Abstract

Assuming that children are goal-oriented, it is suggested that their thoughts are related to two components-agency and pathways. Agency thoughts reflect the erception that children can initiate and sustain action toward a desired goal; pathways thoughts reflect the children's perceived capability to produce routes to those goals. Hope reflects the combination of agentic and pathways thinking toward goals. A six-item dispositional self-report index called the Children's ope Scale is introduced and validated for use with children ages 8-16. Results suggest that the scale evidences internal consistency, and is relatively stable over retesting. Additionally, the scale exhibits convergent, discriminant, and incremental alidity. Limitations and uses of the scale are discussed.

Author notes

1The research contained herein was supported in part by National Institute of Mental Health Grant MH17071, with C. R. Snyder as principal investigator, by a FIRST NlMH Award MH47390 to B. Hoza, and the following grants to W. E. Pelham: NlMH Grants MH48157, MH50467, MH45576; NlAAA Grant AA06267; and NIDA Grant DA05605. This paper was presented in part at the first Kansas Conference in Clinical Child Rychology, October 21, 1994, Lawrence, Kansas, and the American Psychological Association, August 13, 1995, New York City. To the administrators, teachers, parents, and children in the school districts of Edmond, Oklahoma, and Overland Park and Lawrence. Kans as, as well as the parents. children, and support staff from the other samples, we extend our gratitude for cooperation in the present research. Thanks are also extended to Michael Babyak, Jennifer Brownlee, and Joni Padhur for their assistance in this project, and to Wendy Kliewer and Hellen Lewis for sharing their data.