Karen Page Winterich, Vikas Mittal, William T. Ross, Jr.; Donation Behavior toward In-Groups and Out-Groups: The Role of Gender and Moral Identity. J Consum Res 2009; 36 (2): 199-214. doi: 10.1086/596720
We investigate how two important social identities—gender identity and moral identity—result in differential donations to in-groups and out-groups. Results from three studies indicate that moral identity importance tends to increase donations to out-groups (Iraq, Indonesia) and not to in-groups (London, New Orleans). However, this occurs only for consumers with a feminine gender identity. For consumers with a masculine gender identity, moral identity importance increases donations to the in-group but not the out-group. Inclusion of Other in the Self (IOS) mediates the moderating role of gender identity on the effect of moral identity on in-group and out-group donations.