Survey researchers routinely conduct studies that use different methods of data collection and inference. But for at least the past 60 years, the probability-sampling framework has been used in most surveys. More recently, concerns about coverage and nonresponse coupled with rising costs have led some to wonder whether non-probability sampling methods might be an acceptable alternative, at least under some conditions (Groves 2006; Savage and Burrows 2007).

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A wide range of non-probability designs exist and are being used in various settings, including case control studies, clinical trials, evaluation research designs, intercept surveys, and opt-in panels. Generally speaking, these designs have not been explored in detail by survey researchers even though they are frequently used in other applied research fields. Because...

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