We report detection of Bartonella quintana Brenner, the pathogenic agent of trench fever, from body lice, Pediculus humanus L., infesting homeless people in Tokyo by polymerase chain reaction. Two of 12 (16.7%) homeless were infested with Bartonella-positive body lice. From the current status of the recent increase of homeless people in many large cities of the developed countries, a medical examination of homeless people should be carefully performed in the consideration of trench fever. Sampling of body lice from clothing of homeless people is recommended for quick and accurate diagnosis of trench fever through the detection of B. quintana DNA.

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