Abstract

Field-based experiments were used to determine the lethal activity of insecticides on apple maggot, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh) (Diptera: Tephritidae), eggs and larvae in apple ( Malis spp.) fruit. The organophosphates azinphosmethyl and phosmet and the neonicotinoids thiacloprid, acetamiprid, clothianidin, and thiamethoxam showed significant curative activity on the apple maggot postinfestation, when applied topically to apple fruit 24 h postharvest. Of the compounds tested, only phosmet showed significant curative activity on apple maggot when applied 14 d postharvest. The pyrethroid esfenvalerate, oxadiazine indoxacarb, anthranilic diamide chlorantraniliprole, and spinosyns spinosad and spinetoram did not show activity on apple maggot eggs and larvae in fruit. Residue profiles showed that for most compounds, the majority (>85%) of residues were found in the skin and the outside 2 mm of the apple flesh. For the neonicotinoid compounds, however, substantial portions of residues were found to penetrate in and beyond the outer flesh regions, and the total flesh residue recoveries were generally greater than those from the skin. Residues of azinphosmethyl and phosmet were detected in all three flesh regions, with the largest proportions recovered from the skin.

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