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Instructions to authors

Please read and follow these instructions carefully; doing so will ensure that the publication of your manuscript is as rapid and efficient as possible. The Publisher reserves the right to return manuscripts that are not prepared in accordance with these instructions.

Submission of manuscripts

Authors should submit Word or rich-text files by the journal’s preferred method. TeX and LaTeX files are also acceptable. Please consult the journal’s home page for more information.

Licence and permissions

It is a condition of publication that authors grant an exclusive licence to Oxford Journals or the society of ownership. This ensures that requests from third parties to reproduce articles are handled efficiently and consistently, and will also allow the article to be as widely disseminated as possible. In assigning copyright, authors may use their own material in other publications, provided that the journal is acknowledged as the original place of publication, and Oxford Journals is notified in writing and in advance.

Upon receipt of accepted manuscripts at Oxford Journals, authors will be invited to complete an online copyright licence form. If the form has not been received by the time we receive author corrections, publication of your manuscript may be delayed.

Work submitted for publication must be original, previously unpublished, and not under consideration for publication elsewhere. If previously published figures, tables, or parts of text are to be included, the copyright-holder’s permission must have been obtained prior to submission. For more information on how to obtain permissions, please consult Rights and Permissions.

Preparation of the manuscript

General: Papers must be clearly written in English. Please see the individual journal’s Instructions to Authors for more detailed instructions on journal and reference style. View a full list of Journals.

Figures: For useful information on preparing figures, see this page.

Authors should also consult the journal’s homepage for guidance on colour figures.


All manuscripts will undergo some editorial modification, so it is important to check proofs carefully.The corresponding author will be sent an email asking them to check their proofs. The email will either have a link for authors to access their PDF proofs online, or will have a PDF proof attached.
To avoid delays in publication, proofs should be checked and returned within 2 working days. The preferred method of correction is by annotated PDF. Extensive changes to the text may be charged to the author.

Post-production corrections

Corrections are made if the publication record is seriously affected by the academic accuracy of published information. Where these amendments concern peer-reviewed material, the correction will be published as a formal notice (erratum) in a subsequent issue.

Advance Access constitutes definitive publication and is not subject to informal changes. If a very significant error (as outlined above) is discovered after publication of an Advance Access article, which necessitates correction to the online version, a new version will be published online with a footnote to outline the changes made. Both versions will be available online. (Authors publishing in journals that use the 'accepted manuscript' model of Advance Access will have the opportunity to make changes at proof stage as normal.)

Authors' corrections to Supplementary Data are made only in exceptional circumstances (for example major errors that compromise the conclusion of the study). Because the Supplementary Data is part of the original paper and hence the published record, the information cannot be updated if new data have become available or interpretations have changed.


The corresponding author for all articles will automatically receive a free link to the full text of their article. Corresponding authors may also purchase offprints. Please see offprints for complete ordering and pricing information. Please visit the journal site to learn whether the journal provides complimentary offprints.

Embargo policy

Once papers have been submitted to Oxford University Press, the content of the paper is embargoed until the time and date of publication agreed. The content of the research should not be discussed or publicized to the media before the official publication date.

We will endeavour to provide a mutually convenient publication date and time for authors, institutions or societies that wish to publicize their research. We ask that you contact the Journals Press Office to discuss a potential press release or article and also the embargo date required.

If authors have embargos on papers, for example if they are presenting their research results at a conference, we will endeavour to accommodate this in the publication process and are able to delay the publication of a paper until an embargo is lifted. Authors should include a note in the cover letter at submission, and also when returning proofs, about the embargo and the exact date and time the paper can be published.

If you require any further clarification on our embargo policy or information on publicity for your article please contact the Journals Press Office: journals.publicity@oup.com or +44 (0)1865 355439

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