques, and the interpretation of the results of toxicological investigations. The methods should be applicable to the fields of forensic science, therapeutic drug monitoring, drugs-of-abuse testing, clinical and forensic toxicology, and industrial hygiene.

## Conflicts of Interest

All potential conflicts of interest must be disclosed at submission. Each author must complete the ICMJE form (http://www.icmje.org/conflicts-of-interest/), and the forms are to be submitted along with the manuscript files.

## Experimental Subjects

When human subjects are used, manuscripts must be accompanied by a statement that the experiments were undertaken with the understanding and written consent of each subject. Authors should be aware of the Code of Ethics of the World Medical Association (Declaration of Helsinki), which has been printed in the British Medical Journal (July 18, 1964). When experimental animals are used, the methods section must clearly indicate that adequate measures were taken to minimize pain or discomfort. Experiments should be carried out in accordance with the guidelines published in the NIH Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals (NIH publication no. 86-23, revised 1987) or the European Communities Council Directive of November 24, 1986 (86/609/EEC).

## Manuscript Submission

Submission of a paper to this journal implies that the manuscript has not been published in, or submitted to, any other journal and that the author(s) have obtained appropriate permission to use data obtained for and contained in the manuscript. Previous presentation at professional meetings should be mentioned in a footnote. Manuscripts should be in their final form when they are submitted, so that proofs require only correction of typographical errors. All parts of the manuscript (except figures) should be double-spaced throughout and should be in a word-processing format (e.g., .docx, .doc, .rtf, etc.).

## Manuscript Preparation

Manuscripts should be subdivided into the following sequence of sections, as applicable:

• Title page
• Abstract
• Keywords
• Introduction
• Experimental
• Apparatus
• Methods
• Results
• Discussion
• Conclusion
• Funding
• Acknowledgements
• References
• Tables
• Legends to figures
• Figures (if not in a graphic-type file like PDF, tif, eps, etc.)
• Supplementary data

The text should describe the equipment and method(s) in sufficient detail to permit replication of the results. Analytical method validation requirements can be found here

JAT is an English-language journal. Manuscripts should be written clearly and concisely according to the rules of standard English grammar, and the Editors reserve the right to reject poorly written papers without review. Authors whose first language is not English are encouraged to have their manuscripts checked by a native speaker.

The title should not be longer than 10 words. If the country where the research was performed is relevant, its name should be included. Keywords should be selected from the list at time of submission.

The Abstract should be no longer than 300 words, be comprehensible to readers, and not contain reference citations.

Original Article manuscripts should not exceed 7000 words, including the Abstract, References (~1000 words), and Tables and Figures (considered 500 words each).

Short Communication and Case Report manuscripts should not exceed 4000 words, including the Abstract,      References (~1000 words), and Tables and Figures (considered 500 words each). Case Reports should include a case history.

Tables must be separate from the manuscript text, numbered consecutively, cited in the text consecutively, and include a brief descriptive title. Footnotes are acceptable but should not include extensive experimental information.

Use standard abbreviations; all abbreviated terms should be spelled out at first occurrence in the text.

Use IUPAC units.

Any hazardous procedures or chemicals involved must be described in sufficient detail in the Experimental section to make any labs wishing to replicate the work aware of necessary safety precautions. If appropriate, disposal procedures should also be described/references provided.

Any third-party material included must have permission to reproduce from the publisher/rights holder already secured and be properly credited within the manuscript. Documentation should be submitted along with the manuscript. (Additional information may be found here.)

## Submitting a Manuscript

All manuscripts must be submitted via the online submission system http://mc.manuscriptcentral.com/jat

All text and tables must be submitted in editable formats (e.g., Word, Excel, etc.). PDFs are not acceptable.

References should be numbered consecutively and listed in order of citation (within parentheses) at the end of the text. Personal communications, unpublished results, manuscripts submitted or in preparation, statistical packages, computer programs, and websites should be cited in the text only, not included in the Reference section. (Reference format examples may be found here.)

Figure captions and tables should be at the end of the file or submitted separately.

Do not embed tables or figures in the manuscript text.

Figures should be a minimum of 300 dpi in resolution for print reproduction. (Preparation specifications and details may be found here.) There is a fee for print publication of color figures.

Supplementary data for online-only publication should be submitted in separate files from the manuscript and marked as such.

It must be referred to in the text. If you have problems or questions, contact the Editorial Office.

### Preparing Documents for Submission

• Enter text in the style and order of the Journal (see "References" section below).
• Insert figure captions and tables at the end of the file.
• Save any tables, diagrams, figures, graphs or illustrations generated electronically as separate files and not embedded into the text file. Tables must be in editable format (e.g. Excel). Figures can be in editable or image format.
• Type headings in the style of the Journal.
• Where possible use Times for the text font and Symbol for the Greek and special characters. Please use the word processing formatting features to indicate Bold, Italic, Greek, Math, Superscript and Subscript characters.

Abbreviations and Units

Any word you intend to abbreviate should be spelled out at first occurrence. The first spelled out occurrence should be followed by the abbreviation in parenthesis. Standard units of measurement may be used without definition in the body of the paper. The international system of units (IUPAC) is the preferred system for expressing measurements.

Language Editing:
Language editing, if your first language is not English, to ensure that the academic content of your paper is fully understood by journal editors and reviewers is optional. Language editing does not guarantee that your manuscript will be accepted for publication. For further information on this service, please click here. Several specialist language editing companies offer similar services and you can also use any of these. Authors are liable for all costs associated with such services.

### Safety Considerations

Detailed safety warnings about any procedures that are hazardous and use of any toxic chemicals in significant amounts must be included in the Experimental section (not Supplementary Materials) of the manuscript. Procedures requiring special precautions must be described in enough detail so that workers in the laboratory repeating the experiments can take appropriate safety measures. If appropriate for unusual chemicals, procedures and references describing their ultimate disposal should be included. Use of significantly large amounts of cancer causing chemicals such as benzene may warrant rejection of the manuscript. The use of chlorinated solvents (which are considered cancer suspect agents) for extraction or as a chromatography mobile phase component is discouraged.

### Figure/Table Permissions

In order to reproduce any third party material, including figures or tables, in an article authors must obtain permission from the copyright holder and be compliant with any requirements the copyright holder may have pertaining to this reuse.

When seeking to reproduce any kind of third party material authors should request the following:

(i) non-exclusive rights to reproduce the material in the specified article and journal;
(ii) electronic rights, preferably for use in any form or medium;
(iii) the right to use the material for the life of the work; and
(iv) world-wide English-language rights.

Further guidelines on clearing permissions can be found at: http://www.oxfordjournals.org/access_purchase/permissions_guidelines.doc

Authors should also include a statement indicating that permission has been obtained in the relevant legend/footnote and provide the Editorial Office with copies of any relevant paperwork.

A template permissions request letter can be found at the end of the above document.

Third-Party Content in Open Access papers
If you will be publishing your paper under an Open Access licence but it contains material for which you do not have Open Access re-use permissions, please state this clearly by supplying the following credit line alongside the material:

Title of content
Author, Original publication, year of original publication, by permission of [rights holder]

This image/content is not covered by the terms of the Creative Commons licence of this publication. For permission to reuse, please contact the rights holder.

### Figure Submission

1. Figure Types

Line Art
Line art has sharp, clean lines and geometrical shapes against a white background. Line art is typically used for tables, charts, graphs, and gene sequences. You can use a program like Illustrator to create high-quality line art. A minimum resolution of 300 ppi will maintain the crisp edges of the lines and shapes.
• Format: TIFF or EPS
• Minimum Resolution: 300 ppi

Grayscale
Grayscale figures contain varying tones of black and white. They contain no color, so grayscale is synonymous with "black and white." The gray scale is divided into 256 sections with black at 0 and white at 255. Software for preparation of grayscale art includes Photoshop.
• Format: TIFF or EPS
• Minimum Resolution: 300 ppi

Halftones
The best example of a halftone is a photograph, but halftones include any image that uses continuous shading or blending of colors or grays, such as gels, stains, microarrays, brain scans, and molecular structures. To prepare and manipulate halftone images, use Photoshop or a comparable photo-editing program.
• Format: TIFF
• Minimum Resolution: 300 ppi

Combination Figures
Combination figures contain two or more types of images, for example, a halftone figure containing text. You should embed the images, group the objects, or flatten the layers, and flatten transparencies before saving as TIFF at a minimum of 300 ppi.
• Format: TIFF
• Minimum Resolution: 300 ppi

Convert PowerPoint Files to High-Resolution TIFFs

Caution: Do not add artwork to your PowerPoint slides by copying from another application and then pasting into PowerPoint. Your figures will be downsampled to screen resolution. Instead use Insert > Picture > From File.
Caution: Do not use File > Save as > TIFF. This will result in a low-resolution, poor-quality figure.

Windows 98, XP, Vista and PowerPoint 2003 or 2007:

Step I: Convert PowerPoint File to PDF

There are two possible ways to create PDFs from PowerPoint files: use the Adobe PDF menu in some versions of PowerPoint, or create a PDF via the Print command.
1. Open your file in PowerPoint. From the Adobe PDF menu, select Change Conversion Settings. The PDFMaker Settings dialog displays.
2. From the Conversion settings dropdown menu, select Press Quality. Uncheck View Adobe PDF result. Click OK.
4. Click OK.
– OR -

1. Open your file in PowerPoint.
2. Select Print from the File dropdown menu.
3. Select the Adobe PDF (or similar driver) in the Printer Name window.
4. Click Properties. Change the Default Settings pull-down to Press Quality. Uncheck the "View Adobe PDF results" box if you don't want Acrobat to launch.
5. Click OK, then click OK. Pick where the PDF will be created, and click Save. Note: If your PowerPoint file contains figures on multiple slides, print each slide to a separate PDF (if you do this, skip ahead to Step III). Alternately, you can create one PDF file and then use Adobe Acrobat to separate the figures/slides into individual files, as detailed in Step II.

Step II: Convert Multi-Page PDF File to Individual Files

1. Using Adobe Acrobat Standard, open the PDF file that you created in Step 1. From the Document menu, select Pages and then Extract. The Extract Page dialog box displays.
2. Enter the page numbers in the To and From fields and then select the Delete Pages checkbox. Checking this box will delete the page that you entered in the To and From fields from the PDF file.
3. Click OK. The page that you specify in the previous step is now shown in Acrobat.
4. From the File menu, select save and enter the file name (e.g., Figure 1) for the extracted page and then click OK.
5. Repeat this process until a separate file is created for each figure/slide.

Step III: Convert Individual PDF Files to TIFFs

In Photoshop:
1. File→Open the PDF. You will need to do this one page at a time. Make sure you're importing it at 300ppi, RGB.
2. Use the Crop Tool (fifth from the top of the toolbar) to select an area close to the borders of your image. Hit Enter to apply the crop.
3. Layer→Flatten Image
4. Image→Image Size. Uncheck the Resample Image checkbox. If the Width is over 17.35cm, type 17.35 in the Width box (17.35cm is our maximum allowable width for figures). The Resolution will go up automatically as the Width decreases. If the resolution does not hit 300 when you make the Width 17.35, type 300 in Resolution and as long as Width doesn't go below 8.3cm, everything is fine. Also, the height cannot be more than 23.35. If the Height and Width are within these prescribed limits, no adjustment to your figure size needs to be made.
5. File→Save As. Save as TIFF, Image Compression set to LZW, Pixel Order set to Interleaved, Byte Order set to IBM PC.

In GIMP:
1. File→Open the PDF. You will need to do this one page at a time. Open pages as Images at 300ppi. Click Import.
2. Use the Crop Tool (third row, second from the right, looks like a knife blade) to select an area close to the borders of your image. Hit Enter to apply the crop.

3. Image→Scale Image. Set the units of measurement, in the pull down menu next to Height, to millimeters. If the Width is over 173.5mm, type 173.5 in the Width box (17.35cm is our maximum allowable width for figures) and hit Tab. The new Height of the figure will appear, scaled proportionately to the change in Width. The Width cannot be below 83.0mm, and the height cannot be more than 233.5mm. If the Height and Width are within these prescribed limits, no adjustment to your figure size needs to be made.
4. File→Save As. Click the + sign next to "Select File Type (By Extension)". From the menu that appears, select TIFF. Click Save. Set Compression set to LZW. If you're prompted about layers in the file, select Flatten Image.

In Acrobat Pro:
1. File→Open the PDF
2. If necessary, go Document→Rotate Pages to rotate the document to a horizontal orientation.
3. File→Save As. In the "Save as type" pull-down menu, select TIFF.
4. Click the Settings button on the right-hand side of the Save As dialog box. In the top third, under "File Settings", both Grayscale and Color should be set to LZW. In the bottom third, "Conversion," set Colorspace to Color:RGB, and Resolution to 300ppi. Click OK. Click Save.

Note: PDFs converted to TIFFs in this manner should still be opened in Photoshop or GIMP to crop excess white space, and make sure the figure falls within our maximums and minimums.

Convert Excel or Word Files to High-Resolution TIFFs

Windows 98, XP, Vista and Excel/Word 2003 or 2007:

Step I: Convert Excel/Word File to PDF

There are two possible ways to create PDFs from Excel/Word files: use the Adobe PDF menu in some versions of Excel/Word, or create a PDF via the Print command.
1. Open your file in Excel/Word. From the Adobe PDF menu, select Change Conversion Settings. The PDFMaker Settings dialog displays.
2. From the Conversion settings dropdown menu, select Press Quality. Uncheck View Adobe PDF result. Click OK.
4. Click OK.
– OR -
1. Open your file in Excel/Word.
2. Select Print from the File dropdown menu.
3. Select the Adobe PDF (or similar driver) in the Printer Name window.
4. Click Properties. Change the Default Settings pull-down to Press Quality. Uncheck the "View Adobe PDF results" box if you don't want Acrobat to launch.
5. Click OK, then click OK. Pick where the PDF will be created, and click Save.

Step II: Convert Individual PDF Files to TIFFs

In Photoshop:
1. File→Open the PDF. You will need to do this one page at a time. Make sure you're importing it at 300ppi, RGB.
2. Use the Crop Tool (fifth from the top of the toolbar) to select an area close to the borders of your image. Hit Enter to apply the crop.
3. Layer→Flatten Image
4. Image→Image Size. Uncheck the Resample Image checkbox. If the Width is over 17.35cm, type 17.35 in the Width box (17.35cm is our maximum allowable width for figures). The Resolution will go up automatically as the Width decreases. If the resolution does not hit 300 when you make the Width 17.35, type 300 in Resolution and as long as Width doesn't go below 8.3cm, everything is fine. Also, the height cannot be more than 23.35. If the Height and Width are within these prescribed limits, no adjustment to your figure size needs to be made.
5. File→Save As. Save as TIFF, Image Compression set to LZW, Pixel Order set to Interleaved, Byte Order set to IBM PC.

Images on disk can be accepted in Adobe PhotoShop compatible formats. Images should be saved in TIFF format. Please be aware that the figure requirements for initial online submission (peer review) and for reproduction in the journal are now the same. Authors should now supply final high-resolution .tif or .eps files for reproduction in the journal at the time of submission. Figure legends should be typed separately from the figures and placed in the main text document.

These should be submitted in the desired final printed size so that reduction can be avoided. Ideally figures should fit either a single or a double column. Images should be of sufficiently high quality with respect to detail, contrast, and fineness of grain to withstand the inevitable loss of contrast and detail inherent in the printing process. Image resolution should be a minimum of 300 dpi.

All supplementary figures and supplementary figure legends must be separate from the main document file.

Additional clarification on tables and figures can be found here.

### Color Figures

The cost of printing color figures is £350/US$600/€525 per figure. Please submit figures in color for print only if you agree to the color charge. Black & white figures may not be substituted for color figures after a manuscript has been reviewed and accepted. Authors of accepted manuscripts containing color figures in print will be obligated to pay the color figure charges. Authors ordering offprints of articles that contain color figures will incur an additional charge for color reproduction. If you ticked the color charge approval box in ScholarOne Manuscripts, the online submission site for the journal, you will incur color figure charges. Orders from the UK will be subject to the current UK VAT charge. For orders from elsewhere in the EU, you or your institution should account for VAT by way of a reverse charge. Please provide us with your or your institution’s VAT number. Alternatively, the option of colour online-only and black and white figures in print is available for no charge- please confirm if you would like this option. ### Supplementary Data Supporting material that is not essential for inclusion in the full text of the manuscript, but would nevertheless benefit the reader, can be made available by the publisher as online-only content, linked to the online manuscript. The material should not be essential to understanding the conclusions of the paper, but should contain data that is additional or complementary and directly relevant to the article content. Such information might include more detailed methods, extended data sets/data analysis, or additional figures (including color). It is standard practice for appendices to be made available online-only as supplementary material. All text and figures must be provided in separate files from the manuscript files labeled as supplementary material in suitable electronic formats (instructions for the preparation of supplementary material can be viewed here). All material to be considered as supplementary material must be submitted at the same time as the main manuscript for peer review. It cannot be altered or replaced after the paper has been accepted for publication. Please indicate clearly the material intended as supplementary material upon submission. Also ensure that the supplementary material is referred to in the main manuscript where necessary. #### Analytical Method Validation All described analytical methods must be validated. The extent of validation experiments depends on the purpose and use of the methods. For newly developed methods to be used in routine case work, a full validation must be performed. For methods developed by modification of previously validated methods it may be sufficient to re-evaluate only such parameters expected to be affected by the modifications. For ad-hoc methods to be used in single-case studies or for analysis of rare analytes, it may be sufficient to use a reduced validation design [see F.T. Peters, O.H. Drummer, and F. Musshoff. Validation of new methods. Forensic Sci. Int. 165(2-3): 216–224 (2007) and the Scientific Working Group for Forensic Toxicology (SWGTOX) Standard Practices for Method Validation in Forensic Toxicology]. Qualitative methods Validation of qualitative methods should address at least the following parameters: selectivity/specificity, limit of detection (LOD), processed sample stability, and for LC–MS(–MS) methods also address matrix effects. If regulatory cut-off values are in place, precision at the cut-off concentration should further be evaluated. Quantitative methods Validation of quantitative methods should include the following parameters: selectivity/specificity, LOD, limit of quantification (LOQ), calibration model/linearity, precision and accuracy (bias), and processed samples stability. For LC–MS(–MS) methods, experiments evaluating potential matrix effects must also be performed. Methodology must utilize appropriate an internal standard(s) when applicable, preferably a stable-isotope-labeled internal standard. For both qualitative and quantitative methods, it may be necessary to additionally determine recovery and freeze/thaw and long-term stability. Specific recommendations for validation experiments Selectivity/specificity Absence of endogenous interference should be demonstrated by absence of interfering signals in at least 10 blank matrix samples from different origin. Absence from exogenous interferences should be demonstrated by checking the absence of interfering signals from blank samples fortified with compounds likely to occur in real samples (e.g., other drugs metabolites etc.). Alternatively, authentic samples containing potentially interfering drugs with their typical in vivo metabolite pattern may be used. When using stable-isotope-labeled internal standards, absence of interference from the internal standard should be demonstrated by analysis of at least one zero sample (blank sample + internal standard). Vice versa, it should be demonstrated that the analyte does not interfere with the internal standard detection by analyzing an internal standard free blank sample fortified with a high analyte concentration. Calibration model/linearity For evaluation of the calibration model, at least 5-6 non-zero concentration levels should be studied. More concentration levels should be used for non-linear models. The number of replicates per level should be sufficient to allow a reliable detection and elimination of outliers as well as a reliable assessment of variances over the calibration range (e.g. n=5 per level). A statistical model adequately describing the response function must be established. Linear models are preferable but especially for large calibration ranges non-linear models often better describe the concentration-response curve. Weighted regression models are generally more appropriate for calibration ranges spanning more than one order of magnitude. Limit of detection The limit of detection can either be evaluated based on the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) or based on the standard deviation of the blank sample response (SDbl). S/N or the ratio of the analyte response to SDbl should be ≥ 3. It is important to note, that with methods for forensic analyses, it should be ensured that the required identification criteria are also fulfilled at the LOD. Limit of quantification The limit of quantification can either be evaluated based on S/N which should be ≥ 10 or based on acceptable accuracy and precision data of a quality control (QC) sample containing the analyte at a concentration close to the presumed LOQ. It is important to note that if the estimated LOQ is lower than the lower limit of the calibration range the latter automatically becomes the practical LOQ of the method. Accuracy and precision Accuracy and precision should be evaluated at least at two concentration levels, namely a low level within three times the LOQ and a high level near the upper limit of the calibration range. Preferably both parameters should further be evaluated at a level near the center of the calibration range. Accuracy is expressed as the percent deviation of the mean of a number of replicate QC sample analyses from the respective target concentration. Precision is expressed as the CV (%) of replicate QC measurements. Precision should be evaluated under optimum conditions with replicates being analyzed by the same person on the same day in a short period of time (repeatability or within-day precision,) and under conditions where replicates are analyzed at least on different days (intermediate precision or between-day precision). In all accuracy and precision experiments, at least 5 replicates should be evaluated per level. If the experiments are performed in a nested design with several replicates being analyzed on each of several occasions (days), they should be performed on at least 5 occasions. Also, when using a nested design, it is important to ensure that the precision components within and between occasions are correctly weighted [see J.S. Krouwer and R. Rabinowitz. How to improve estimates of imprecision. Clin. Chem. 30(2): 290-292 (1984)]. Precision data should be within 15% CV except near the LOQ where 20% may be acceptable. Accuracy results should be within ±15% of the Matrix effects in LC–MS(–MS) methods Studies on matrix effects (i.e., ion suppression or enhancement) must be performed for all LC–MS(–MS) methods. This can either be done by the post-column infusion approach or by the post-extraction addition approach. The latter is preferable in validation studies and performed at least at two concentration levels low and high relative to the calibration range. Due to the potential variability between matrix sources it is essential to use at least 5–6 blank matrix samples from different origin in these experiments. In postmortem work, it will usually be necessary to use even more different blank matrices to adequately take into account the additional variability due to decomposition processes. The variability of matrix effects between different sources of blank matrix should generally not exceed 15% CV, but larger variability may be acceptable if stable-isotope-labeled analogues are used as internal standards, that effectively compensate for variability of matrix effects. Recovery Recovery should be evaluated at least at two concentration levels, namely low and high relative to the calibration range. Preferably different sources of blank matrix should be included in the recovery experiments. For estimation of recovery the peak areas of fortified samples (n ≥ 5) should be compared to those of neat standards corresponding to 100% recovery. It is important to note, that for LC–MS(–MS)-based methods the neat standards must be replaced by blank matrix extracts fortified with an appropriate amount of analyte after extraction in order compensate for matrix effects. Stability Experiments on freeze/thaw stability and long-term stability are generally not necessary if such stability data are available in the literature. If such data are not available, stability can be tested by comparing quantitative results of ≥ 5 replicates of untreated (e.g., freshly fortified samples) with those obtained for ≥ 5 replicates of the same samples after treatment, i.e. repeated freezing and thawing or long-term storage. The stability of processed samples which may depend on sample preparation should be evaluated for all newly developed methods. This can be achieved by comparing absolute peaks areas after repeatedly re-injecting prepared samples over a certain time interval. A significant decrease of peak areas over time indicates instability of processed samples. ## References Journal article (already published in an issue): Reisfield, G.M.; Goldberger, B.A.; Crews, B.O.; Pesce, A.J.; Wilson, G.R.; Teitelbaum, S.A.; Bertholf, R.L. (2011) Ethyl glucuronide, ethyl sulfate, and ethanol in urine after sustained exposure to an ethanol-based hand sanitizer. Journal of Analytical Toxicology, 35, 85–91. Bertholf, R.L.; Bertholf, A.L.; Reisfield, G.M.; Goldberger, B.A. (2011) Respiratory exposure to ethanol vapor during use of hand sanitizers: is it significant? Journal of Analytical Toxicology, 35, 319–320. Journal article (e-pub ahead of print): Fling, B.W.; Fundamental differences in callosal structure, neurophysiologic function, and bimanual control in young and older adults; Cerebral Cortex, December 12, 2011: 10.1093/cercor/bhr349 Chapter in a book: Felsot, A., (2006) The evolution of agricultural practices, pest control technologies, and public expectations. In Felsot, A. and Racke, K. (eds.), Certified organic and biologically derived pesticides, 1st edition, Chapter 1. Oxford University Press, New York, NY, pp. 5–l30. Jones, A.W. (2011) Driving under the influence of alcohol. In Moffat, A.C.; Osselton, M.D.; Widdop, B.; and Watts, J. (eds), Clarke’s analysis of drugs and poisons, 4th edition, Volume 1, Chapter 4. Pharmaceutical Press, London, U.K., pp. 87–114. Book (Editor as author): Tu, A. and Gaffield, W. (eds) (2000) Natural and selected synthetic toxins. Oxford University Press, New York, NY, pp. 50–105. Book (no Editor): Baselt, R.C. (2011) Disposition of toxic drugs and chemicals in man, 9th edition. Biomedical Publications, Seal Beach, CA, pp. 1144–1148. Number of authors: Single author: Shaw, S. Two authors: Kennedy, T. and Jones, R. More than three authors: Zerjal, T., Singh, L. and Thangaraj, Jr K. More than six authors: If more than 6, retain first six authors and put et al Electronic source: (2006) The Forensic Toxicology Laboratory Guidelines—2006 Version. Society of Forensic Toxicologists/American Academy of Forensic Sciences. http://soft-tox.org/files/Guidelines_2006_Final.pdf (accessed 5 March 2012). ## PROOFS Authors are sent page proofs. Please provide an email address to enable page proofs to be sent as PDF files via email. To avoid delays in publication, proofs should be checked immediately for typographical errors. ## LICENSE TO PUBLISH/ OFFPRINTS Upon receipt of accepted manuscripts at Oxford Journals authors will be invited to complete an online copyright license to publish form. This ensures that requests from third parties to reproduce articles are handled efficiently and consistently and will also allow the article to be as widely disseminated as possible. In granting an exclusive license, authors may use their own material in publications provided that the Journal is acknowledged as the original place of publication, and Oxford University Press is notified in writing and in advance. In consideration for granting an exclusive license, the publisher will provide free online access to your article. Printed offprints may be ordered at extra cost at the proof stage. To download the offprint form, please click here. Orders from the UK will be subject to the current UK VAT charge. For orders from elsewhere in the EU you or your institution should account for VAT by way of a reverse charge. Please provide us with your or your institution’s VAT number. Please note that by submitting an article for publication you confirm that you are the corresponding/submitting author and that Oxford University Press ("OUP") may retain your email address for the purpose of communicating with you about the article. You agree to notify OUP immediately if your details change. If your article is accepted for publication OUP will contact you using the email address you have used in the registration process. Please note that OUP does not retain copies of rejected articles. ## OPEN ACCESS OPTION FOR AUTHORS Journal of Analytical Toxicology authors have the option to publish their paper under the Oxford Open initiative; whereby, for a charge, their paper will be made freely available online immediately upon publication. After your manuscript is accepted the corresponding author will be required to accept a mandatory license to publish agreement. As part of the licensing process you will be asked to indicate whether or not you wish to pay for open access. If you do not select the open access option, your paper will be published with standard subscription-based access and you will not be charged. Oxford Open articles are published under Creative Commons licences. Authors publishing in The Journal of Analytical Toxicology can use the following Creative Commons licence for their articles: • Creative Commons Non-Commercial licence (CC BY-NC) Please click here for more information about the Creative Commons licences. You can pay Open Access charges using our Author Services site. This will enable you to pay online with a credit/debit card, or request an invoice by email or post. The open access charges applicable are: Regular charge - £2000/$3200 / €2600
Reduced Rate Developing country charge* - £1000 / $1600 / €1300 Free Developing country charge* - £0 /$0 / €0

Please note that these charges are in addition to any colour/page charges that may

Orders from the UK will be subject to the current UK VAT charge. For orders from the rest of the European Union, OUP will assume that the service is provided for business purposes. Please provide a VAT number for yourself or your institution and ensure you account for your own local VAT correctly.

## FUNDING

Please submit a separate title page (to be designated as “Title Page”) with author address and contact details, funding sources, word count and any acknowledgements.

For the funding statement the following rules should be followed:

• The sentence should begin: ‘This work was supported by …’
• The full official funding agency name should be given, i.e. ‘the National Cancer Institute at the National Institutes of Health’ or simply 'National Institutes of Health' not ‘NCI' (one of the 27 subinstitutions) or 'NCI at NIH’ (full RIN-approved list of UK funding agencies) Grant numbers should be complete and accurate and provided in brackets as follows: ‘[grant number ABX CDXXXXXX]’
• Multiple grant numbers should be separated by a comma as follows: ‘[grant numbers ABX CDXXXXXX, EFX GHXXXXXX]’
• Agencies should be separated by a semi-colon (plus ‘and’ before the last funding agency)
• Where individuals need to be specified for certain sources of funding the following text should be added after the relevant agency or grant number 'to [author initials]'.
• An example is given here: ‘This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health [AA123456 to C.S., BB765432 to M.H.]; and the Alcohol & Education Research Council [P50 CA098252 and CA118790 to R.B.S.R.].’

Oxford Journals will deposit all NIH-funded articles in PubMed Central. See http://www.oxfordjournals.org/for_authors/repositories.html for details. Authors must ensure that manuscripts are clearly indicated as NIH-funded using the guidelines above.

Crossref Funding Data Registry
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