Gonococcal (GC) infections are very common and are sustained by a core group of persons who often have repeated GC infections. Identifying individual risk factors for repeated GC infection is essential so that infection control programs can develop better strategies for decreasing the incidence of GC infection. A case-control study among high-risk persons found that being African American, having previous chlamydia infection, and having less than a high-school education were associated with repeated GC infections. Remarkably, measures of sexual behavior and access to health care were not associated with repeated GC infections. These findings suggest that among high-risk persons, the community prevalence of GC infection is more important in predicting risk for repeated GC infections than individual behavior. Interventions should include continued use of resources in high-prevalence communities and better understanding of the roles social and economic discrimination play in the risk for GC infections.