K. Futami, A. Valderrama, M. Baldi, N. Minakawa, R. Marín Rodríguez, L. F. Chaves; New and Common Haplotypes Shape Genetic Diversity in Asian Tiger Mosquito Populations from Costa Rica and Panamá. J Econ Entomol 2015; 108 (2): 761-768. doi: 10.1093/jee/tou028
The Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae), is a vector of several human pathogens. Ae. albopictus is also an invasive species that, over recent years, has expanded its range out of its native Asia. Ae. albopictus was suspected to be present in Central America since the 1990s, and its presence was confirmed by most Central American nations by 2010. Recently, this species has been regularly found, yet in low numbers, in limited areas of Panamá and Costa Rica (CR). Here, we report that short sequences (∼558 bp) of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI) and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 5 genes of Ae. albopictus, had no haplotype diversity. Instead, there was a common haplotype for each gene in both CR and Panamá. In contrast, a long COI sequence (∼1,390 bp) revealed that haplotype diversity (±SD) was relatively high in CR (0.72 ± 0.04) when compared with Panamá (0.33 ± 0.13), below the global estimate for reported samples (0.89 ± 0.01). The long COI sequence allowed us to identify seven (five new) haplotypes in CR and two (one new) in Panamá. A haplotype network for the long COI gene sequence showed that samples from CR and Panamá belong to a single large group. The long COI gene sequences suggest that haplotypes in Panamá and CR, although similar to each other, had a significant geographic differentiation (Kst = 1.33; P < 0.001). Thus, most of our results suggest a recent range expansion in CR and Panamá.