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In 2011, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) issued its controversial draft recommendation against measuring prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in blood to screen for prostate cancer, claiming the test didn’t save lives. USPSTF is an independent panel of national experts convened by Congress to make evidence-based recommendations on preventive care. And the D grade that its members assigned to PSA screening regardless of a man’s age, race, or family history carried a lot of clout: Since the recommendation was finalized in 2012, PSA screening by general practitioners has dropped by half, prostate biopsies are down by nearly a third, and radical prostatectomies have dropped by just over 16% (JAMA Surg. 2016; doi:10.1001/jamasurg.2016.3987).

New prostate cancer diagnoses are falling off accordingly. According to the American Cancer Society (ACS), incidence rates for early-stage...

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