Abstract

Paragalboa acutagen. & sp. n. is described and illustrated from Madagascar. The new genus shows morphological affinities to the Macropsini genus Galboa Distant recorded from Seychelles. A checklist of all known genera of Macropsinae is provided.

Members of the leafhopper subfamily Macropsinae are of nearly worldwide distribution with endemic genera and species on all continents except South America and Antarctica. Most macropsines appear to be specialized feeders on particular genera or species of woody hosts but a few inhabit grasslands or deserts and feed on herbs. In the current classification, the tribe is organized into 18 genera: Asmaropsis Linnavuori, Galboa Distant, Hephathus Ribaut, Macropsella Hamilton, Macropsidius Ribaut, Macropsis Lewis, Oncopsis Burmeister, Pedionis Hamilton, Pediopsis Burmeister, Pediopsoides Matsumura, Reticopsella Viraktamath, Reticopsis Hamilton, Ruandopsis Linnavuori, Stenopsoides Evans, Stenoscopus Evans, Toropsis Hamilton, Varicopsella Hamilton and Zelopsis Evans.

A recent study of a collection of samples from Madagascar revealed the presence of a new endemic genus, Paragalboa. This new genus resembles Galboa from Seychelles in having a long rostrum extending to the base of the hind trochanters, which distinguishes them from other genera (Figs. 1–12)in this tribe.

Figs. 1–12.

Face (1) Macropsella; (2) Macropsidius; (3) Macropsis; (4) Oncopsis; (5) Pedionis; (6) Pediopsis; (7) Pediopsoides; (8) Ruandopsis; (9) Stenoscopus; (10) Toropsis; (11) Vericopsella; (12) Zelopsis.

Figs. 1–12.

Face (1) Macropsella; (2) Macropsidius; (3) Macropsis; (4) Oncopsis; (5) Pedionis; (6) Pediopsis; (7) Pediopsoides; (8) Ruandopsis; (9) Stenoscopus; (10) Toropsis; (11) Vericopsella; (12) Zelopsis.

Galboa was established by Distant (1909) with Galboa typicaDistant, 1909 (Figs. 18–20) as the type species. The most distinctive characters are the notched clypellus and the long rostrum. Galboa was erected based on a female specimen and is still known only from the type specimen of the type species (China, 1925; Hamilton, 1980) thus the male genitalia have not been described. Based upon careful examination of well-preserved male and female specimens from Madagascar, a new genus is described. The new genus can be distinguished from Galboa by the apex of the clypellus lacking a notch, the forewing veins lacking white spots, the shorter body length and characters of the female 7th sternite.

Figs. 13–20.

(13–17) Paragalboa acuta n. gen. & sp.; (18–20) Galboa typica (after China, 1925); (13) Body, dorsal view; (14) Habitus, lateral view; (15, 18) Head and pronotum, dorsal view; (16, 19) Face; (17, 20) Female 7th sternite.

Figs. 13–20.

(13–17) Paragalboa acuta n. gen. & sp.; (18–20) Galboa typica (after China, 1925); (13) Body, dorsal view; (14) Habitus, lateral view; (15, 18) Head and pronotum, dorsal view; (16, 19) Face; (17, 20) Female 7th sternite.

Material and Methods

The specimens were collected using Malaise traps. External characters and genital structures were examined under Olympus SZX12 and Olympus U-DA microscopes. Morphological techniques and terminologies follow Hamilton (1980) and Zhang (1990), the rows of setae on the legs follows Rakitov (1998). Holotype specimen as well as half paratype specimens described in this study are deposited in the California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco, CA (CAS), remaining half paratypes are deposited in the Illinois Natural History Survey, Champaign, USA (INHS).

Nomenclature

This paper and the nomenclatural act it contains have been registered in Zoobank (www.zoobank.org), the official register of the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature. The LSID (Life Science Identifier) number of the publication is: urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:C0FD25EF-23A1-4559-BFC1-8203F387030D

Generic Checklist of World Macropsinae

Subgenus Varicopsella (Multispinulosa) Li, Dai and Li is excluded from the list, the status of this subgenus may need more verification.

Asmaropsis Linnavuori

AsmaropsisLinnavuori, 1978: 17

Type species:Asmaropsis troilosLinnavuori, 1978

Galboa Distant

GalboaDistant, 1909: 45

Type species:Galboa typicaDistant, 1909

Hephathus Ribaut

HephathusRibaut, 1952: 437

Type species:Bythoscopus nanus Herrich-Schäffer, 1835

Macropsella Hamilton

MacropsellaHamilton, 1980: 901

Type species:Macropsis saidora Evans, 1971

Macropsidius Ribaut

MacropsidiusRibaut, 1952: 436

Type species:Pediopsis dispar Fieber, 1868

Macropsis (Macropsis) Lewis

MacropsisLewis, 1834: 49

TsavopsisLinnavuori, 1978: 14 [synonymized by Hamilton, 1980: 904]

Type species:Jassus prasinus Boheman, 1852

Macropsis (Neomacropsis) Hamilton

Macropsis (Neomacropsis) Hamilton, 1980: 911

Type species:Pediopsis basalis Van Duzee, 1889

Macropsis (Parapediopsis) Hamilton

Macropsis (Parapediopsis) Hamilton, 1980: 905

Type species:Macropsis benguetensis Merino, 1936

Macropsis (Spinomacropsis) Li

Macropsis (Spinomacropsis) Li et al., 2013: 58

Type species:Macropsis flavovirens Kuoh, 1992

Oncopsis (Oncopsis) Burmeister

Bythoscopus (Oncopsis) Burmeister, 1838: 10 [elevated to genus level by Westwood, 1840: 117]

ZinnecaAmyot & Serville, 1843: 579 [synonymized by Hamilton, 1980: 887]

Type species:Cicada flavicollis Linnaeus, 1761

Oncopsis (Parasitades) Singh-Pruthi

ParasitadesSingh-Pruthi, 1936: 106 [reduced to subgenus by Hamilton, 1980: 890]

Type species:Parasitades baileyiSingh-Pruthi, 1936

Pedionis (Pedionis) Hamilton

Pedionis (Pedionis) Hamilton, 1980: 894

Type species:Pediopsis garuda Distant, 1916

Pedionis (Thyia) Hamilton

Pedionis (Thyia) Hamilton, 1980: 894

Type species:Macropsis thyia Kirkaldy, 1907

Pediopsis Burmeister

Bythoscopus (Pediopsis) Burmeister, 1838: 11 [elevated to genus level by Kirkaldy, 1903: 214]

Type species:Jassus tiliae Germar, 1831

Pediopsoides (Pediopsoides) Matsumura

PediopsoidesMatsumura, 1912: 305

DigitalisLiu & Zhang, 2002: 175 [synonymized by Dai & Zhang, 2009: 23]

Type species:Pediopsoides formosanusMatsumura, 1912

Pediopsoides (Celopsis) Hamilton

Pediopsoides (Celopsis) Hamilton, 1980: 896

Type species:Macropsis dapitana Merino, 1936

Pediopsoides (Sispocnis) Anufriev

Oncopsis (Sispocnis) Anufriev, 1967: 174 [combined by Hamilton, 1980: 897]

Type species:Bythoscopus kogotensisMatsumura, 1912

Pediopsoides (Nanopsis) Freytag

NanopsisFreytag, 1974: 605 [reduced to subgenus by Hamilton, 1980: 897]

Type species:Jassus verticus Say, 1830

Pediopsoides (Kiamoncopsis) Linnavuori

KiamoncopsisLinnavuori, 1978: 15 [reduced to subgenus by Hamilton, 1980: 899]

Type species:Kiamoncopsis quartauiLinnavuori, 1978

Reticopsella Viraktamath

ReticopsellaViraktamath, 1996: 184

Type species:Reticopsella orientalisViraktamath, 1996

Reticopsis Hamilton

ReticopsisHamilton, 1980: 885

Type species:Pediopsis nubila Van Duzee, 1890

Ruandopsis Linnavuori

RuandopsisLinnavuori, 1978: 15

Type species:Ruandopsis kayoveaLinnavuori, 1978

Stenopsoides Evans

StenopsoidesEvans, 1941: 153

Type species:Stenopsoides turneriEvans, 1941

Stenoscopus Evans

StenoscopusEvans, 1934: 166

Type species: Stenoscopus drummondiEvans, 1934

Toropsis Hamilton

ToropsisHamilton, 1980: 886

Type species:Oncopsis balli Kirkaldy, 1907

Varicopsella Hamilton

VaricopsellaHamilton, 1980: 900

Type species:Macropsis breakeyi Merino, 1936

Zelopsis Evans

ZelopsisEvans, 1966: 168

Type species:Zelopsis nothofagiEvans, 1966

Paragalboa gen. nov.

(urn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:786ED9BB-64D8-43AF-BEA7-0EE8F3908619)

Type species:Paragalboa acutasp. n., original designation

Coloration and morphology. Body brown (or green), wedge-shaped. Crown in dorsal view angulate, shorter medially than next to eye. Face width across eyes approximately equal to length; clypeal suture absent; clypeo-loral suture poorly developed; clypellus produced distally, without apical notch; Ocelli white, about 4 times closer to adjacent eyes than to each other. Pronotum declivous anteriorly, almost as wide as the head in dorsal view, with oblique series of elliptical punctuations terminating on posterior margin. Scutellum broadly triangular, longer than pronotum, punctate medially. Forewing with three closed anteapical cells. Hind tibia chaetotaxy PD 12, AD 8, AV 5.

Male genitalia. Male pygofer side slightly higher than long, with ventral process well developed, slender and elongate. Subgenital plates slightly broadened distally with numerous irregularly arranged long fine setae. Aedeagus tubular, shaft slender, bent dorsally, gonopore apical; dorsal apodeme well developed, columnlike. Style slender, slightly broadened pre-apically. Connective small, median anterior lobe well developed between dorsally bent anterolateral arms. Paired dorsal connectives large and well sclerotized.

Distribution. Madagascar.

Etymology. This new genus name is intended to accentuate its morphological similarity to Galboa. Gender: female.

Notes. The long rostrum of Paragalboa resembles that of Galboa and the occurrence of both genera in the Malagasy subregion suggests that they are related. However, Paragalboa is smaller than Galboa, lacks white spots on the forewing veins, has the clypellus produced apically (not notched as in Galboa), and has the female 7th sternite strongly produced rather than concave posteriorly. Until males are described for Galboa, the relationship between these genera will remain uncertain. The male genitalia of Paragalboa resembles those of Ruandopsis, recorded from Africa and the Australian region, and Macropsella, recorded from the Australian region.

Paragalboa acuta sp. nov.

(Figs. 13–17, 21–27)

Figs. 21–27.

Paragalboa acuta sp. nov. (21) Male pygofer and subgenital plate, lateral view; (22) Aedeagus, ventral view; (23) Aedeagus, lateral view; (24) Connective, ventral view; (25) Connective, lateral view; (26) Style, lateral view; (27) Dorsal connective, lateral view.

Figs. 21–27.

Paragalboa acuta sp. nov. (21) Male pygofer and subgenital plate, lateral view; (22) Aedeagus, ventral view; (23) Aedeagus, lateral view; (24) Connective, ventral view; (25) Connective, lateral view; (26) Style, lateral view; (27) Dorsal connective, lateral view.

(urn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:D6FB11F1-8BCA-470D-82FA-8BF31937C8A7)

Male. Body length including tegmina 3.3 mm.

Coloration. Body dull stramineous (Fig. 13). Mesonotum with basolateral angles dark brown (Fig. 15). Face infused with brown dorsally, darker near eyes, eyes red brown. Ocelli white (Fig. 16). Forewing hyaline except with white opaque sclerotization in costal cell, veins pale except with some infuscation near apex (Fig. 14).

Morphology. External morphology as described for genus.

Male genitalia. Pygofer with ventral process arising on ventral margin and curved dorsad along the margin of lobe, not reaching the upper margin. Subgenital plate with marginal setae on dorsal region, apex with denser setae (Fig. 21). Aedeagus tubular, shaft slender, bent dorsally, gonopore apical (Figs. 22 and 23). Style slender, slightly broadened preapically, with sparse row of fine setae dorsally, apex upturned (Fig. 26). Dorsal connectives M-shaped with slender ends, front end tapered and caudal end foot shaped (Fig. 27).

Female. Body length including tegmina 3.5–3.7 mm.

Body colouration and appearance similar to those of males, but body size larger. 7th sternite, about twice as long as 6th, strongly produced in middle of posterior margin and with the caudal margin concave (Fig. 17).

Type Material. HOLOTYPE: 1 male, Madagascar: Diego-Suarez Province Parc National Montagne D’Ambre, 26-I-2001, 960m, 12°30’52”S, 49°10’53”E, ME Irwin, EI Schlinger, R. Harin’Hala; PARATYPES: 2 males, 6 females, same data.

Etymology. This new specific epithet refers to the tapering end of the dorsal connectives.

Acknowledgments

We express our sincere thanks to J. R. Schrock, Emporia State University, USA, for revising this manuscript. This project is supported by the National Science Foundation of China (31272346, 31420103911).

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Author notes

Subject Editor: Roland Muehlethaler
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