The Journal of Mammalogy (JM) is an international, peer-reviewed publication of the American Society of Mammalogists (ASM). We publish manuscripts presenting original research and scholarship on mammals, including topics in mammalian evolution, ecology, behavior, systematics, management, and conservation. Articles should be of interest to a broad scientific readership and may include theoretical or empirical studies that advance our understanding of any aspect of mammalian biology. Book reviews generally may be solicited or readers may request to review a book of general interest to mammalogists (contact the Editor for Reviews). JM also publishes announcements of interest to ASM members.
All submissions are subject to review. Initial review is done by our Editor-in-Chief and by 1 of the Associate Editors, who evaluate whether the manuscript is of sufficient quality and general interest for outside review. Manuscripts that pass this initial evaluation will be sent to 1 or more outside reviewers, who may elect to remain anonymous. The assigned Associate Editor then evaluates the reviews and the manuscript and makes a recommendation to the Editor-in-Chief, who makes the final decision regarding suitability for publication.
The editors reserve the right to edit all manuscripts for style and clarity. Contributions are accepted for review and publication on the condition that they are submitted solely to JM and will not be reprinted or translated without the publisher’s permission, although authors retain copyrights. ASM recommends that original data reported be deposited in a suitable public repository. Send inquiries to the editorial office.
Submit all manuscripts through ScholarOne. Once you have prepared your manuscript according to the instructions below, please visit the online submission web site. All articles must include a statement in the Materials and Methods section confirming that the study conforms to published ASM guidelines for the use of wild mammals in research (see below) as well as to any relevant institutional requirements (e.g., in the United States, IACUC approval must be confirmed). Submissions from authors whose research involved the use of “human subjects” (as defined in federal law) must include evidence of approval from an institutional review board.
Use double-spacing and 12-point Times New Roman font throughout all text, tables, Literature Cited, and figure legends. Number all pages and insert line numbers continuously throughout your manuscript. Avoid the use of footnotes in the text. Put figure legends, tables, and appendices at the end of the document, not embedded in-line in the text. The title page should contain authors’ names, titles, affiliations, and postal and e-mail addresses. Figures should be submitted as separate, individual files.
Follow Scientific Style and Format: The CSE Manual for Authors, Editors, and Publishers (currently in its 8th ed.), for conventions in biology. JM uses idiomatic American English. Mammal Species of the World, 3rd ed., or Handbook of the Mammals of the World (5 of 9 volumes published as of March 2016) are our baselines for mammalian taxonomy. Newer names are accepted; older names need justification. Serial commas should be employed (“a, b, and c” rather than “a, b and c”). Avoid modifier strings, sequential parentheses, and lost subjects. Distinguish between hyphens (“wild-caught”), en-dashes (“4–5 dolphins”), and em-dashes (used in many JM subheading styles). En-dashes and em-dashes may be inserted as Special Characters; em-dashes may also be indicated with 3 sequential dashes.
Symbols, abbreviations, acronyms, and units of measure.
Define all nonstandard symbols, and spell out all acronyms at first use. Avoid abbreviations and acronyms unless a term is used numerous times (minimum 3–5). Use the metric system, SI units (Système international d’unités), to express weights and measures. For details on technical style follow the most recent edition of the CSE Manual. “Holocene” not “Recent”; “K/Pg” not “K/T”; use BP for years before present, My to indicate 106 years, and Ma to indicate million years ago (equivalent to Ma BP for million years before present); e.g., “The Cretaceous Periods lasted 80 My, from 144 Ma to 65 Ma” (from CSE 8th ed.). Numerals should be used for all quantities, even those <10 (e.g., 1 vole, 5 traps), and 1st, 2nd, etc., should be used when indicating a series of things (e.g., 1st row, 2nd chromosome). “One” should be spelled out in narrative use (e.g., “on one hand,” “one might imagine”), as should ordinals (e.g., “we first attempted,” “our second analysis”).
All details of statistical outcomes reported should be provided, and degrees of freedom should be reported as subscripts of test statistics (e.g., t2 = 3.76, P < 0.04; F6,198 = 0.253, P = 0.618).
Other statistical standards:
SD, SE, d.f.
All tests in italics: F, G, H, P, R, r, R2, t, U, V, W, z, etc.
Spell out mean in text, but use X̅ with values; e.g., "We report mean ± SD", but "10.4 ± 2.3 (X̅ ± SD).
Spell out Chi-square test but use X2 with values; e.g., “We used a chi-square test . . .”, but X2 = 234.55."
Define analysis of variance and other statistical acronyms (e.g., coefficient of variation, confidence interval, etc.) at 1st use; thereafter use ANOVA, CV, CI, etc.
Always a space on either side of =, <, >, ≤, ≥.
Use a / only for ratios, never to combine nouns (e.g., "forest/savanna"). Do not use "and/or," usually "or" will suffice.
Your manuscript should include the following sections, in order: title page, abstract, Introduction (no subheading), Materials and Methods, Results, Discussion, Acknowledgments, Supplementary Data (if needed), Literature Cited, Figure Legends, Tables, Appendix(es) if needed. Figures are kept separate from text files.
- Title page should include:
- Contact information for corresponding author, including email address (single spaced).
- Running Header (a short identification, not a title, ≤ 40 characters including spaces; normal font).
- Title (Bold, left-justified text; capitalize only the 1st word and proper nouns; ≤ 15 words).
- Names of authors (Normal font NOT ALL CAPS or SMALL CAPS, left-justified text, with asterisk to identify corresponding author).
- Affiliations of authors (Normal font in italics, left-justified, with author initials in parentheses following the appropriate address).
- Abstract. Summarizes key findings. NO heading. ≤ 5% of the length of the text (Introduction through Discussion).All manuscripts reporting on research from Latin America MUST include a summary in either Spanish, Portuguese, or both, usually a translation of the abstract. For work based in other non-English speaking countries, a foreign-language abstract is encouraged and welcome. No heading is required for the translation. This abstract should be placed after the English abstract and before the keywords.
- Key words, ≤ 10 words, alphabetized and separated by commas.
- "*Correspondent:" followed by email address of corresponding author.
- Text of manuscript.
- The JM employs up to 4 levels of headings, but most articles should restrict use to levels 1 and 3 only. See recent issues for examples.
CAP AND SMALL CAP, BOLD, CENTERED
Cap and Lowercase Italic, Centered
Italic, paragraph indent, initial cap only: lowercase after colon.—Text follows em-dash, or 3 dashes.
Roman, Paragraph Indent, Caps: lowercase after colon – Text follows a standard en-dash, or 2 dashes.
- Additionally, taxonomic synonymic headings may be used. These differ from headings listed above, and include full attribution of the author of the name followed by a comma and the year of publication. Common names of new species, if provided, are centered on the next line. NOTE that attribution is distinct from citation, and this formatting style formally distinguishes nomenclatural attribution from literature citation (which lack the comma), although authors should include these nomenclatural references in the Literature Cited. This formatting keeps the JM consistent with attribution given in synonymies for Mammalian Species; for further guidance see Gardner and Hayssen (2004) 'A guide to constructing and understanding synonymies for Mammalian Species' (Mammalian Species 739:1–17):
(genus and species indeterminate)
Rattus detentus, new species Timm, Weijola, Aplin, Flannery, and Pine
Sorex merriami Dobson, 1890
Crocidura rapax G. Allen, 1923
Meriones unguiculatus (Milne-Edwards, 1867)
- Left-justify text following a #1 header unless this includes a lower header; indent subsequent paragraphs.
- Introduction. No heading for this section. Left-justify first paragraph.
- Materials and Methods. Use #1 header style. Must include a statement indicating that research on live animals followed ASM guidelines (Sikes et al. 2016. Journal of Mammalogy in press) and, if appropriate, was approved by an institutional animal care and use committee (IACUC). All DNA sequences must be submitted to GenBank, and accession numbers provided in the manuscript before publication. Museum catalog numbers for all voucher specimens (including associated tissue) examined must be included in the manuscript (in an Appendix if numerous). Consult recent issues of the JM for examples.
- Results. Use #1 header style. Presentation should be succinct and supported by data and analyses. Methods and interpretation belong elsewhere.
- Discussion. Use #1 heading style. No “Summary” or “Conclusion”. JM does not use combined “Results and Discussion” sections, these must be separate.
- Acknowledgments (note spelling). Use #1 header style. These should be kept brief but should mention sources of funding, including grant numbers if appropriate.
- Supplementary Data, if included (see below). Use #1 header style.
- Literature Cited (see below; not “References”). Use #1 header style.
- Figure Legends (see below). Use #1 heading style, start on a separate page. All figures must be interpretable without reference to the manuscript; that is, they should “stand alone.” Legends should therefore include species names, locations, and dates of collection for information. Legends for all figures must be provided on a single, separate page, not on the figure images. “Figure Legends” should be written at the top of the page, followed by the legends in numerical order and double-spaced.
- Tables (complete tables with legends; see below). Each table should begin on a separate page.
- Appendices, if included.
- Figures (see below).
Papers that present new names or other nomenclatural acts are regulated by the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (The Code). For JM, new taxa must include a name, stating specifically that it is a new taxon (see sec. 2.b. for an example); species descriptions should include designation of a holotype and where it is deposited, type locality, diagnosis, description, etymology, nomenclatural statement (prepared by JM editorial staff), and comparisons with other taxa; other common sections may include paratypes (or other types), common name, general description, distribution, ecology, and other sections as necessary. For new genus-group names, a type species must be fixed. For family-group names, the type genus must be fixed. Nomenclatural papers will be registered (by JM editorial staff) with ZooBank (http://zoobank.org/) and a Life Sciences Identifier number (LSID) will be secured. New names should use the heading styles presented above (sec. 2.b). See recent issues of the JM for examples. We recommend #3 subheadings for these subsections.
Supplementary Data that add depth to a manuscript but are not essential to a reader’s understanding of the research (e.g., spreadsheets, databases, equations, video or audio files, tables or figures) may be hosted online. They can be supplied as text, audio, or video files and uploaded as separate supplementary materials during the submission process. Supplementary Data files will not be edited and should conform to JM style; editors and reviewers will view the file during peer review, but we will not copyedit, typeset, or format supplementary data. The material must be ready for e-posting when the manuscript is submitted for review. Supplementary Data files should be referenced in your manuscript, e.g., “see Supplementary Data S1”. All supplementary data, be they tables, figures, text, videos, etc., should be labeled as “Supplementary Data S1, S2, S3…,” consecutively through the manuscript. A short legend for each supplementary data file should be included in a section titled, “Supplementary Data,” and appearing before the Literature Cited section. Note that whereas “Supplementary Data” uses a #1 heading style, subsequent references to each supporting document should be formatted as follows:
Roman, Bold, No Indent, Cap and Lowercase Followed by Period.—Text follows em-dash.
Because e-only Supplementary Data files are published separately from the manuscript, they need to stand alone. If references are cited in the Supplementary Data but not in the regular article, the references should appear at the end of the Supplementary Data file. References that appear only in the Supplementary Data should not be listed in the Literature Cited section of the manuscript.
Supplementary data can be hosted online in document files (Word, Excel, PDF, etc.). Audio and video files should be no more than 10 minutes in length. Video files may be supplied by authors in .avi, .mov, .mp4, .mpg, .flv, .swf format, MPEG-2, or MPEG-4 preferred. If an author submits a video file, the author is encouraged to submit a still shot from the video (JPG, TIF, or EPS) to use for a thumbnail that can be placed in the article. Audio files should be mp3. Three-dimensional objects and geographic information system data should be KML files.
Supplementary Data files should be used sparingly. They are not a place to archive raw data or dump large amounts of statistical output. Supplementary Data files should enhance or elaborate on the study, but not be critical to its interpretation; material needed to understand or interpret results should be included in the manuscript.
List all works cited in the text in the Literature Cited section, including authority citations for scientific names in systematic papers but excluding references used only in Supplementary Data. Works that are not cited should not be listed. Submitted manuscripts must be ‘in press’ or removed before manuscript acceptance. Unpublished data and reports cannot be cited in the manuscript or listed in the Literature Cited; use pers. comm. or pers. obs. instead. The number of references cited should suffice to lead readers to key literature. Use the lowest number of references necessary; rarely are more than 3 citations needed for a given point.
Personal communications should be cited parenthetically in the text; the citation should include the source’s name and affiliation and the date of the communication: (Henry J. Smith, [university or other affiliation, city, state], personal communication, [month and year of communication]). Submit letters from authors of personal communications giving permission to use the material.
Cite literature in text using the “Name-Year” format as presented in the CSE guidelines. Multiple in-text citations are ordered chronologically (Author 1998; Author 1999, 2000). If a reference was published in a different year than that presented in a book, insert the correct year in square brackets; e.g., “Gardner ” (see below for formatting these in the Literature Cited). Use the 1st author’s last name and “et al.” for in-text citation of works with more than 2 authors or editors, and cite in chronological order by lead author (e.g., if Jones, Smith, and Andrews 2000 and Jones, Andrews, and Smith 2001 were cited simultaneously, this should be cited as Jones et al. 2000, 2001). For multiple works by an author in the same year, cite as “a”, “b”, etc. (e.g., Author 2010a, 2010b) with the 1st article cited in text denoted as “a” (note that Jones, Smith, and Andrews 2001 and Jones, Andrews, and Smith 2001 would be cited as Jones et al. 2001a, 2001b, with the letters allocated in the order that these are presented in the Literature Cited).
In the Literature Cited, list the name of every author or editor, unless there are more than 7, in which case use “Author, et al. date” (see examples below). References are presented in alphabetical order by all authors (unless “et al.” is used), and chronologically for references with identical author lines. Capitalize only the 1st word and proper nouns of a reference and use italics only for scientific names. The style of some journals (i.e., the American Midland Naturalist, older issues of the Annals and Magazine of Natural History and of Mammalian Species) was to set scientific names in the titles of articles in Roman font, not italics; neither CSE nor the Chicago Manual provide guidance on how to reflect this in citation. This issue was raised with CSE personnel, and their recommendation (in litt. to DAK, 4 April 2016), which should be followed for both the JM and Mammalian Species, was to always italicize scientific names in the Literature Cited, regardless of the original presentation. Provide the full names of all journals.
The following examples are typical of references in the JM and Mammalian Species; refer to recent issues for additional formatting guidance.
Dumbacher, J. P., G. B. Rathbun, T. O. Osborne, M. Griffin, and S. J. Eiseb. 2014. A new species of round-eared sengi (genus Macroscelides) from Namibia. Journal of Mammalogy 95:443–454.
Sikes, R. S., and the Animal Care and Use Committee of the American Society of Mammalogists. 2016. 2016 guidelines of the American Society of Mammalogists for the use of wild mammals in research and education. Journal of Mammalogy in press.
Smith, J. B., T. W. Grovenburg, K. L. Monteith, and J. A. Jenks. 2015. Survival of female bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) in the Black Hills, South Dakota. American Midland Naturalist 174:290–301.
Stapp, P., and G. A. Polis. 2003. Influence of pulsed resources and marine subsidies on insular rodent populations. Oikos 102:111–123.
Vieira, M. V. 2003. Seasonal niche dynamics in coexisting rodents of the Brazilian cerrado. Studies on Neotropical Fauna and Environment 38:7–15.
White, G. C., and K. P. Burnham. 1999. Program MARK: survival estimation from populations of marked animals. Bird Studies 46 (Supplement):120–139.
Gardner, A. L. (ed.). 2007 . Mammals of South America. 1. Marsupials, xenarthrans, shrews, and bats. University of Chicago Press. Chicago, Illinois. (See Emmons  below as example of reference for a treatment within this book).
Groves, C., and P. Grubb. 2011. Ungulate taxonomy. Johns Hopkins University Press. Baltimore, Maryland.
Hall, E. R. 1981. The mammals of North America. 2nd ed. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. New York 1:1–600 + 90. [OR . . . 2:601–1181 + 90.]
Neal, E. G., and D. C. Cheeseman. 1996. Badgers. Poyser Natural History. London, United Kingdom.
Peterson, A. T., et al. 2011. Ecological niches and geographic distributions. Princeton University Press. Princeton, New Jersey. (Note that this reference has 7 authors).
Wilson, D. E., and D. M. Reeder. 2005. Mammal species of the world: a taxonomic and geographic reference. 3rd ed. Johns Hopkins University Press. Baltimore, Maryland. (See Musser and Carleton (2005) below for how to cite sections within this book).
Chapter in Edited Books
Emmons, L. H. 2007 . Genus Caluromysiops. Pp. 11–12 in Mammals of South America. 1. Marsupials, xenarthrans, shrews, and bats (A. L. Gardner, ed.). University of Chicago Press. Chicago, Illinois. (See Gardner  above for citing the entire volume).
Fahr, J. 2013. Rhinolophus ziama. Ziama horseshoe bat. Pp. 355–356 in Mammals of Africa. 4. Hedgehogs, shrews, and bats (M. Happold and D. C. D. Happold, eds.). Bloomsbury Publishing. London, United Kingdom.
Goin, F. J., J. N. Gelfo, L. Chornogubsky, M. O. Woodburne, and T. Martin. 2012. Origins, radiations, and distribution of South American mammals: from greenhouse to icehouse worlds. Pp. 20–50 in Bones, clones, and biomes: the history and geography of Recent Neotropical mammals (B. D. Patterson and L. P. Costa, eds.). University of Chicago Press. Chicago, Illinois.
Kley, N. J., and M. Kearney. 2007. Adaptations for digging and burrowing. Pp. 284–309 in Fins into limbs (B. Hall, ed.). University of Chicago Press. Chicago, Illinois.
Musser, G. G., and M. D. Carleton. 2005. Superfamily Muroidea. Pp. 894–1531 in Mammal species of the world: a taxonomic and geographic reference. 3rd ed. (D. E. Wilson and D. M. Reeder, eds.). Johns Hopkins University Press. Baltimore, Maryland. (See Wilson and Reeder (2005) above for citing the full book).
Carey, A. B., B. L. Biswell, and J. W. Witt. 1991. Methods for measuring populations of arboreal rodents. U.S. Forest Service, General Technical Report PNW-GTR-273:1–24.
Griggs, F. T., and River Partners. 2009. California riparian habitat restoration handbook. 2nd. ed. July 2009. California Riparian Habitat Joint Venture. Sacramento, California.
Zielinski, W. J. 1995. Track plates. Pp. 67–89 in American marten, fisher, lynx, and wolverine: survey methods for their detection (W. J. Zielinski and T. E. Kucera, eds.). U.S. Forest Service, General Technical Report PSW-GTR-157:1–163.
Armitage, K. B., and D. T. Blumstein. 2002. Body-mass diversity in marmots. Pp 22–40 in Holarctic marmots as a factor of biodiversity. Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Marmots, Cheboksary, Russia, 25–30 August 1997 (K. B. Armitage and V. Y. Rumiantsev, eds.). ABF Publishing House. Moscow, Russia.
Theses or Dissertations
Quaife, L. R. 1978. The form and function of the North American badger (Taxidea taxus) and its fossorial way of life. M.S. thesis, University of Calgary. Calgary, Alberta, Canada.
Steward, P. D. 1997. The social behaviour of the European badger, Meles meles. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Oxford. Oxford, United Kingdom.
Web sites (Do not include web addresses in manuscript text, cite them as “(Author Year)” and include web address in Literature Cited).
CDFW [California Department of Fish and Wildlife]. 2008. State & federally listed endangered & threatened animals of California. January 2013. www.dfg.ca.gov/biogeodata/cnddb/pdfs/TEAnimals.pdf. Accessed 15 July 2013.
IUCN. 2015. The IUCN Red List of threatened species. Ver. 2015.3. www.iucnredlist.org. Accessed 6 November 2015.
To cite the IUCN assessment of a given species, use the following template
Author(s). Year. Species name. In: IUCN 2015. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015.3. www.iucnredlist.org. Accessed 6 November 2015.
Software (Cite software as “(Author Year)” in text and include citation in literature cited.)
ESRI. 2002. ArcView GIS. Ver. 3.3. Environmental System Research Institute, Inc. Redlands, California.
IBM Corp. 2012. IBM SPSS statistics for Windows. Ver. 21.0. IBM Corp. Armonk, New York.
Jenness Enterprises. 2002. Kit fox telemetry. A custom-written extension for ArcView 3.3. Jenness Enterprises. Flagstaff, Arizona.
Kenward, R. E., N.M. Casey, S. S. Walls, and A. B. South. 2014. Ranges9: for the analysis of tracking and location data. Online manual. Anatrack Ltd. Wareham, United Kingdom.
McCune, B., and M. J. Mefford. 2011. PC_ORD. Multivariate analysis of ecological data. Ver, x. MjM Software. Gleneden Beach, Oregon.
R Development Core Team. 2012. R: a language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing. Vienna, Austria. www.R-project.org/.
Rodgers, A. R., and A. P. Carr. 1998. HRE: the Home Range Extension for ArcView. Centre for Northern Forest Ecosystem Research, Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources. Thunder Bay, Ontario, Canada.
SAS Institute Inc. 2008. SAS/STAT user’s guide. Release 9.2. SAS Institute, Inc. Cary, North Carolina.
Statsoft Inc. 2002. Statistica. Release 6. Statsoft, Inc. Tulsa, Oklahoma.
Swofford, D. L. 1999. PAUP*: phylogenetic analysis using parsimony (*and other methods). Ver. 4. Sinauer Associates, Inc., Publishers. Sunderland, Massachusetts.
Tables and figures.
All tables and figures should be interpretable without reference to the manuscript; that is, they should “stand alone.” Legends should therefore include species names, locations, and dates of collection for information presented in tables or figures. Every table should be provided on its own separate page. Tables must be provided as text (not fixed images). Capitalize only the 1st word in column or row headings in tables, except for proper nouns. Use lowercase letters to indicate footnotes in tables. Construct tables without vertical lines. Horizontal lines should go across the top, under the column headings, and at the bottom of tables; do not use horizontal lines to separate rows of data, or bold fonts to indicate column or row headings. For more general guidelines on the construction of tables, see the CSE Manual and the Chicago Manual of Style. For guidelines on creating figures for JM, see the Guidelines for Figures in the JM.
Artwork should be readable in black and white, even if it will appear in color online. Artwork submitted for publication should be of the highest quality, in vector-graphic format if possible, or with a minimum resolution of 600 dpi for line art and 400 dpi for photographs at 4 x 6 inches for figures intended to run within the article, and the same resolution at 8 x 11 inches for figures intended for the cover. Please use a common image format for figures (e.g., pdf, eps, gif, tif). The initial submission can have figures and text in 1 file, rather than separate files if desired, but if the manuscript is accepted, figures will need to be submitted as individual, separate image files (not embedded in a Word document). Maps must include latitude and longitude ticks and, if appropriate, a N arrow and scale bar, and should be understandable on their own.
Authors who want their artwork to print in color will be charged a fee of US $1,000 for each image. There is no fee for color if an image is used on the cover of JM.
Articles in JM are subject to a charge of US $80.00 per printed page. As a benefit of membership, authors who are members of ASM at the time of submission are eligible for a reduction or waiver of page charges at the discretion of the Editor-in-Chief (at least 1 author must be a member). If resources are available, members are strongly encouraged to pay full or partial page charges.
JM authors have the option to publish their paper under the Oxford Open initiative whereby, for a charge, their paper will be made freely available online immediately upon publication. After your manuscript is accepted, the corresponding author will be required to accept a mandatory license to publish agreement. As part of the licensing process, you will be asked to indicate whether or not you wish to pay for Open Access. If you do not select the Open Access option, your paper will be published with standard subscription-based access and you will not be charged Open Access charges.
Oxford Open articles are published under Creative Commons licenses. RCUK/Wellcome Trust funded authors publishing in JM can use the Creative Commons Attribution license (CC BY) for their articles. All other authors must use the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial license (CC BY-NC). Please click here for more information about the Creative Commons licenses.
Oxford Open articles are published under Creative Commons licenses.
RCUK/Wellcome Trust funded authors publishing in Journal of Mammalogy can use the Creative Commons Attribution license (CC BY) for their articles. All other authors must use the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial license (CC BY-NC). Please click here for more information about the Creative Commons licenses.
You can pay Open Access charges using our Author Services site. This will enable you to pay online with a credit/debit card, or request an invoice by email or post. The applicable open access charges vary according to which Creative Commons license you select. The open access charges are as follows.
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- Regular charge: £984 / $1575 / €1279
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Everyone listed as an author of an article must have made a substantial contribution to the manuscript. In the case of multiple-author contributions, please include a brief statement detailing the contribution of each author.
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- In the case of papers with multiple authors, the senior author (generally the 1st or last author) has the responsibility for: (a) including as coauthors all those who meet the 3 criteria defined in part 1 of this policy and excluding those who do not; and (b) obtaining from all coauthors their agreement to be designated as such, as well as their approval of the final version of the manuscript. Of course, any person can refuse to be a coauthor if he or she elects to do so.
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Conflict of Interest Statement
The pages of JM are open to all members of the scientific community, whether they work independently or for academic, government, industry, or other organizations. To enable our editors, peer reviewers, and readers to assess authors’ professional credentials, as well as any potential biases, we ask that authors disclose all information about their employment affiliations and any financial interests relevant to the work that the author has submitted for publication in JM. Reviewers should also disclose similar information relevant to the works they are asked to evaluate.
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Language Editing Pre-Submission
ASM has a “Buddy System” which includes colleagues who have expressed willingness to assist authors with the presentation of their research. If English is not your primary language, you may request a ‘‘buddy’’ who will volunteer his/her time to assist you. Read more about the ASM "Buddy System" here. To be put in contact with a ‘‘buddy’’ please contact the Editor-in-Chief.
Alternatively, you may choose to find your own English language editing services. Language editing does not guarantee that your manuscript will be accepted for publication. Several specialist language editing companies offer similar services and you can also use any of these, or others. Authors are liable for all costs associated with such services.
Online ISSN 1545–1542 - Print ISSN 0022–2372