Review

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Direct visualization of lithium via annular bright field scanning transmission electron microscopy: a review

Scott David Findlay, Rong Huang, Ryo Ishikawa, Naoya Shibata, and Yuichi Ikuhara

Annular bright field scanning transmission electron microscopy can directly image lithium columns within crystals, offering insight into the structure and properties of lithium-ion battery materials. We summarize the image formation mechanisms, review experimental applications to imaging lithium in materials and overview conditions that help maximize lithium column visibility.

Microscopy 66: 3-14; doi:10.1093/jmicro/dfw041

Review

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Visualization of lithium ions by annular bright field imaging

Yoshifumi Oshima, Soyeon Lee, and Kunio Takayanagi

We show that, using annular bright field (ABF) imaging, the number of lithium ions at the column is countable when the specimen is thin. Also, we show that the spinel structure was transformed into the defective NaCl structure when lithium ions were extracted from the original position by irradiation.

Microscopy 66: 15-24; doi:10.1093/jmicro/dfw098

Review

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Analytical ABF-STEM imaging of Li ions in rechargeable batteries

Yuren Wen, Tongtong Shang, and Lin Gu

We overviewed ABF imaging theory and its application in Li ion detection. According to the Li ion diffusion mechanism, the electrode materials are divided into three categories: 1D, 2D and 3D transport. ABF imaging has proven to be an analytical characterization tool for Li ions in rechargeable batteries.

Microscopy 66: 25-38; doi:10.1093/jmicro/dfw100

Review

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Detection of local chemical states of lithium and their spatial mapping by scanning transmission electron microscopy, electron energy-loss spectroscopy and hyperspectral image analysis

Shunsuke Muto and Kazuyoshi Tatsumi

In the present review, we have introduced a methodology to detect lithium in solid materials, particularly for cathode active materials used in lithium-ion battery. The chemical states of lithium were isolated and analyzed from the overlapping multiple spectral profiles, using a suite of STEM, EELS and hyperspectral image analysis.

Microscopy 66: 39-49; doi:10.1093/jmicro/dfw038

Review

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Operando observations of solid-state electrochemical reactions in Li-ion batteries by spatially resolved TEM EELS and electron holography

Kazuo Yamamoto, Yasutoshi Iriyama, and Tsukasa Hirayama

Operando spatially-resolved TEM EELS and electron holography revealed how Li-ions and local electric potential changed around electrode/solid-electrolyte interfaces during battery reaction. Crystal structure and electronic structure changes due to Li insertion reaction were also observed. These observation techniques and results are described in this paper.

Microscopy 66: 50-61; doi:10.1093/jmicro/dfw043