Special Issue: C4 Photosynthesis: 50 Years of Discovery and Innovation
A portrait of the C4 photosynthetic family on the 50th anniversary of its discovery: species number, evolutionary lineages, and Hall of Fame
The distribution of C4 photosynthesis in higher plants is summarized by providing a list of C4 evolutionary lineages, their affiliated genera, and species numbers. The most important C4 species are also highlighted.
Analysis of photosynthesis gene expression in multiple C4 lineages indicates that individual genes are regulated at multiple levels and that the mechanisms operate in C3 ancestors.
A rational, model-driven strategy combining genetic and evolutionary engineering is the most promising route to generate a C4 prototype from a C3 plant – and, eventually, C4 rice.
A new genome wide scan method using signals of positive selection identifies C4 candidate genes in the grasses independent of a priori knowledge of C4 biochemistry.
An analysis of exonic and intronic signatures revealed that there was post-transcriptional regulation of cytosolic transcripts during C4 leaf ontogeny.
Freeze-quenched maize mesophyll and bundle sheath separation uncovers bias in previous tissue-specific RNA-Seq data
Systems analysis of freeze-quenched mesophyll and bundle sheath tissues enriched under liquid nitrogen provides a reliable alternative to previously used separation techniques that showed bias in RNA quality.
C3 cotyledons are followed by C4 leaves: intra-individual transcriptome analysis of Salsola soda (Chenopodiaceae)
The genome of Salsola soda allows a transition from C3 to C4 photosynthesis. A developmental transcriptome series revealed novel genes showing expression patterns similar to those encoding C4 proteins.
Shared characteristics underpinning C4 leaf maturation derived from analysis of multiple C3 and C4 species of Flaveria
We identify transcription factors that show conserved patterns of expression in multiple C4 species, both within the Flaveria genus and also in more distantly related C4 plants.
Analysis of the genus Moricandia, which contains C3 and C3–C4 intermediate plants, reveals potential environmental and anatomical constraints to the evolution of C4 photosynthesis.
Evolution of C3–C4 intermediate and C4 lineages are resolved in Salsoleae (Chenopodiaceae), and a model for structural and biochemical changes for the evolution of the Salsoloid form of C4 is considered.
Unique photosynthetic phenotypes in Portulaca (Portulacaceae): C3-C4 intermediates and NAD-ME C4 species with Pilosoid-type Kranz anatomy
Portulacaceae shows great diversity in C4 photosynthetic phenotypes: all species in clade Cryptopetala are C3-C4 intermediates, while clade Pilosa has a unique anatomical form of Kranz with diversity in C4 biochemistry.
The C3–C4 state moves lineages into C4-like environments, bridging the ecological gap between C3 and C4 species and facilitating C4 evolution.
A spatial separation of 10 µm between primary and secondary carboxylases is sufficient for a single-cell C4 pathway, even in the absence of any intracellular diffusion barriers.
A model based solely on mass-balance constraints refines our understanding of the trade-offs, energy requirements, leaf-level fluxes, and plasticity mechanisms in different biochemical types of assimilation.
Metabolite pools and carbon flow during C4 photosynthesis in maize: 13CO2 labeling kinetics and cell type fractionation
Analysis of labeling kinetics, pool sizes, and concentration gradients of metabolites reveals the operation of multiple decarboxylation pathways and rapid movement of carbon between the Calvin–Benson cycle and the CO2-concentrating shuttles in maize.
Effects of reduced carbonic anhydrase activity on CO2 assimilation rates in Setaria viridis: a transgenic analysis
Carbonic anhydrase and mesophyll conductance are both limiting factors affecting CO2 assimilation rates at low pCO2 as examined in stably transformed lines of the C4 species, Setaria viridis.
A MEM1-like motif directs mesophyll cell-specific expression of the gene encoding the C4 carbonic anhydrase in Flaveria
Flaveria bidentis carbonic anhydrase 3 catalyses the first step in C4 photosynthesis, with its cognate gene containing an element that shares homology and function with the C4Flaveria MEM1 motif.
Bundle-sheath leakiness and intrinsic water use efficiency of a perennial C4 grass are increased at high vapour pressure deficit during growth
Bundle-sheath leakiness of a perennial C4 grass responds dynamically to short-term variation of atmospheric CO2 concentration, and is altered by long-term changes of vapour pressure deficit.
Loss of photosynthetic efficiency in the shade. An Achilles heel for the dense modern stands of our most productive C4 crops?
Leaves of two highly productive C4 crops lose photosynthetic efficiency in low light as they become shaded by new leaves forming above, costing the crop up to 10% of potential productivity.
Cover ImageCover illustration: (Top) C4 model monocot species Setaria viridis. Photocredit Charles Tambiah. (Middle) The genome of Salsola soda allows a transition from C3 to C4 photosynthesis. Images show transverse sections of cotyledon (top) and a leaf (bottom) of Salsola soda (See Lauterbach et al. pp. 161-176). (Bottom) As leaves of sorghum become shaded in the field they lose photosynthetic efficiency (See Pignon et al. pp. 335-345). Photocredit Kathryn Faith.
- Front Matter
- Table of Contents