The environmental impact of refugees is determined by a number of factors in the host context Whether refugees are self-settled or residing in organized settlements is one important determinant, both because of the direct effects of settlement and because patterns of settlement set the parameters of refugees' interaction with the host community, which can then play a role in offsetting environmental impact Using existing research and focusing on Africa, the paper discusses the various environmental effects of different types of settlement and examines the role of the host community in influencing this impact

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