Abstract

Photoelectric, photographic and CCD UBV photometry, spectroscopic observations and star counts are presented for the open cluster Berkeley 58 to examine a possible association with the 4.37 d Cepheid CG Cas. The cluster is difficult to separate from the early-type stars belonging to the Perseus spiral arm, in which it is located, but has reasonably well-defined parameters: an evolutionary age of ∼108yr, a mean reddening of E(BV) (B0) = 0.70 ± 0.03 s.e. and a distance of 3.03 ± 0.17 kpc (V0MV= 12.40 ± 0.12 s.d.). CG Cas is a likely cluster coronal member on the basis of radial velocity, and its period increase of +0.170 ± 0.014 s yr−1 and large light amplitude describe a Cepheid in the third crossing of the instability strip lying slightly blueward of strip centre. Its inferred reddening and luminosity are E(BV) = 0.64 ± 0.02 s.e. and 〈MV〉=−3.06 ± 0.12. A possible K supergiant may also be a cluster member.

1 INTRODUCTION

After the rediscovery in the early 1950s of spatial coincidences between Cepheids and open clusters by Irwin (1955, 1958), Eggen (see Sandage 1958) and Kholopov (1956), a number of searches for additional coincidences were made by Kraft (1957), van den Bergh (1957) and Tifft (1959), among others. Tifft's search resulted in the discovery of a near-spatial coincidence between the 4.37 d Cepheid CG Cassiopeiae and an anonymous open cluster, subsequently catalogued as Berkeley 58 (Setteducati & Weaver 1962), which lies less than one cluster diameter to the west. The field is coincident with a portion of the Perseus spiral arm that is relatively rich in open clusters, and the cluster NGC 7790 with its three Cepheid members lies in close proximity. The possibility that CG Cas might be an outlying member of NGC 7790 was raised at one time by Efremov (1964a,b), and found some support in a star count analysis by Kovalenko (1968). More detailed star counts in the field (Turner 1985) indicate otherwise, as do the available proper motion data (Frolov 1974, 1977). The Cepheid does lie in the corona of Berkeley 58 (Turner 1985), although Frolov has argued that it is not a probable cluster member.

Given a probable distance of 3 kpc to both CG Cas and Berkeley 58 (e.g. Frolov 1979; Phelps & Janes 1994), it is not clear that existing proper motion data are precise enough to provide conclusive evidence pertaining to the cluster membership of CG Cas. The present study was therefore initiated in order to examine the case in more detail. As demonstrated here, there is strong evidence that CG Cas is a likely member of Berkeley 58 and that it can serve as a calibrator for the Cepheid period–luminosity (PL) relation.

2 OBSERVATIONAL DATA

A variety of observations were obtained for the present investigation. Table 1 presents photoelectric UBV photometry for bright members of Berkeley 58, obtained during observing runs at Kitt Peak National Observatory in 1981 September, 1982 August and 1984 August. The data, acquired using 1P21 photomultipliers and standard UBV filter sets used in conjunction with pulse-counting photometers on the No. 4 0.4-m, No. 2 0.9-m, and 1.3-m telescopes at Kitt Peak, have associated uncertainties typical of our previous investigations of Cepheid clusters (Turner 1992; Turner, Forbes & Pedreros 1992; Turner, Mandushev & Forbes 1994), namely standard internal errors for a single observation of ±0.01 in V and BV, and ±0.02 in UB, for stars brighter than V= 13. The estimated external errors for all but the faintest stars are similar in magnitude. The stars are identified by their numbering in Fig. 1, as well as by their 2000 coordinates in the Two Micron All-Sky Survey (2MASS) (Cutri et al. 2003); the number of individual observations for each star is given in Column 7 of Table 1.

Table 1

Photoelectric UBV data for stars in Berkeley 58.

Star RA(2000) Dec.(2000) V BV UB Notes 
CG Cas 00 00 59.24 60 57 32.5 11.20 1.30 +1.00 15 F5-G1 I 
00 01 21.61 60 50 21.2 7.28 0.14 −0.39  
00 00 47.68 60 48 49.8 9.80 0.27 −0.10  
00 00 46.10 60 58 46.5 9.85 1.35 +1.20  
00 00 42.77 61 03 26.1 10.02 0.58 +0.02  
00 00 32.75 60 54 11.8 10.79 2.04 +2.44 (K II)? 
00 00 20.63 60 59 43.1 10.95 0.50 −0.12 B3-5 Va 
00 00 48.46 61 02 49.5 11.49 0.46 −0.44 B3-5 Vnn 
00 00 10.99 61 01 53.6 12.04 0.59 +0.26  
23 59 45.42 60 56 28.1 12.11 0.57 +0.48  
10 00 00 52.47 60 56 14.1 12.16 2.25 +2.51  
11 00 00 40.07 61 03 21.9 12.35 0.50 −0.25 B2.5 V 
12 00 00 48.77 60 59 17.2 12.55 1.41 +1.10  
13 00 00 33.91 60 57 58.7 12.78 0.62 +0.09  
14 00 00 13.07 60 56 25.4 12.82 0.57 +0.04  
15 00 00 25.25 61 00 29.8 13.12 1.59 +1.50  
16 00 00 22.63 60 59 20.7 13.22 0.52 +0.21  
17 00 00 25.83 60 57 58.2 13.30 0.83 +0.55  
18 00 00 15.03 60 57 05.0 13.35 0.57 +0.03 B6 Vn 
19 00 00 09.46 60 57 47.6 13.36 0.72 +0.44  
20 00 00 06.89 60 57 37.6 13.41 0.60 +0.11  
21 00 00 36.95 61 02 55.7 13.41 0.66 +0.49  
22 00 00 19.09 60 57 29.8 13.54 1.55 +1.39  
23 00 00 16.44 60 57 08.8 13.60 0.56 +0.00 B5:: Vnn 
23 00 00 03.17 60 55 57.1 13.69 0.57 +0.10 B7 V 
25 00 00 56.70 61 01 12.0 13.71 1.43 +1.23  
26 00 00 38.39 60 58 26.2 14.11 0.73 +0.59  
27 00 00 57.31 60 58 54.9 14.14 0.84 +0.26  
28 00 00 22.18 60 56 39.7 14.20 0.62 +0.19  
29 00 00 15.73 60 56 08.6 14.70 0.57 +0.18  
30 00 00 16.73 60 55 55.6 14.71 0.72 +0.35 double 
.. … … 15.46 0.76 … CCD  
31 00 00 10.33 60 56 25.4 14.74 1.57 …  
32 00 00 19.10 60 57 44.5 14.75 0.62 +0.44  
33 00 00 09.64 60 57 10.1 14.91 1.02 +0.54  
34 00 00 11.54 60 55 19.5 15.06 1.09 …  
.. … … 14.88 0.66 +0.13 CCD  
35 00 00 18.88 60 56 24.1 15.09 0.61 +0.25  
37 00 00 14.44 60 55 43.3 15.16 1.17 …  
37 00 00 23.28 60 57 27.8 15.63 0.81 +0.79  
Star RA(2000) Dec.(2000) V BV UB Notes 
CG Cas 00 00 59.24 60 57 32.5 11.20 1.30 +1.00 15 F5-G1 I 
00 01 21.61 60 50 21.2 7.28 0.14 −0.39  
00 00 47.68 60 48 49.8 9.80 0.27 −0.10  
00 00 46.10 60 58 46.5 9.85 1.35 +1.20  
00 00 42.77 61 03 26.1 10.02 0.58 +0.02  
00 00 32.75 60 54 11.8 10.79 2.04 +2.44 (K II)? 
00 00 20.63 60 59 43.1 10.95 0.50 −0.12 B3-5 Va 
00 00 48.46 61 02 49.5 11.49 0.46 −0.44 B3-5 Vnn 
00 00 10.99 61 01 53.6 12.04 0.59 +0.26  
23 59 45.42 60 56 28.1 12.11 0.57 +0.48  
10 00 00 52.47 60 56 14.1 12.16 2.25 +2.51  
11 00 00 40.07 61 03 21.9 12.35 0.50 −0.25 B2.5 V 
12 00 00 48.77 60 59 17.2 12.55 1.41 +1.10  
13 00 00 33.91 60 57 58.7 12.78 0.62 +0.09  
14 00 00 13.07 60 56 25.4 12.82 0.57 +0.04  
15 00 00 25.25 61 00 29.8 13.12 1.59 +1.50  
16 00 00 22.63 60 59 20.7 13.22 0.52 +0.21  
17 00 00 25.83 60 57 58.2 13.30 0.83 +0.55  
18 00 00 15.03 60 57 05.0 13.35 0.57 +0.03 B6 Vn 
19 00 00 09.46 60 57 47.6 13.36 0.72 +0.44  
20 00 00 06.89 60 57 37.6 13.41 0.60 +0.11  
21 00 00 36.95 61 02 55.7 13.41 0.66 +0.49  
22 00 00 19.09 60 57 29.8 13.54 1.55 +1.39  
23 00 00 16.44 60 57 08.8 13.60 0.56 +0.00 B5:: Vnn 
23 00 00 03.17 60 55 57.1 13.69 0.57 +0.10 B7 V 
25 00 00 56.70 61 01 12.0 13.71 1.43 +1.23  
26 00 00 38.39 60 58 26.2 14.11 0.73 +0.59  
27 00 00 57.31 60 58 54.9 14.14 0.84 +0.26  
28 00 00 22.18 60 56 39.7 14.20 0.62 +0.19  
29 00 00 15.73 60 56 08.6 14.70 0.57 +0.18  
30 00 00 16.73 60 55 55.6 14.71 0.72 +0.35 double 
.. … … 15.46 0.76 … CCD  
31 00 00 10.33 60 56 25.4 14.74 1.57 …  
32 00 00 19.10 60 57 44.5 14.75 0.62 +0.44  
33 00 00 09.64 60 57 10.1 14.91 1.02 +0.54  
34 00 00 11.54 60 55 19.5 15.06 1.09 …  
.. … … 14.88 0.66 +0.13 CCD  
35 00 00 18.88 60 56 24.1 15.09 0.61 +0.25  
37 00 00 14.44 60 55 43.3 15.16 1.17 …  
37 00 00 23.28 60 57 27.8 15.63 0.81 +0.79  

a V654 Cas (Berdnikov 1993).

Figure 1

A finder chart for the field of Berkeley 58 from the red image of the Palomar Observatory Sky Survey. The field of view measures 20 arcmin × 20 arcmin and is centred at 2000 coordinates: forumla. The top image depicts the location of CG Cas relative to the cluster core, the lower image identifies photoelectrically observed stars. [The National Geographic Society-Palomar Observatory Sky Atlas (POSS-I) was made by the California Institute of Technology with grants from the National Geographic Society.]

Figure 1

A finder chart for the field of Berkeley 58 from the red image of the Palomar Observatory Sky Survey. The field of view measures 20 arcmin × 20 arcmin and is centred at 2000 coordinates: forumla. The top image depicts the location of CG Cas relative to the cluster core, the lower image identifies photoelectrically observed stars. [The National Geographic Society-Palomar Observatory Sky Atlas (POSS-I) was made by the California Institute of Technology with grants from the National Geographic Society.]

Star 6 is the eclipsing system V654 Cas, for which Berdnikov (1993) cites photoelectric values of V and BV outside of eclipse that are close to the values given here. Star 30 is a close optical double with components of nearly identical brightness. The photoelectric values apply to the combined light from both stars, whereas CCD observations provide uncontaminated data for the south-western star of the pair, as established by its CCD magnitude being 0.75 mag fainter. By contrast, the CCD V magnitude for star 35 is 0.21 mag brighter, which suggests possible variability in the object. Individual photoelectric observations for CG Cas are presented in Table 2.

Table 2

Photoelectric UBV observations for CG Cassiopeiae.

HJD V BV UB 
244 4849.8938 11.37 1.28 … 
244 4854.8655 11.53 1.36 … 
244 4856.8539 11.22 1.14 … 
244 4857.8358 11.08 1.14 … 
244 4857.8689 11.09 1.16 … 
244 5197.9177 10.92 1.04 0.74 
244 5205.9366 11.45 1.25 0.84 
244 5206.8851 11.04 1.10 0.76 
244 5933.8457 11.73 1.40 1.04 
244 5935.8748 10.99 1.08 0.85 
244 5937.8601 11.59 1.37 0.96 
244 5938.8420 11.74 1.38 1.02 
244 5939.8315 10.85 0.99 0.72 
244 5941.8773 11.55 1.35 0.93 
244 5942.7724 11.76 1.42 1.04 
HJD V BV UB 
244 4849.8938 11.37 1.28 … 
244 4854.8655 11.53 1.36 … 
244 4856.8539 11.22 1.14 … 
244 4857.8358 11.08 1.14 … 
244 4857.8689 11.09 1.16 … 
244 5197.9177 10.92 1.04 0.74 
244 5205.9366 11.45 1.25 0.84 
244 5206.8851 11.04 1.10 0.76 
244 5933.8457 11.73 1.40 1.04 
244 5935.8748 10.99 1.08 0.85 
244 5937.8601 11.59 1.37 0.96 
244 5938.8420 11.74 1.38 1.02 
244 5939.8315 10.85 0.99 0.72 
244 5941.8773 11.55 1.35 0.93 
244 5942.7724 11.76 1.42 1.04 

Photographic UBV photometry was also obtained for stars in the nuclear and coronal regions of Berkeley 58 from photographic plates of the cluster field obtained in 1984 September using the 1.2-m Elginfield telescope of the University of Western Ontario. The star images were measured using the iris diaphragm photometer at Saint Mary's University, and were reduced to the UBV system and calibrated with reference to the photoelectric standards identified in Table 1 using the techniques discussed by Turner & Welch (1989). The resulting data are presented in Table 3 in similar format to the data of Table 1, and the stars are identified by their 2000 coordinates. The photographic values for cluster stars in common with the CCD survey (Phelps & Janes 1994) agree very closely with the CCD values, when the latter are adjusted to the present system. However, earlier photographic UBV photometry of cluster stars by Frolov (1979) displays systematic differences relative to the present data. Since the present survey samples a much larger number of cluster stars, no attempt was made to combine Frolov's data with the present photometry.

Table 3

Photographic UBV Data for stars in Berkeley 58.

Star RA(2000) Dec.(2000) V BV UB Star RA(2000) Dec.(2000) V BV UB 
101 23 59 36.09 +60 49 01.9 9.48 0.52 −0.05 179 00 01 21.27 +60 53 30.5 14.01 0.60 +0.47 
102 00 00 13.86 +61 04 47.4 9.76 0.33 +0.15 180 23 59 56.23 +60 56 25.0 14.03 0.58 +0.08 
103 00 01 16.38 +60 49 18.1 9.82 0.36 −0.28 181 23 58 53.10 +60 57 05.6 14.05 0.98 +0.93 
104 23 59 24.28 +60 48 18.3 10.12 1.82 +0.74 182 23 59 10.64 +60 51 55.7 14.06 0.90 +0.25 
105 23 59 35.71 +60 47 49.6 10.26 1.48 +0.84 183 23 59 17.01 +60 51 12.5 14.07 1.03 +0.19 
106 00 00 03.42 +60 50 36.1 11.10 0.71 −0.05 184 23 59 47.40 +60 48 27.0 14.07 0.92 +0.30 
107 23 59 36.15 +60 47 33.1 11.59 0.73 +0.13 185 23 59 50.39 +60 58 39.3 14.09 1.64 … 
108 23 59 42.73 +60 47 16.1 11.60 2.12 +2.67 186 00 00 49.32 +60 48 06.5 14.10 0.91 +0.08 
109 23 59 07.11 +60 55 06.8 11.67 1.51 +1.09 187 00 00 24.36 +60 55 35.8 14.11 0.63 +0.09 
110 00 01 05.72 +60 51 17.7 11.83 1.10 +0.67 188 23 59 49.10 +60 50 32.7 14.13 1.07 +0.35 
111 00 00 11.91 +60 50 28.6 11.85 0.53 +0.17 189 23 58 57.51 +60 58 24.8 14.14 1.31 +0.85 
112 00 01 20.84 +60 52 34.9 11.92 1.31 +0.95 190 23 59 22.80 +60 57 04.3 14.14 0.52 −0.12 
113 00 01 21.00 +61 00 48.4 12.08 0.47 +0.31 191 23 59 05.78 +61 01 43.6 14.15 0.79 +0.70 
114 00 01 10.16 +61 03 50.0 12.17 0.88 +0.34 192 23 59 46.99 +61 03 27.0 14.16 0.58 +0.38 
115 00 01 20.63 +60 55 32.1 12.37 0.56 +0.12 193 00 00 55.95 +61 03 02.4 14.16 0.55 +0.19 
116 00 00 07.17 +60 48 48.4 12.39 0.80 +0.52 194 00 00 04.13 +60 51 51.7 14.17 0.86 +0.54 
117 23 58 53.91 +60 56 37.2 12.40 0.78 +0.52 195 00 00 37.31 +60 46 36.1 14.17 1.09 +0.43 
118 23 59 10.07 +60 55 48.6 12.41 0.78 +0.52 196 23 59 37.23 +61 01 47.2 14.19 0.71 −0.04 
119 23 59 40.81 +60 51 12.4 12.41 1.35 +1.05 197 00 01 14.97 +60 54 01.9 14.20 0.87 +0.26 
120 00 00 24.15 +61 05 54.4 12.51 1.65 +1.73 198 23 59 07.54 +60 59 40.0 14.21 0.80 −0.01 
121 00 00 16.78 +60 52 39.3 12.54 0.71 +0.22 199 23 59 49.51 +60 59 23.1 14.25 0.97 +0.85 
122 00 01 05.00 +60 50 58.3 12.58 0.30 −0.02 200 00 00 26.46 +60 50 28.7 14.30 0.66 +0.52 
123 23 59 11.61 +61 02 04.7 12.59 1.64 +0.71 201 00 00 51.81 +60 46 54.6 14.30 0.86 +0.22 
124 23 59 43.07 +61 03 17.7 12.63 0.52 +0.20 202 00 00 23.33 +60 51 42.1 14.31 0.81 +0.21 
125 23 59 06.63 +60 53 17.9 12.78 0.60 +0.33 203 23 59 34.32 +60 59 24.9 14.32 0.97 +0.31 
126 00 01 05.84 +60 59 50.1 12.82 0.47 −0.01 204 23 59 17.67 +60 54 45.5 14.34 1.06 +0.33 
127 00 01 33.08 +60 53 08.0 12.90 0.53 +0.41 205 00 00 11.83 +61 05 55.5 14.34 0.97 +0.41 
128 00 00 57.98 +61 04 02.5 12.97 0.56 −0.20 206 23 59 41.42 +60 51 28.7 14.40 0.58 +0.40 
129 00 00 25.44 +60 59 52.4 13.05 1.66 +1.57 207 00 00 25.66 +60 50 43.7 14.43 0.76 +0.18 
130 23 59 03.83 +60 51 31.8 13.08 0.97 +0.23 208 23 59 42.89 +61 02 29.1 14.46 0.54 +0.03 
131 23 58 54.24 +60 54 15.1 13.11 1.46 +1.48 209 00 00 58.82 +60 55 01.6 14.47 0.96 +0.59 
132 00 00 26.72 +60 59 55.4 13.12 0.69 +0.29 210 00 00 00.99 +61 00 51.4 14.48 0.97 +0.78 
133 23 59 19.28 +60 50 11.7 13.20 0.56 −0.04 211 00 01 25.15 +61 02 11.0 14.51 0.79 +0.56 
134 23 59 24.57 +60 55 27.9 13.30 0.65 +0.40 212 23 59 23.62 +60 59 41.4 14.52 0.77 +0.36 
135 23 59 59.65 +61 04 09.7 13.32 1.32 +1.21 213 00 00 26.84 +60 49 40.7 14.55 1.00 +0.51 
136 00 00 27.04 +60 46 43.8 13.32 1.10 +0.22 214 00 01 21.95 +61 02 29.5 14.55 0.94 +0.62 
137 00 00 28.97 +60 47 58.6 13.39 0.89 +0.24 215 00 00 25.83 +60 55 38.0 14.57 0.65 +0.28 
138 00 00 21.24 +60 51 10.6 13.40 0.49 +0.20 216 23 59 06.22 +60 53 57.6 14.58 1.10 +0.46 
139 00 01 16.05 +61 02 45.5 13.44 0.83 +0.55 217 00 01 18.21 +61 01 23.9 14.59 1.08 +0.49 
140 23 59 41.35 +61 05 46.4 13.45 0.69 +0.25 218 00 00 16.19 +60 53 17.5 14.59 2.38 … 
141 23 58 50.90 +60 54 37.2 13.46 1.14 +0.16 219 23 59 22.49 +60 52 00.0 14.60 1.28 +0.28 
142 00 00 15.19 +60 59 41.4 13.50 0.55 +0.08 220 00 00 01.21 +60 57 39.2 14.60 0.73 +0.47 
143 00 01 38.02 +60 57 11.3 13.51 0.90 +0.24 221 00 00 28.99 +60 52 57.1 14.61 0.85 +0.31 
144 00 00 19.83 +60 49 11.5 13.52 0.94 +0.48 222 00 00 53.50 +60 55 22.0 14.65 0.38 +0.08 
145 23 59 48.55 +60 46 45.3 13.56 1.29 +0.38 223 00 00 28.35 +61 05 20.9 14.70 0.66 −0.01 
146 00 00 24.12 +60 58 43.8 13.58 1.17 +0.83 224 23 59 58.59 +60 54 09.2 14.73 1.01 +0.71 
147 00 01 14.18 +60 56 32.2 13.59 0.46 +0.03 225 00 01 16.76 +60 54 30.9 14.74 0.45 −0.17 
148 23 59 24.83 +60 59 52.9 13.64 1.18 … 226 00 00 18.03 +60 51 36.5 14.75 0.76 +0.37 
149 00 00 07.41 +61 00 24.1 13.64 0.61 +0.23 227 23 59 32.73 +60 59 21.3 14.79 0.79 +0.48 
150 00 00 01.78 +60 48 57.5 13.68 0.61 +0.30 228 00 00 10.51 +60 58 01.8 14.79 0.77 +0.43 
151 23 58 55.65 +60 52 55.3 13.70 0.75 +0.27 229 23 59 40.12 +60 57 06.2 14.81 0.96 +0.33 
152 23 59 09.72 +60 55 33.4 13.71 0.93 +0.31 230 00 00 20.17 +60 55 54.3 14.86 0.68 +0.28 
153 23 59 52.24 +60 56 50.2 13.72 0.56 +0.13 231 00 00 02.48 +60 54 42.4 14.88 0.45 +0.20 
154 00 00 49.48 +61 03 45.2 13.72 1.44 +0.78 232 23 59 49.71 +60 53 31.9 14.90 0.76 +0.39 
155 00 01 38.95 +60 57 40.8 13.73 0.53 −0.01 233 00 00 04.01 +60 54 47.8 14.93 0.61 +0.19 
156 00 00 27.09 +61 05 48.8 13.74 1.06 +0.32 234 00 00 33.02 +60 55 51.9 14.96 1.05 +0.44 
157 23 59 34.31 +60 49 44.5 13.75 1.14 +0.47 235 00 00 09.83 +60 54 30.1 15.00 0.69 +0.21 
158 00 00 44.24 +60 46 52.3 13.75 0.65 +0.08 236 00 00 44.08 +61 05 04.7 15.00 0.48 +0.49 
159 00 00 31.53 +60 46 32.0 13.76 0.84 +0.34 237 00 00 09.76 +61 05 34.5 15.12 0.38 +0.26 
160 00 00 38.87 +60 53 10.0 13.77 0.53 +0.09 238 23 59 42.48 +60 56 18.8 15.14 0.59 +0.36 
161 23 59 26.17 +60 49 45.8 13.78 1.45 +1.09 239 00 00 04.71 +60 57 45.6 15.15 0.67 +0.44 
162 23 59 41.19 +61 04 51.7 13.79 0.54 +0.27 240 23 59 19.79 +61 00 25.5 15.16 0.70 +0.13 
163 00 01 38.40 +60 56 46.7 13.79 0.45 +0.29 241 23 59 39.28 +60 57 14.7 15.17 0.64 +0.31 
164 00 01 13.36 +61 01 33.3 13.81 0.67 +0.05 242 00 00 22.59 +60 57 40.8 15.17 0.63 +0.09 
165 23 59 20.85 +61 02 22.0 13.86 0.98 +0.61 243 23 59 53.74 +60 57 08.8 15.20 1.04 +0.39 
166 00 00 05.82 +60 50 35.8 13.86 0.42 +0.00 244 00 00 04.46 +61 00 44.7 15.21 0.72 +0.28 
167 00 00 02.37 +60 46 38.7 13.86 1.07 +0.04 245 00 00 06.29 +60 54 44.8 15.21 0.66 +0.29 
168 23 59 04.31 +61 01 44.6 13.90 0.93 +0.84 246 00 00 38.77 +60 56 31.4 15.21 0.82 +0.49 
169 00 00 00.15 +60 55 14.2 13.90 0.56 +0.06 247 23 59 50.61 +60 55 25.6 15.23 0.71 … 
170 23 59 03.70 +61 01 50.1 13.91 0.88 +0.87 248 23 59 57.24 +60 55 02.8 15.24 0.69 +0.29 
171 00 01 09.90 +60 52 54.7 13.93 0.94 +0.43 249 23 59 55.11 +60 53 44.8 15.26 0.71 +0.31 
172 00 01 08.86 +60 58 34.1 13.94 1.04 +0.66 250 00 00 08.27 +60 56 42.6 15.35 0.94 +0.61 
173 23 59 27.78 +60 55 30.8 13.97 0.67 +0.49 251 00 00 14.46 +60 57 47.6 15.42 0.77 +0.39 
174 00 00 13.79 +61 01 04.7 13.98 0.98 +0.48 252 00 00 15.30 +60 54 57.0 15.42 0.72 … 
175 00 00 26.02 +60 55 07.4 13.98 0.64 +0.20 253 00 00 31.15 +61 04 07.7 15.59 0.85 … 
176 00 01 10.45 +60 58 30.7 13.99 0.68 +0.42 254 00 00 10.69 +60 55 58.4 15.62 0.79 … 
177 00 00 11.44 +60 51 41.8 14.01 0.56 +0.12 255 00 00 06.19 +60 56 32.6 15.79 0.56 +0.23 
178 00 01 16.45 +60 58 25.5 14.01 1.05 +0.21       
Star RA(2000) Dec.(2000) V BV UB Star RA(2000) Dec.(2000) V BV UB 
101 23 59 36.09 +60 49 01.9 9.48 0.52 −0.05 179 00 01 21.27 +60 53 30.5 14.01 0.60 +0.47 
102 00 00 13.86 +61 04 47.4 9.76 0.33 +0.15 180 23 59 56.23 +60 56 25.0 14.03 0.58 +0.08 
103 00 01 16.38 +60 49 18.1 9.82 0.36 −0.28 181 23 58 53.10 +60 57 05.6 14.05 0.98 +0.93 
104 23 59 24.28 +60 48 18.3 10.12 1.82 +0.74 182 23 59 10.64 +60 51 55.7 14.06 0.90 +0.25 
105 23 59 35.71 +60 47 49.6 10.26 1.48 +0.84 183 23 59 17.01 +60 51 12.5 14.07 1.03 +0.19 
106 00 00 03.42 +60 50 36.1 11.10 0.71 −0.05 184 23 59 47.40 +60 48 27.0 14.07 0.92 +0.30 
107 23 59 36.15 +60 47 33.1 11.59 0.73 +0.13 185 23 59 50.39 +60 58 39.3 14.09 1.64 … 
108 23 59 42.73 +60 47 16.1 11.60 2.12 +2.67 186 00 00 49.32 +60 48 06.5 14.10 0.91 +0.08 
109 23 59 07.11 +60 55 06.8 11.67 1.51 +1.09 187 00 00 24.36 +60 55 35.8 14.11 0.63 +0.09 
110 00 01 05.72 +60 51 17.7 11.83 1.10 +0.67 188 23 59 49.10 +60 50 32.7 14.13 1.07 +0.35 
111 00 00 11.91 +60 50 28.6 11.85 0.53 +0.17 189 23 58 57.51 +60 58 24.8 14.14 1.31 +0.85 
112 00 01 20.84 +60 52 34.9 11.92 1.31 +0.95 190 23 59 22.80 +60 57 04.3 14.14 0.52 −0.12 
113 00 01 21.00 +61 00 48.4 12.08 0.47 +0.31 191 23 59 05.78 +61 01 43.6 14.15 0.79 +0.70 
114 00 01 10.16 +61 03 50.0 12.17 0.88 +0.34 192 23 59 46.99 +61 03 27.0 14.16 0.58 +0.38 
115 00 01 20.63 +60 55 32.1 12.37 0.56 +0.12 193 00 00 55.95 +61 03 02.4 14.16 0.55 +0.19 
116 00 00 07.17 +60 48 48.4 12.39 0.80 +0.52 194 00 00 04.13 +60 51 51.7 14.17 0.86 +0.54 
117 23 58 53.91 +60 56 37.2 12.40 0.78 +0.52 195 00 00 37.31 +60 46 36.1 14.17 1.09 +0.43 
118 23 59 10.07 +60 55 48.6 12.41 0.78 +0.52 196 23 59 37.23 +61 01 47.2 14.19 0.71 −0.04 
119 23 59 40.81 +60 51 12.4 12.41 1.35 +1.05 197 00 01 14.97 +60 54 01.9 14.20 0.87 +0.26 
120 00 00 24.15 +61 05 54.4 12.51 1.65 +1.73 198 23 59 07.54 +60 59 40.0 14.21 0.80 −0.01 
121 00 00 16.78 +60 52 39.3 12.54 0.71 +0.22 199 23 59 49.51 +60 59 23.1 14.25 0.97 +0.85 
122 00 01 05.00 +60 50 58.3 12.58 0.30 −0.02 200 00 00 26.46 +60 50 28.7 14.30 0.66 +0.52 
123 23 59 11.61 +61 02 04.7 12.59 1.64 +0.71 201 00 00 51.81 +60 46 54.6 14.30 0.86 +0.22 
124 23 59 43.07 +61 03 17.7 12.63 0.52 +0.20 202 00 00 23.33 +60 51 42.1 14.31 0.81 +0.21 
125 23 59 06.63 +60 53 17.9 12.78 0.60 +0.33 203 23 59 34.32 +60 59 24.9 14.32 0.97 +0.31 
126 00 01 05.84 +60 59 50.1 12.82 0.47 −0.01 204 23 59 17.67 +60 54 45.5 14.34 1.06 +0.33 
127 00 01 33.08 +60 53 08.0 12.90 0.53 +0.41 205 00 00 11.83 +61 05 55.5 14.34 0.97 +0.41 
128 00 00 57.98 +61 04 02.5 12.97 0.56 −0.20 206 23 59 41.42 +60 51 28.7 14.40 0.58 +0.40 
129 00 00 25.44 +60 59 52.4 13.05 1.66 +1.57 207 00 00 25.66 +60 50 43.7 14.43 0.76 +0.18 
130 23 59 03.83 +60 51 31.8 13.08 0.97 +0.23 208 23 59 42.89 +61 02 29.1 14.46 0.54 +0.03 
131 23 58 54.24 +60 54 15.1 13.11 1.46 +1.48 209 00 00 58.82 +60 55 01.6 14.47 0.96 +0.59 
132 00 00 26.72 +60 59 55.4 13.12 0.69 +0.29 210 00 00 00.99 +61 00 51.4 14.48 0.97 +0.78 
133 23 59 19.28 +60 50 11.7 13.20 0.56 −0.04 211 00 01 25.15 +61 02 11.0 14.51 0.79 +0.56 
134 23 59 24.57 +60 55 27.9 13.30 0.65 +0.40 212 23 59 23.62 +60 59 41.4 14.52 0.77 +0.36 
135 23 59 59.65 +61 04 09.7 13.32 1.32 +1.21 213 00 00 26.84 +60 49 40.7 14.55 1.00 +0.51 
136 00 00 27.04 +60 46 43.8 13.32 1.10 +0.22 214 00 01 21.95 +61 02 29.5 14.55 0.94 +0.62 
137 00 00 28.97 +60 47 58.6 13.39 0.89 +0.24 215 00 00 25.83 +60 55 38.0 14.57 0.65 +0.28 
138 00 00 21.24 +60 51 10.6 13.40 0.49 +0.20 216 23 59 06.22 +60 53 57.6 14.58 1.10 +0.46 
139 00 01 16.05 +61 02 45.5 13.44 0.83 +0.55 217 00 01 18.21 +61 01 23.9 14.59 1.08 +0.49 
140 23 59 41.35 +61 05 46.4 13.45 0.69 +0.25 218 00 00 16.19 +60 53 17.5 14.59 2.38 … 
141 23 58 50.90 +60 54 37.2 13.46 1.14 +0.16 219 23 59 22.49 +60 52 00.0 14.60 1.28 +0.28 
142 00 00 15.19 +60 59 41.4 13.50 0.55 +0.08 220 00 00 01.21 +60 57 39.2 14.60 0.73 +0.47 
143 00 01 38.02 +60 57 11.3 13.51 0.90 +0.24 221 00 00 28.99 +60 52 57.1 14.61 0.85 +0.31 
144 00 00 19.83 +60 49 11.5 13.52 0.94 +0.48 222 00 00 53.50 +60 55 22.0 14.65 0.38 +0.08 
145 23 59 48.55 +60 46 45.3 13.56 1.29 +0.38 223 00 00 28.35 +61 05 20.9 14.70 0.66 −0.01 
146 00 00 24.12 +60 58 43.8 13.58 1.17 +0.83 224 23 59 58.59 +60 54 09.2 14.73 1.01 +0.71 
147 00 01 14.18 +60 56 32.2 13.59 0.46 +0.03 225 00 01 16.76 +60 54 30.9 14.74 0.45 −0.17 
148 23 59 24.83 +60 59 52.9 13.64 1.18 … 226 00 00 18.03 +60 51 36.5 14.75 0.76 +0.37 
149 00 00 07.41 +61 00 24.1 13.64 0.61 +0.23 227 23 59 32.73 +60 59 21.3 14.79 0.79 +0.48 
150 00 00 01.78 +60 48 57.5 13.68 0.61 +0.30 228 00 00 10.51 +60 58 01.8 14.79 0.77 +0.43 
151 23 58 55.65 +60 52 55.3 13.70 0.75 +0.27 229 23 59 40.12 +60 57 06.2 14.81 0.96 +0.33 
152 23 59 09.72 +60 55 33.4 13.71 0.93 +0.31 230 00 00 20.17 +60 55 54.3 14.86 0.68 +0.28 
153 23 59 52.24 +60 56 50.2 13.72 0.56 +0.13 231 00 00 02.48 +60 54 42.4 14.88 0.45 +0.20 
154 00 00 49.48 +61 03 45.2 13.72 1.44 +0.78 232 23 59 49.71 +60 53 31.9 14.90 0.76 +0.39 
155 00 01 38.95 +60 57 40.8 13.73 0.53 −0.01 233 00 00 04.01 +60 54 47.8 14.93 0.61 +0.19 
156 00 00 27.09 +61 05 48.8 13.74 1.06 +0.32 234 00 00 33.02 +60 55 51.9 14.96 1.05 +0.44 
157 23 59 34.31 +60 49 44.5 13.75 1.14 +0.47 235 00 00 09.83 +60 54 30.1 15.00 0.69 +0.21 
158 00 00 44.24 +60 46 52.3 13.75 0.65 +0.08 236 00 00 44.08 +61 05 04.7 15.00 0.48 +0.49 
159 00 00 31.53 +60 46 32.0 13.76 0.84 +0.34 237 00 00 09.76 +61 05 34.5 15.12 0.38 +0.26 
160 00 00 38.87 +60 53 10.0 13.77 0.53 +0.09 238 23 59 42.48 +60 56 18.8 15.14 0.59 +0.36 
161 23 59 26.17 +60 49 45.8 13.78 1.45 +1.09 239 00 00 04.71 +60 57 45.6 15.15 0.67 +0.44 
162 23 59 41.19 +61 04 51.7 13.79 0.54 +0.27 240 23 59 19.79 +61 00 25.5 15.16 0.70 +0.13 
163 00 01 38.40 +60 56 46.7 13.79 0.45 +0.29 241 23 59 39.28 +60 57 14.7 15.17 0.64 +0.31 
164 00 01 13.36 +61 01 33.3 13.81 0.67 +0.05 242 00 00 22.59 +60 57 40.8 15.17 0.63 +0.09 
165 23 59 20.85 +61 02 22.0 13.86 0.98 +0.61 243 23 59 53.74 +60 57 08.8 15.20 1.04 +0.39 
166 00 00 05.82 +60 50 35.8 13.86 0.42 +0.00 244 00 00 04.46 +61 00 44.7 15.21 0.72 +0.28 
167 00 00 02.37 +60 46 38.7 13.86 1.07 +0.04 245 00 00 06.29 +60 54 44.8 15.21 0.66 +0.29 
168 23 59 04.31 +61 01 44.6 13.90 0.93 +0.84 246 00 00 38.77 +60 56 31.4 15.21 0.82 +0.49 
169 00 00 00.15 +60 55 14.2 13.90 0.56 +0.06 247 23 59 50.61 +60 55 25.6 15.23 0.71 … 
170 23 59 03.70 +61 01 50.1 13.91 0.88 +0.87 248 23 59 57.24 +60 55 02.8 15.24 0.69 +0.29 
171 00 01 09.90 +60 52 54.7 13.93 0.94 +0.43 249 23 59 55.11 +60 53 44.8 15.26 0.71 +0.31 
172 00 01 08.86 +60 58 34.1 13.94 1.04 +0.66 250 00 00 08.27 +60 56 42.6 15.35 0.94 +0.61 
173 23 59 27.78 +60 55 30.8 13.97 0.67 +0.49 251 00 00 14.46 +60 57 47.6 15.42 0.77 +0.39 
174 00 00 13.79 +61 01 04.7 13.98 0.98 +0.48 252 00 00 15.30 +60 54 57.0 15.42 0.72 … 
175 00 00 26.02 +60 55 07.4 13.98 0.64 +0.20 253 00 00 31.15 +61 04 07.7 15.59 0.85 … 
176 00 01 10.45 +60 58 30.7 13.99 0.68 +0.42 254 00 00 10.69 +60 55 58.4 15.62 0.79 … 
177 00 00 11.44 +60 51 41.8 14.01 0.56 +0.12 255 00 00 06.19 +60 56 32.6 15.79 0.56 +0.23 
178 00 01 16.45 +60 58 25.5 14.01 1.05 +0.21       

CCD UBV photometry for stars in the nuclear region of Berkeley 58 was published previously by Phelps & Janes (1994), but for this study was recalibrated using the Table 1 stars as standards. The revised photometry for cluster stars is presented in Table 4, where the star numbers correspond to the scheme adopted by Phelps & Janes (1994), incremented by 1000. The stars are also identified by their 2000 coordinates. Since the U-band measurements have a much brighter limit than the B and V measures, the CCD photometry is less useful for studying the reddening in the field. But it is valuable for identifying the faint portion of the cluster main sequence.

Table 4

CCD UBV data for stars in the nucleus of Berkeley 58.

Star RA(2000) Dec.(2000) V BV UB Star RA(2000) Dec.(2000) V BV UB 
1001 23 59 13.34 +60 54 41.7 16.66 0.95 … 1192 23 59 59.79 +60 53 21.0 16.89 1.08 … 
1002 23 59 13.58 +60 55 25.5 16.14 0.73 … 1193 00 00 00.31 +60 54 14.4 16.54 1.36 … 
1003 23 59 12.82 +60 57 28.6 15.57 1.08 … 1194 00 00 04.01 +61 01 58.9 16.48 1.09 … 
1004 23 59 12.99 +60 56 53.1 15.94 0.72 … 1195 00 00 01.08 +60 55 09.3 16.33 1.02 … 
1005 23 59 12.00 +60 53 31.9 17.75 1.04 … 1196 00 00 02.86 +60 58 36.1 15.55 0.70 … 
1006 23 59 14.92 +61 00 43.2 15.93 1.05 … 1197 00 00 04.28 +61 01 21.8 17.45 0.68 … 
1007 23 59 15.93 +61 02 43.6 17.47 1.05 … 1199 00 00 04.99 +61 02 05.1 17.21 1.35 … 
1008 23 59 16.20 +60 53 18.5 17.02 0.95 … 1200 00 00 03.25 +60 57 25.0 16.32 1.07 … 
1009 23 59 15.49 +61 00 26.4 16.92 1.26 … 1201 00 00 01.48 +60 52 41.4 16.07 1.62 … 
1010 23 59 16.63 +61 01 54.6 17.06 1.13 … 1203 00 00 01.53 +60 52 25.7 15.75 0.87 … 
1011 23 59 14.72 +60 56 52.5 17.15 1.16 … 1205 00 00 05.80 +61 01 13.8 16.77 0.96 … 
1012 23 59 14.95 +60 57 04.1 16.56 1.09 … 1206 00 00 02.37 +60 53 20.1 16.78 0.91 … 
1013 23 59 16.05 +60 59 17.2 14.57 1.71 … 1207 00 00 02.97 +60 54 13.8 15.84 0.93 … 
1014 23 59 13.40 +60 52 36.2 16.16 0.85 … 1208 00 00 02.45 +60 52 53.0 16.66 1.11 … 
1015 23 59 14.93 +60 56 09.3 16.38 1.08 … 1209 00 00 04.49 +60 57 29.5 16.99 1.00 … 
1016 23 59 13.64 +60 53 08.8 16.38 1.00 … 1211 00 00 05.98 +60 59 42.6 17.07 0.88 … 
1017 23 59 15.15 +60 56 21.8 16.61 0.77 … 1213 00 00 04.22 +60 54 26.9 16.61 0.64 … 
1018 23 59 15.09 +60 56 05.4 16.29 0.99 … 1214 00 00 04.64 +60 55 16.8 16.97 0.91 … 
1019 23 59 15.91 +60 57 50.1 18.08 0.92 … 1215 00 00 03.56 +60 52 40.1 15.33 1.00 … 
1020 23 59 17.35 +61 00 48.8 17.05 1.04 … 1216 00 00 08.29 +61 02 39.0 15.44 0.86 … 
1021 23 59 16.51 +60 58 48.2 17.44 0.96 … 1218 00 00 05.99 +60 56 57.7 17.20 1.00 … 
1022 23 59 16.58 +60 58 23.4 16.62 1.29 … 1220 00 00 07.02 +60 58 12.1 16.78 0.81 … 
1023 23 59 17.72 +61 00 12.3 17.82 0.94 … 1222 00 00 05.08 +60 53 18.6 16.86 1.08 … 
1024 23 59 15.99 +60 55 24.2 17.13 0.86 … 1223 00 00 05.00 +60 53 09.0 17.75 1.36 … 
1025 23 59 17.49 +60 58 26.9 15.97 0.96 … 1224 00 00 07.16 +60 56 52.8 17.97 1.16 … 
1026 23 59 17.43 +60 57 55.6 15.08 1.07 … 1225 00 00 05.25 +60 52 21.2 17.19 1.34 … 
1027 23 59 16.20 +60 53 18.5 16.77 0.98 … 1227 00 00 06.82 +60 55 59.0 16.19 0.75 … 
1028 23 59 17.45 +60 55 32.8 16.04 0.98 … 1228 00 00 08.19 +60 58 11.0 15.91 0.90 … 
1029 23 59 19.01 +60 59 14.0 17.23 0.98 … 1229 00 00 06.17 +60 53 07.6 17.72 1.63 … 
1030 23 59 17.76 +60 55 55.7 15.77 0.66 … 1230 00 00 06.64 +60 53 58.4 18.39 1.09 … 
1031 23 59 17.95 +60 56 16.5 16.04 0.93 … 1231 00 00 08.71 +60 58 24.0 16.19 1.15 … 
1034 23 59 20.75 +61 01 52.0 17.54 1.79 … 1232 00 00 07.31 +60 55 02.8 15.75 1.66 … 
1035 23 59 20.78 +61 02 08.0 15.90 1.54 … 1233 00 00 09.48 +60 59 59.1 16.64 1.46 … 
1036 23 59 19.06 +60 57 40.1 16.92 1.36 … 1234 00 00 09.94 +61 01 12.3 17.67 1.03 … 
1037 23 59 21.76 +61 02 13.7 16.38 0.98 … 1235 00 00 10.21 +61 01 33.5 15.35 1.51 … 
1038 23 59 21.29 +61 00 29.4 17.49 1.36 … 1236 00 00 07.39 +60 54 47.3 16.33 0.78 … 
1039 23 59 20.03 +60 57 05.3 17.09 1.10 … 1238 00 00 11.06 +61 02 06.7 17.04 1.15 … 
1040 23 59 19.65 +60 54 46.4 16.78 1.37 … 1240 00 00 08.12 +60 54 44.7 16.01 0.70 … 
1041 23 59 18.71 +60 52 29.0 16.54 1.71 … 1242 00 00 07.23 +60 52 10.7 16.73 2.04 … 
1042 23 59 21.26 +60 58 02.7 17.11 1.06 … 1243 00 00 08.18 +60 54 17.3 16.51 0.85 … 
1043 23 59 19.98 +60 54 26.0 17.52 1.04 … 1244 00 00 12.27 +61 03 25.6 16.87 1.17 … 
1044 23 59 21.95 +60 55 40.3 16.45 1.07 … 1246 00 00 11.22 +61 00 50.2 17.57 1.13 … 
1047 23 59 21.29 +61 00 29.4 17.71 1.02 … 1248 00 00 09.33 +60 55 04.1 15.40 0.99 … 
1048 23 59 25.23 +61 01 44.0 18.17 0.76 … 1249 00 00 07.98 +60 51 49.3 17.45 1.01 … 
1050 23 59 25.80 +61 00 40.3 16.88 0.78 … 1251 00 00 11.50 +60 58 32.1 16.49 1.22 … 
1051 23 59 25.17 +60 57 56.3 16.88 0.90 … 1254 00 00 10.42 +60 54 35.7 16.55 1.19 … 
1052 23 59 23.33 +60 53 29.9 18.07 1.16 … 1255 00 00 13.91 +61 02 16.6 16.71 1.12 … 
1053 23 59 24.72 +60 56 16.0 15.59 0.68 … 1256 00 00 12.77 +60 59 23.5 17.12 1.54 … 
1054 23 59 25.52 +60 58 09.7 16.68 0.99 … 1258 00 00 13.64 +61 00 37.4 16.37 0.74 … 
1056 23 59 28.15 +61 02 06.4 15.35 1.05 … 1260 00 00 15.23 +61 03 28.2 16.50 1.06 … 
1057 23 59 28.38 +61 02 40.0 17.79 1.26 … 1261 00 00 11.36 +60 53 43.7 16.56 1.19 … 
1058 23 59 25.80 +60 56 12.5 16.11 0.74 … 1262 00 00 15.48 +61 02 13.4 17.22 1.27 … 
1059 23 59 27.56 +61 00 01.0 17.21 1.16 … 1263 00 00 13.05 +60 56 35.4 16.28 1.10 … 
1060 23 59 28.13 +61 01 08.2 18.27 1.23 … 1267 00 00 13.09 +60 54 50.0 16.30 0.79 … 
1061 23 59 27.05 +60 57 08.2 16.71 1.09 … 1268 00 00 13.36 +60 55 30.2 16.32 0.81 … 
1062 23 59 27.87 +60 58 36.6 16.25 0.79 … 1270 00 00 14.81 +60 58 25.1 15.14 0.83 +0.39 
1063 23 59 27.43 +60 56 19.0 16.13 0.81 … 1271 00 00 12.88 +60 53 46.9 16.18 0.99 … 
1064 23 59 28.87 +60 59 01.0 17.09 1.58 … 1272 00 00 14.21 +60 56 52.2 16.68 0.84 … 
1066 23 59 31.06 +61 03 11.5 17.93 0.73 … 1273 00 00 16.48 +61 01 21.1 16.21 1.21 … 
1067 23 59 29.96 +61 00 22.6 16.55 0.79 … 1276 00 00 15.16 +60 56 22.6 16.45 0.90 … 
1068 23 59 32.09 +61 03 09.1 15.75 0.71 … 1277 00 00 18.04 +61 02 55.1 15.96 1.18 … 
1069 23 59 28.50 +60 53 37.0 16.50 1.90 … 1278 00 00 15.74 +60 57 35.8 15.97 0.73 … 
1070 23 59 30.44 +60 57 43.2 16.01 0.80 … 1280 00 00 15.73 +60 56 08.6 14.63 0.62 … 
1071 23 59 28.90 +60 53 12.9 15.76 0.77 … 1281 00 00 19.00 +61 03 27.4 16.65 1.19 … 
1072 23 59 33.99 +61 03 29.5 16.00 1.24 … 1282 00 00 16.52 +60 57 18.9 15.61 0.66 … 
1073 23 59 34.17 +61 03 37.8 16.26 1.10 … 1284 00 00 17.90 +61 00 03.0 17.22 1.01 … 
1074 23 59 29.68 +60 52 38.3 15.41 0.84 … 1285 00 00 16.72 +60 56 21.5 16.29 0.79 … 
1075 23 59 30.93 +60 54 47.6 14.80 0.79 … 1286 00 00 16.19 +60 54 46.9 16.00 0.80 … 
1076 23 59 32.61 +60 57 52.0 17.72 1.53 … 1288 00 00 18.80 +61 00 28.6 16.45 1.10 … 
1077 23 59 33.73 +60 59 41.7 16.10 1.17 … 1289 00 00 15.18 +60 52 03.5 15.89 0.69 … 
1078 23 59 34.68 +61 01 48.7 15.65 0.98 … 1291 00 00 17.51 +60 54 33.5 16.94 0.93 … 
1079 23 59 31.86 +60 54 42.7 17.01 1.04 … 1292 00 00 19.32 +60 58 39.6 17.47 1.00 … 
1080 23 59 31.86 +60 54 42.7 16.97 1.49 … 1296 00 00 17.29 +60 53 12.4 15.17 0.63 +0.35 
1081 23 59 32.85 +60 56 59.5 16.14 1.15 … 1297 00 00 18.05 +60 54 52.8 18.48 0.75 … 
1082 23 59 34.12 +60 59 35.0 17.33 1.21 … 1300 00 00 17.98 +60 53 30.9 16.95 0.94 … 
1083 23 59 34.86 +61 00 37.8 18.19 1.32 … 1301 00 00 19.95 +60 57 43.7 16.49 0.83 … 
1084 23 59 35.83 +61 02 46.5 17.06 1.23 … 1302 00 00 22.49 +61 03 13.7 17.65 1.30 … 
1085 23 59 33.94 +60 58 15.1 15.44 1.02 … 1303 00 00 19.95 +60 56 56.2 16.21 0.76 … 
1086 23 59 32.21 +60 54 02.5 17.03 1.15 … 1304 00 00 19.64 +60 55 42.7 15.41 0.82 +0.40 
1087 23 59 37.51 +61 03 44.1 17.09 1.08 … 1305 00 00 19.28 +60 54 20.6 17.33 0.88 … 
1089 23 59 36.54 +61 00 02.4 16.53 0.98 … 1306 00 00 22.71 +61 01 56.3 15.56 0.97 … 
1090 23 59 36.12 +60 58 55.6 17.09 0.96 … 1308 00 00 20.21 +60 55 46.7 16.06 0.82 … 
1091 23 59 34.93 +60 55 57.4 16.78 0.86 … 1309 00 00 22.89 +61 01 31.3 15.37 0.69 … 
1092 23 59 37.51 +61 01 02.7 17.19 1.11 … 1310 00 00 19.89 +60 54 14.5 17.37 0.94 … 
1093 23 59 34.11 +60 52 36.4 17.45 1.28 … 1312 00 00 23.20 +61 00 33.3 16.07 0.97 … 
1094 23 59 35.83 +60 56 22.0 15.86 0.73 … 1313 00 00 19.55 +60 52 05.6 17.12 1.32 … 
1095 23 59 36.21 +60 56 32.0 17.57 1.22 … 1316 00 00 22.99 +60 58 18.8 16.89 0.91 … 
1096 23 59 37.50 +60 59 19.8 16.08 1.68 … 1317 00 00 22.86 +60 57 46.9 16.83 1.07 … 
1097 23 59 35.15 +60 52 52.6 15.92 1.19 … 1318 00 00 22.56 +60 56 45.6 15.96 0.95 … 
1098 23 59 36.03 +60 54 59.3 16.84 1.25 … 1319 00 00 22.88 +60 57 13.2 18.10 0.97 … 
1099 23 59 39.28 +61 02 43.6 16.79 0.52 … 1321 00 00 25.60 +61 02 35.0 17.07 0.99 … 
1100 23 59 39.64 +61 02 33.1 17.46 0.83 … 1322 00 00 23.71 +60 57 48.7 15.95 1.13 … 
1101 23 59 37.38 +60 55 12.4 17.15 1.26 … 1325 00 00 22.62 +60 53 54.3 16.47 0.84 … 
1102 23 59 38.35 +60 55 38.7 16.63 0.75 … 1327 00 00 23.38 +60 55 03.2 16.46 0.85 … 
1103 23 59 40.10 +60 59 35.4 15.86 1.60 … 1329 00 00 24.44 +60 55 48.5 17.27 1.82 … 
1104 23 59 38.95 +60 56 32.1 17.02 1.16 … 1330 00 00 25.71 +60 58 11.2 16.87 0.95 … 
1106 23 59 41.29 +61 00 12.6 15.25 0.96 … 1331 00 00 27.70 +61 02 34.9 16.66 1.06 … 
1108 23 59 38.51 +60 52 55.3 16.57 0.77 … 1334 00 00 25.39 +60 56 42.7 16.73 1.13 … 
1110 23 59 40.09 +60 55 57.7 17.86 1.22 … 1335 00 00 26.62 +60 58 55.3 16.69 1.00 … 
1112 23 59 43.52 +61 03 38.3 16.36 1.10 … 1336 00 00 28.63 +61 02 50.2 17.01 1.02 … 
1113 23 59 43.33 +61 02 52.0 16.41 0.89 … 1337 00 00 25.72 +60 56 07.5 16.60 0.85 … 
1114 23 59 39.50 +60 53 42.6 16.37 0.97 … 1338 00 00 24.86 +60 54 02.0 16.25 1.18 … 
1115 23 59 40.32 +60 55 03.8 15.39 0.79 +0.25 1340 00 00 27.13 +60 58 13.9 18.06 1.69 … 
1116 23 59 40.65 +60 54 36.6 16.49 0.82 … 1341 00 00 26.64 +60 56 47.9 16.46 1.01 … 
1117 23 59 41.73 +60 56 35.4 15.32 0.86 … 1343 00 00 26.18 +60 54 16.6 16.25 1.04 … 
1119 23 59 43.50 +60 58 13.5 17.14 1.22 … 1344 00 00 29.86 +61 01 29.8 16.83 1.34 … 
1120 23 59 45.69 +61 02 26.1 15.32 1.07 … 1345 00 00 25.91 +60 52 38.3 17.19 0.86 … 
1121 23 59 42.53 +60 53 55.6 16.28 0.72 … 1346 00 00 29.97 +61 01 08.2 17.60 0.84 … 
1122 23 59 46.20 +61 02 01.7 17.52 1.25 … 1347 00 00 27.25 +60 54 15.9 16.34 0.97 … 
1123 23 59 43.41 +60 55 23.6 17.04 0.84 … 1348 00 00 28.62 +60 56 47.1 16.96 1.08 … 
1125 23 59 44.33 +60 56 58.6 16.72 0.89 … 1349 00 00 28.30 +60 55 49.0 15.64 0.72 … 
1126 23 59 43.56 +60 55 04.0 16.21 2.03 … 1350 00 00 27.82 +60 53 48.3 16.70 1.70 … 
1127 23 59 47.02 +61 03 03.1 17.31 0.91 … 1351 00 00 27.71 +60 53 14.2 15.58 0.80 +0.36 
1128 23 59 46.62 +61 01 32.7 15.44 0.84 … 1352 00 00 31.85 +61 02 28.5 17.52 1.11 … 
1129 23 59 46.50 +60 59 05.0 16.56 1.29 … 1353 00 00 31.05 +61 00 30.3 16.71 0.95 … 
1131 23 59 45.21 +60 55 29.1 16.97 0.88 … 1354 00 00 32.37 +61 03 24.7 17.55 1.31 … 
1132 23 59 48.63 +61 02 17.7 16.29 1.05 … 1355 00 00 28.37 +60 53 26.7 18.03 1.30 … 
1133 23 59 45.25 +60 53 56.4 17.55 1.09 … 1356 00 00 31.96 +61 00 51.7 16.23 0.84 … 
1134 23 59 45.19 +60 53 10.1 16.73 1.04 … 1357 00 00 29.40 +60 54 53.3 17.67 1.61 … 
1135 23 59 46.91 +60 57 15.7 16.02 0.86 … 1358 00 00 33.10 +61 02 31.4 15.83 1.57 … 
1136 23 59 49.94 +61 02 53.1 17.51 1.62 … 1360 00 00 31.91 +60 55 55.0 16.47 1.13 … 
1137 23 59 46.12 +60 53 22.2 16.08 0.95 … 1361 00 00 35.02 +61 02 12.6 17.79 0.75 … 
1138 23 59 49.74 +61 00 38.8 15.68 0.70 … 1362 00 00 34.55 +61 00 38.4 17.98 1.19 … 
1140 23 59 50.67 +61 01 41.2 15.58 1.08 … 1366 00 00 31.86 +60 51 48.7 15.76 0.89 … 
1141 23 59 48.83 +60 56 27.6 15.59 0.43 … 1368 00 00 35.45 +60 59 16.8 17.76 1.30 … 
1142 23 59 48.58 +60 54 55.9 16.75 0.75 … 1369 00 00 34.42 +60 56 17.0 16.72 1.68 … 
1143 23 59 48.15 +60 52 45.3 17.97 1.15 … 1370 00 00 34.37 +60 55 24.0 16.60 1.62 … 
1145 23 59 52.16 +61 01 56.9 15.26 0.67 … 1371 00 00 34.24 +60 53 47.0 16.69 1.01 … 
1146 23 59 49.31 +60 54 51.9 16.66 1.48 … 1372 00 00 34.82 +60 54 43.0 16.20 0.71 … 
1147 23 59 49.43 +60 54 30.0 17.56 1.22 … 1373 00 00 34.78 +60 53 52.4 15.45 1.00 … 
1148 23 59 51.90 +60 59 21.9 16.51 1.08 … 1374 00 00 36.03 +60 54 42.1 17.24 1.15 … 
1149 23 59 51.37 +60 58 06.1 15.19 0.82 … 1375 00 00 39.55 +61 02 38.1 16.98 1.15 … 
1152 23 59 53.67 +61 02 36.0 17.47 1.18 … 1376 00 00 37.12 +60 57 02.4 16.00 1.08 … 
1153 23 59 54.32 +61 03 11.1 16.90 0.82 … 1377 00 00 39.04 +61 00 55.9 16.67 1.34 … 
1154 23 59 51.16 +60 55 14.9 17.80 1.65 … 1379 00 00 37.67 +60 57 59.9 15.55 1.02 … 
1155 23 59 52.79 +60 58 19.0 17.38 0.83 … 1381 00 00 40.36 +61 02 47.1 15.80 1.67 … 
1157 23 59 53.48 +60 59 19.6 15.41 0.78 … 1382 00 00 40.89 +61 03 10.5 15.40 1.48 … 
1158 23 59 53.70 +60 58 05.2 15.70 1.13 … 1383 00 00 37.34 +60 55 18.2 17.14 0.99 … 
1159 23 59 53.37 +60 56 31.1 16.86 0.86 … 1384 00 00 38.06 +60 56 22.3 17.04 1.35 … 
1161 23 59 53.61 +60 56 42.3 16.31 0.64 … 1385 00 00 39.47 +60 59 25.0 17.78 1.05 … 
1162 23 59 53.84 +60 56 47.8 17.30 1.07 … 1386 00 00 36.10 +60 51 55.4 17.95 0.91 … 
1163 23 59 55.67 +61 01 05.6 16.52 2.00 … 1387 00 00 41.30 +61 02 53.3 15.70 1.15 … 
1164 23 59 59.66 +60 58 23.2 15.94 0.88 … 1388 00 00 36.89 +60 52 34.9 16.71 0.75 … 
1165 23 59 55.58 +60 58 07.6 15.57 0.97 … 1390 00 00 39.24 +60 56 41.0 16.81 1.00 … 
1166 23 59 55.72 +60 58 02.6 16.54 1.06 … 1391 00 00 39.73 +60 56 18.0 17.05 0.98 … 
1167 23 59 56.69 +61 00 12.9 17.40 1.22 … 1392 00 00 40.08 +60 56 38.0 15.57 1.16 … 
1170 23 59 55.08 +60 52 26.3 16.83 1.07 … 1393 00 00 39.00 +60 54 19.5 16.79 0.84 … 
1171 23 59 56.83 +60 55 47.9 16.50 0.80 … 1395 00 00 39.72 +60 54 38.8 16.34 1.74 … 
1172 23 59 59.55 +61 01 53.2 16.69 0.94 … 1396 00 00 43.80 +61 02 59.9 15.14 1.08 … 
1173 23 59 57.85 +60 57 25.1 16.45 0.98 … 1397 00 00 41.17 +60 54 50.4 15.25 1.12 … 
1174 00 00 00.65 +61 03 36.3 15.55 1.06 … 1398 00 00 40.57 +60 52 41.2 17.19 0.86 … 
1176 23 59 56.51 +60 52 55.0 16.74 1.11 … 1399 00 00 38.87 +60 53 10.0 16.01 0.68 … 
1177 00 00 00.62 +61 01 12.0 17.52 1.34 … 1400 00 00 43.57 +60 58 21.3 15.45 0.76 … 
1178 00 00 00.20 +60 59 46.3 17.25 0.81 … 1401 00 00 44.40 +60 59 36.9 18.65 1.07 … 
1179 00 00 01.88 +61 03 03.4 15.38 1.07 … 1402 00 00 43.42 +60 56 29.0 15.88 0.82 … 
1182 00 00 00.15 +60 57 08.5 15.28 1.01 … 1403 00 00 42.83 +60 54 31.8 15.47 0.79 … 
1183 00 00 00.26 +60 56 27.9 16.88 1.92 … 1404 00 00 43.86 +60 54 44.7 16.30 0.96 … 
1184 23 59 58.63 +60 52 34.4 16.41 1.09 … 1405 00 00 43.28 +60 52 49.2 17.41 0.98 … 
1185 00 00 00.30 +60 56 02.3 16.11 0.75 … 1406 00 00 44.94 +60 55 57.8 16.27 1.06 … 
1188 23 59 58.82 +60 52 06.4 15.79 0.73 … 1407 00 00 44.69 +60 55 09.5 16.07 1.10 … 
1189 23 59 59.50 +60 53 34.1 17.02 1.53 … 1409 00 00 44.26 +60 52 52.3 15.79 0.76 … 
1190 00 00 03.53 +61 02 52.6 16.24 1.22 … 1410 00 00 44.22 +60 52 20.0 16.66 1.32 … 
1191 00 00 00.29 +60 54 38.8 15.95 0.94 … 1411 00 00 49.52 +61 02 30.2 15.75 1.66 … 
Star RA(2000) Dec.(2000) V BV UB Star RA(2000) Dec.(2000) V BV UB 
1001 23 59 13.34 +60 54 41.7 16.66 0.95 … 1192 23 59 59.79 +60 53 21.0 16.89 1.08 … 
1002 23 59 13.58 +60 55 25.5 16.14 0.73 … 1193 00 00 00.31 +60 54 14.4 16.54 1.36 … 
1003 23 59 12.82 +60 57 28.6 15.57 1.08 … 1194 00 00 04.01 +61 01 58.9 16.48 1.09 … 
1004 23 59 12.99 +60 56 53.1 15.94 0.72 … 1195 00 00 01.08 +60 55 09.3 16.33 1.02 … 
1005 23 59 12.00 +60 53 31.9 17.75 1.04 … 1196 00 00 02.86 +60 58 36.1 15.55 0.70 … 
1006 23 59 14.92 +61 00 43.2 15.93 1.05 … 1197 00 00 04.28 +61 01 21.8 17.45 0.68 … 
1007 23 59 15.93 +61 02 43.6 17.47 1.05 … 1199 00 00 04.99 +61 02 05.1 17.21 1.35 … 
1008 23 59 16.20 +60 53 18.5 17.02 0.95 … 1200 00 00 03.25 +60 57 25.0 16.32 1.07 … 
1009 23 59 15.49 +61 00 26.4 16.92 1.26 … 1201 00 00 01.48 +60 52 41.4 16.07 1.62 … 
1010 23 59 16.63 +61 01 54.6 17.06 1.13 … 1203 00 00 01.53 +60 52 25.7 15.75 0.87 … 
1011 23 59 14.72 +60 56 52.5 17.15 1.16 … 1205 00 00 05.80 +61 01 13.8 16.77 0.96 … 
1012 23 59 14.95 +60 57 04.1 16.56 1.09 … 1206 00 00 02.37 +60 53 20.1 16.78 0.91 … 
1013 23 59 16.05 +60 59 17.2 14.57 1.71 … 1207 00 00 02.97 +60 54 13.8 15.84 0.93 … 
1014 23 59 13.40 +60 52 36.2 16.16 0.85 … 1208 00 00 02.45 +60 52 53.0 16.66 1.11 … 
1015 23 59 14.93 +60 56 09.3 16.38 1.08 … 1209 00 00 04.49 +60 57 29.5 16.99 1.00 … 
1016 23 59 13.64 +60 53 08.8 16.38 1.00 … 1211 00 00 05.98 +60 59 42.6 17.07 0.88 … 
1017 23 59 15.15 +60 56 21.8 16.61 0.77 … 1213 00 00 04.22 +60 54 26.9 16.61 0.64 … 
1018 23 59 15.09 +60 56 05.4 16.29 0.99 … 1214 00 00 04.64 +60 55 16.8 16.97 0.91 … 
1019 23 59 15.91 +60 57 50.1 18.08 0.92 … 1215 00 00 03.56 +60 52 40.1 15.33 1.00 … 
1020 23 59 17.35 +61 00 48.8 17.05 1.04 … 1216 00 00 08.29 +61 02 39.0 15.44 0.86 … 
1021 23 59 16.51 +60 58 48.2 17.44 0.96 … 1218 00 00 05.99 +60 56 57.7 17.20 1.00 … 
1022 23 59 16.58 +60 58 23.4 16.62 1.29 … 1220 00 00 07.02 +60 58 12.1 16.78 0.81 … 
1023 23 59 17.72 +61 00 12.3 17.82 0.94 … 1222 00 00 05.08 +60 53 18.6 16.86 1.08 … 
1024 23 59 15.99 +60 55 24.2 17.13 0.86 … 1223 00 00 05.00 +60 53 09.0 17.75 1.36 … 
1025 23 59 17.49 +60 58 26.9 15.97 0.96 … 1224 00 00 07.16 +60 56 52.8 17.97 1.16 … 
1026 23 59 17.43 +60 57 55.6 15.08 1.07 … 1225 00 00 05.25 +60 52 21.2 17.19 1.34 … 
1027 23 59 16.20 +60 53 18.5 16.77 0.98 … 1227 00 00 06.82 +60 55 59.0 16.19 0.75 … 
1028 23 59 17.45 +60 55 32.8 16.04 0.98 … 1228 00 00 08.19 +60 58 11.0 15.91 0.90 … 
1029 23 59 19.01 +60 59 14.0 17.23 0.98 … 1229 00 00 06.17 +60 53 07.6 17.72 1.63 … 
1030 23 59 17.76 +60 55 55.7 15.77 0.66 … 1230 00 00 06.64 +60 53 58.4 18.39 1.09 … 
1031 23 59 17.95 +60 56 16.5 16.04 0.93 … 1231 00 00 08.71 +60 58 24.0 16.19 1.15 … 
1034 23 59 20.75 +61 01 52.0 17.54 1.79 … 1232 00 00 07.31 +60 55 02.8 15.75 1.66 … 
1035 23 59 20.78 +61 02 08.0 15.90 1.54 … 1233 00 00 09.48 +60 59 59.1 16.64 1.46 … 
1036 23 59 19.06 +60 57 40.1 16.92 1.36 … 1234 00 00 09.94 +61 01 12.3 17.67 1.03 … 
1037 23 59 21.76 +61 02 13.7 16.38 0.98 … 1235 00 00 10.21 +61 01 33.5 15.35 1.51 … 
1038 23 59 21.29 +61 00 29.4 17.49 1.36 … 1236 00 00 07.39 +60 54 47.3 16.33 0.78 … 
1039 23 59 20.03 +60 57 05.3 17.09 1.10 … 1238 00 00 11.06 +61 02 06.7 17.04 1.15 … 
1040 23 59 19.65 +60 54 46.4 16.78 1.37 … 1240 00 00 08.12 +60 54 44.7 16.01 0.70 … 
1041 23 59 18.71 +60 52 29.0 16.54 1.71 … 1242 00 00 07.23 +60 52 10.7 16.73 2.04 … 
1042 23 59 21.26 +60 58 02.7 17.11 1.06 … 1243 00 00 08.18 +60 54 17.3 16.51 0.85 … 
1043 23 59 19.98 +60 54 26.0 17.52 1.04 … 1244 00 00 12.27 +61 03 25.6 16.87 1.17 … 
1044 23 59 21.95 +60 55 40.3 16.45 1.07 … 1246 00 00 11.22 +61 00 50.2 17.57 1.13 … 
1047 23 59 21.29 +61 00 29.4 17.71 1.02 … 1248 00 00 09.33 +60 55 04.1 15.40 0.99 … 
1048 23 59 25.23 +61 01 44.0 18.17 0.76 … 1249 00 00 07.98 +60 51 49.3 17.45 1.01 … 
1050 23 59 25.80 +61 00 40.3 16.88 0.78 … 1251 00 00 11.50 +60 58 32.1 16.49 1.22 … 
1051 23 59 25.17 +60 57 56.3 16.88 0.90 … 1254 00 00 10.42 +60 54 35.7 16.55 1.19 … 
1052 23 59 23.33 +60 53 29.9 18.07 1.16 … 1255 00 00 13.91 +61 02 16.6 16.71 1.12 … 
1053 23 59 24.72 +60 56 16.0 15.59 0.68 … 1256 00 00 12.77 +60 59 23.5 17.12 1.54 … 
1054 23 59 25.52 +60 58 09.7 16.68 0.99 … 1258 00 00 13.64 +61 00 37.4 16.37 0.74 … 
1056 23 59 28.15 +61 02 06.4 15.35 1.05 … 1260 00 00 15.23 +61 03 28.2 16.50 1.06 … 
1057 23 59 28.38 +61 02 40.0 17.79 1.26 … 1261 00 00 11.36 +60 53 43.7 16.56 1.19 … 
1058 23 59 25.80 +60 56 12.5 16.11 0.74 … 1262 00 00 15.48 +61 02 13.4 17.22 1.27 … 
1059 23 59 27.56 +61 00 01.0 17.21 1.16 … 1263 00 00 13.05 +60 56 35.4 16.28 1.10 … 
1060 23 59 28.13 +61 01 08.2 18.27 1.23 … 1267 00 00 13.09 +60 54 50.0 16.30 0.79 … 
1061 23 59 27.05 +60 57 08.2 16.71 1.09 … 1268 00 00 13.36 +60 55 30.2 16.32 0.81 … 
1062 23 59 27.87 +60 58 36.6 16.25 0.79 … 1270 00 00 14.81 +60 58 25.1 15.14 0.83 +0.39 
1063 23 59 27.43 +60 56 19.0 16.13 0.81 … 1271 00 00 12.88 +60 53 46.9 16.18 0.99 … 
1064 23 59 28.87 +60 59 01.0 17.09 1.58 … 1272 00 00 14.21 +60 56 52.2 16.68 0.84 … 
1066 23 59 31.06 +61 03 11.5 17.93 0.73 … 1273 00 00 16.48 +61 01 21.1 16.21 1.21 … 
1067 23 59 29.96 +61 00 22.6 16.55 0.79 … 1276 00 00 15.16 +60 56 22.6 16.45 0.90 … 
1068 23 59 32.09 +61 03 09.1 15.75 0.71 … 1277 00 00 18.04 +61 02 55.1 15.96 1.18 … 
1069 23 59 28.50 +60 53 37.0 16.50 1.90 … 1278 00 00 15.74 +60 57 35.8 15.97 0.73 … 
1070 23 59 30.44 +60 57 43.2 16.01 0.80 … 1280 00 00 15.73 +60 56 08.6 14.63 0.62 … 
1071 23 59 28.90 +60 53 12.9 15.76 0.77 … 1281 00 00 19.00 +61 03 27.4 16.65 1.19 … 
1072 23 59 33.99 +61 03 29.5 16.00 1.24 … 1282 00 00 16.52 +60 57 18.9 15.61 0.66 … 
1073 23 59 34.17 +61 03 37.8 16.26 1.10 … 1284 00 00 17.90 +61 00 03.0 17.22 1.01 … 
1074 23 59 29.68 +60 52 38.3 15.41 0.84 … 1285 00 00 16.72 +60 56 21.5 16.29 0.79 … 
1075 23 59 30.93 +60 54 47.6 14.80 0.79 … 1286 00 00 16.19 +60 54 46.9 16.00 0.80 … 
1076 23 59 32.61 +60 57 52.0 17.72 1.53 … 1288 00 00 18.80 +61 00 28.6 16.45 1.10 … 
1077 23 59 33.73 +60 59 41.7 16.10 1.17 … 1289 00 00 15.18 +60 52 03.5 15.89 0.69 … 
1078 23 59 34.68 +61 01 48.7 15.65 0.98 … 1291 00 00 17.51 +60 54 33.5 16.94 0.93 … 
1079 23 59 31.86 +60 54 42.7 17.01 1.04 … 1292 00 00 19.32 +60 58 39.6 17.47 1.00 … 
1080 23 59 31.86 +60 54 42.7 16.97 1.49 … 1296 00 00 17.29 +60 53 12.4 15.17 0.63 +0.35 
1081 23 59 32.85 +60 56 59.5 16.14 1.15 … 1297 00 00 18.05 +60 54 52.8 18.48 0.75 … 
1082 23 59 34.12 +60 59 35.0 17.33 1.21 … 1300 00 00 17.98 +60 53 30.9 16.95 0.94 … 
1083 23 59 34.86 +61 00 37.8 18.19 1.32 … 1301 00 00 19.95 +60 57 43.7 16.49 0.83 … 
1084 23 59 35.83 +61 02 46.5 17.06 1.23 … 1302 00 00 22.49 +61 03 13.7 17.65 1.30 … 
1085 23 59 33.94 +60 58 15.1 15.44 1.02 … 1303 00 00 19.95 +60 56 56.2 16.21 0.76 … 
1086 23 59 32.21 +60 54 02.5 17.03 1.15 … 1304 00 00 19.64 +60 55 42.7 15.41 0.82 +0.40 
1087 23 59 37.51 +61 03 44.1 17.09 1.08 … 1305 00 00 19.28 +60 54 20.6 17.33 0.88 … 
1089 23 59 36.54 +61 00 02.4 16.53 0.98 … 1306 00 00 22.71 +61 01 56.3 15.56 0.97 … 
1090 23 59 36.12 +60 58 55.6 17.09 0.96 … 1308 00 00 20.21 +60 55 46.7 16.06 0.82 … 
1091 23 59 34.93 +60 55 57.4 16.78 0.86 … 1309 00 00 22.89 +61 01 31.3 15.37 0.69 … 
1092 23 59 37.51 +61 01 02.7 17.19 1.11 … 1310 00 00 19.89 +60 54 14.5 17.37 0.94 … 
1093 23 59 34.11 +60 52 36.4 17.45 1.28 … 1312 00 00 23.20 +61 00 33.3 16.07 0.97 … 
1094 23 59 35.83 +60 56 22.0 15.86 0.73 … 1313 00 00 19.55 +60 52 05.6 17.12 1.32 … 
1095 23 59 36.21 +60 56 32.0 17.57 1.22 … 1316 00 00 22.99 +60 58 18.8 16.89 0.91 … 
1096 23 59 37.50 +60 59 19.8 16.08 1.68 … 1317 00 00 22.86 +60 57 46.9 16.83 1.07 … 
1097 23 59 35.15 +60 52 52.6 15.92 1.19 … 1318 00 00 22.56 +60 56 45.6 15.96 0.95 … 
1098 23 59 36.03 +60 54 59.3 16.84 1.25 … 1319 00 00 22.88 +60 57 13.2 18.10 0.97 … 
1099 23 59 39.28 +61 02 43.6 16.79 0.52 … 1321 00 00 25.60 +61 02 35.0 17.07 0.99 … 
1100 23 59 39.64 +61 02 33.1 17.46 0.83 … 1322 00 00 23.71 +60 57 48.7 15.95 1.13 … 
1101 23 59 37.38 +60 55 12.4 17.15 1.26 … 1325 00 00 22.62 +60 53 54.3 16.47 0.84 … 
1102 23 59 38.35 +60 55 38.7 16.63 0.75 … 1327 00 00 23.38 +60 55 03.2 16.46 0.85 … 
1103 23 59 40.10 +60 59 35.4 15.86 1.60 … 1329 00 00 24.44 +60 55 48.5 17.27 1.82 … 
1104 23 59 38.95 +60 56 32.1 17.02 1.16 … 1330 00 00 25.71 +60 58 11.2 16.87 0.95 … 
1106 23 59 41.29 +61 00 12.6 15.25 0.96 … 1331 00 00 27.70 +61 02 34.9 16.66 1.06 … 
1108 23 59 38.51 +60 52 55.3 16.57 0.77 … 1334 00 00 25.39 +60 56 42.7 16.73 1.13 … 
1110 23 59 40.09 +60 55 57.7 17.86 1.22 … 1335 00 00 26.62 +60 58 55.3 16.69 1.00 … 
1112 23 59 43.52 +61 03 38.3 16.36 1.10 … 1336 00 00 28.63 +61 02 50.2 17.01 1.02 … 
1113 23 59 43.33 +61 02 52.0 16.41 0.89 … 1337 00 00 25.72 +60 56 07.5 16.60 0.85 … 
1114 23 59 39.50 +60 53 42.6 16.37 0.97 … 1338 00 00 24.86 +60 54 02.0 16.25 1.18 … 
1115 23 59 40.32 +60 55 03.8 15.39 0.79 +0.25 1340 00 00 27.13 +60 58 13.9 18.06 1.69 … 
1116 23 59 40.65 +60 54 36.6 16.49 0.82 … 1341 00 00 26.64 +60 56 47.9 16.46 1.01 … 
1117 23 59 41.73 +60 56 35.4 15.32 0.86 … 1343 00 00 26.18 +60 54 16.6 16.25 1.04 … 
1119 23 59 43.50 +60 58 13.5 17.14 1.22 … 1344 00 00 29.86 +61 01 29.8 16.83 1.34 … 
1120 23 59 45.69 +61 02 26.1 15.32 1.07 … 1345 00 00 25.91 +60 52 38.3 17.19 0.86 … 
1121 23 59 42.53 +60 53 55.6 16.28 0.72 … 1346 00 00 29.97 +61 01 08.2 17.60 0.84 … 
1122 23 59 46.20 +61 02 01.7 17.52 1.25 … 1347 00 00 27.25 +60 54 15.9 16.34 0.97 … 
1123 23 59 43.41 +60 55 23.6 17.04 0.84 … 1348 00 00 28.62 +60 56 47.1 16.96 1.08 … 
1125 23 59 44.33 +60 56 58.6 16.72 0.89 … 1349 00 00 28.30 +60 55 49.0 15.64 0.72 … 
1126 23 59 43.56 +60 55 04.0 16.21 2.03 … 1350 00 00 27.82 +60 53 48.3 16.70 1.70 … 
1127 23 59 47.02 +61 03 03.1 17.31 0.91 … 1351 00 00 27.71 +60 53 14.2 15.58 0.80 +0.36 
1128 23 59 46.62 +61 01 32.7 15.44 0.84 … 1352 00 00 31.85 +61 02 28.5 17.52 1.11 … 
1129 23 59 46.50 +60 59 05.0 16.56 1.29 … 1353 00 00 31.05 +61 00 30.3 16.71 0.95 … 
1131 23 59 45.21 +60 55 29.1 16.97 0.88 … 1354 00 00 32.37 +61 03 24.7 17.55 1.31 … 
1132 23 59 48.63 +61 02 17.7 16.29 1.05 … 1355 00 00 28.37 +60 53 26.7 18.03 1.30 … 
1133 23 59 45.25 +60 53 56.4 17.55 1.09 … 1356 00 00 31.96 +61 00 51.7 16.23 0.84 … 
1134 23 59 45.19 +60 53 10.1 16.73 1.04 … 1357 00 00 29.40 +60 54 53.3 17.67 1.61 … 
1135 23 59 46.91 +60 57 15.7 16.02 0.86 … 1358 00 00 33.10 +61 02 31.4 15.83 1.57 … 
1136 23 59 49.94 +61 02 53.1 17.51 1.62 … 1360 00 00 31.91 +60 55 55.0 16.47 1.13 … 
1137 23 59 46.12 +60 53 22.2 16.08 0.95 … 1361 00 00 35.02 +61 02 12.6 17.79 0.75 … 
1138 23 59 49.74 +61 00 38.8 15.68 0.70 … 1362 00 00 34.55 +61 00 38.4 17.98 1.19 … 
1140 23 59 50.67 +61 01 41.2 15.58 1.08 … 1366 00 00 31.86 +60 51 48.7 15.76 0.89 … 
1141 23 59 48.83 +60 56 27.6 15.59 0.43 … 1368 00 00 35.45 +60 59 16.8 17.76 1.30 … 
1142 23 59 48.58 +60 54 55.9 16.75 0.75 … 1369 00 00 34.42 +60 56 17.0 16.72 1.68 … 
1143 23 59 48.15 +60 52 45.3 17.97 1.15 … 1370 00 00 34.37 +60 55 24.0 16.60 1.62 … 
1145 23 59 52.16 +61 01 56.9 15.26 0.67 … 1371 00 00 34.24 +60 53 47.0 16.69 1.01 … 
1146 23 59 49.31 +60 54 51.9 16.66 1.48 … 1372 00 00 34.82 +60 54 43.0 16.20 0.71 … 
1147 23 59 49.43 +60 54 30.0 17.56 1.22 … 1373 00 00 34.78 +60 53 52.4 15.45 1.00 … 
1148 23 59 51.90 +60 59 21.9 16.51 1.08 … 1374 00 00 36.03 +60 54 42.1 17.24 1.15 … 
1149 23 59 51.37 +60 58 06.1 15.19 0.82 … 1375 00 00 39.55 +61 02 38.1 16.98 1.15 … 
1152 23 59 53.67 +61 02 36.0 17.47 1.18 … 1376 00 00 37.12 +60 57 02.4 16.00 1.08 … 
1153 23 59 54.32 +61 03 11.1 16.90 0.82 … 1377 00 00 39.04 +61 00 55.9 16.67 1.34 … 
1154 23 59 51.16 +60 55 14.9 17.80 1.65 … 1379 00 00 37.67 +60 57 59.9 15.55 1.02 … 
1155 23 59 52.79 +60 58 19.0 17.38 0.83 … 1381 00 00 40.36 +61 02 47.1 15.80 1.67 … 
1157 23 59 53.48 +60 59 19.6 15.41 0.78 … 1382 00 00 40.89 +61 03 10.5 15.40 1.48 … 
1158 23 59 53.70 +60 58 05.2 15.70 1.13 … 1383 00 00 37.34 +60 55 18.2 17.14 0.99 … 
1159 23 59 53.37 +60 56 31.1 16.86 0.86 … 1384 00 00 38.06 +60 56 22.3 17.04 1.35 … 
1161 23 59 53.61 +60 56 42.3 16.31 0.64 … 1385 00 00 39.47 +60 59 25.0 17.78 1.05 … 
1162 23 59 53.84 +60 56 47.8 17.30 1.07 … 1386 00 00 36.10 +60 51 55.4 17.95 0.91 … 
1163 23 59 55.67 +61 01 05.6 16.52 2.00 … 1387 00 00 41.30 +61 02 53.3 15.70 1.15 … 
1164 23 59 59.66 +60 58 23.2 15.94 0.88 … 1388 00 00 36.89 +60 52 34.9 16.71 0.75 … 
1165 23 59 55.58 +60 58 07.6 15.57 0.97 … 1390 00 00 39.24 +60 56 41.0 16.81 1.00 … 
1166 23 59 55.72 +60 58 02.6 16.54 1.06 … 1391 00 00 39.73 +60 56 18.0 17.05 0.98 … 
1167 23 59 56.69 +61 00 12.9 17.40 1.22 … 1392 00 00 40.08 +60 56 38.0 15.57 1.16 … 
1170 23 59 55.08 +60 52 26.3 16.83 1.07 … 1393 00 00 39.00 +60 54 19.5 16.79 0.84 … 
1171 23 59 56.83 +60 55 47.9 16.50 0.80 … 1395 00 00 39.72 +60 54 38.8 16.34 1.74 … 
1172 23 59 59.55 +61 01 53.2 16.69 0.94 … 1396 00 00 43.80 +61 02 59.9 15.14 1.08 … 
1173 23 59 57.85 +60 57 25.1 16.45 0.98 … 1397 00 00 41.17 +60 54 50.4 15.25 1.12 … 
1174 00 00 00.65 +61 03 36.3 15.55 1.06 … 1398 00 00 40.57 +60 52 41.2 17.19 0.86 … 
1176 23 59 56.51 +60 52 55.0 16.74 1.11 … 1399 00 00 38.87 +60 53 10.0 16.01 0.68 … 
1177 00 00 00.62 +61 01 12.0 17.52 1.34 … 1400 00 00 43.57 +60 58 21.3 15.45 0.76 … 
1178 00 00 00.20 +60 59 46.3 17.25 0.81 … 1401 00 00 44.40 +60 59 36.9 18.65 1.07 … 
1179 00 00 01.88 +61 03 03.4 15.38 1.07 … 1402 00 00 43.42 +60 56 29.0 15.88 0.82 … 
1182 00 00 00.15 +60 57 08.5 15.28 1.01 … 1403 00 00 42.83 +60 54 31.8 15.47 0.79 … 
1183 00 00 00.26 +60 56 27.9 16.88 1.92 … 1404 00 00 43.86 +60 54 44.7 16.30 0.96 … 
1184 23 59 58.63 +60 52 34.4 16.41 1.09 … 1405 00 00 43.28 +60 52 49.2 17.41 0.98 … 
1185 00 00 00.30 +60 56 02.3 16.11 0.75 … 1406 00 00 44.94 +60 55 57.8 16.27 1.06 … 
1188 23 59 58.82 +60 52 06.4 15.79 0.73 … 1407 00 00 44.69 +60 55 09.5 16.07 1.10 … 
1189 23 59 59.50 +60 53 34.1 17.02 1.53 … 1409 00 00 44.26 +60 52 52.3 15.79 0.76 … 
1190 00 00 03.53 +61 02 52.6 16.24 1.22 … 1410 00 00 44.22 +60 52 20.0 16.66 1.32 … 
1191 00 00 00.29 +60 54 38.8 15.95 0.94 … 1411 00 00 49.52 +61 02 30.2 15.75 1.66 … 

Spectroscopic imaging of bright stars in Berkeley 58 was made in 1984 July and 1985 September using the Cassegrain spectrograph on the 1.8-m Plaskett telescope of the Dominion Astrophysical Observatory. The observations, at a dispersion of 15 Å mm−1 and centred in the blue spectral region, were recorded photographically and later scanned for radial velocity measurement with the PDS microdensitometer at the David Dunlap Observatory of the University of Toronto (see Turner & Drilling 1984). It was also possible to estimate spectral types for the stars from the photographic spectra, with results presented in Table 1.

The field of the Cepheid CG Cas was also examined on archival images in the collections of Harvard College Observatory and Sternberg Astronomical Institute in order to obtain brightness estimates for the star and to construct seasonal light curves for comparison with a standard light curve constructed from photoelectric observations (Berdnikov 2007). The resulting data were used to estimate times of light maximum for the Cepheid and to track its O−C changes, the differences between observed (O) and computed (C) times of light maximum. Rate of period change, in conjunction with light amplitude, is an excellent diagnostic of the location of individual Cepheids in the instability strip (Turner, Abdel-Sabour Abdel-Latif & Berdnikov 2006a), such information providing an excellent parameter for comparison with what can be gleaned from information on the age of the surrounding stars provided by the cluster Hertzsprung–Russell diagram.

3 STAR COUNTS

The first step in studying Berkeley 58 involved star counts made using a photographic enlargement from a glass copy of the Palomar Observatory Sky Survey (POSS) E plate for the field. Strip counts in several different orientations delineated the cluster centre, followed by ring counts illustrated in Fig. 2; the centre of symmetry is located at forumla (2000). The upper portion of Fig. 2 illustrates ring counts for stars detected on the 2MASS survey (Cutri et al. 2003) to the survey limit, whereas the lower portion shows star counts from the POSS-E plate to two different magnitude limits.

Figure 2

Star densities for the field of Berkeley 58, as measured in rings relative to the adopted cluster centre. The upper diagram contains ring counts made from the 2MASS survey, the lower two diagrams ring counts from the POSS-E plate of the field for a faint limit (middle) and a brighter limit (lower). The location of CG Cas relative to the cluster centre is indicated by an arrow.

Figure 2

Star densities for the field of Berkeley 58, as measured in rings relative to the adopted cluster centre. The upper diagram contains ring counts made from the 2MASS survey, the lower two diagrams ring counts from the POSS-E plate of the field for a faint limit (middle) and a brighter limit (lower). The location of CG Cas relative to the cluster centre is indicated by an arrow.

The counts from the 2MASS survey were made without regard for overlap with the star cluster NGC 7790, which lies 23 arcmin to the north-west of Berkeley 58, whereas the counts from the POSS-E plate were restricted beyond 11 arcmin from the cluster centre to sectors that avoided overlap with the outlying regions of NGC 7790. The effect of contamination from the coronal region of NGC 7790 is detectable in the 2MASS star counts beyond roughly 12 arcmin from the cluster centre, but because of restrictions imposed by the location of Berkeley 58 on the POSS, we were unable to establish uncontaminated star counts from the POSS-E plate beyond about 15 arcmin from the cluster centre. Nevertheless, the two sets of counts appear to yield similar parameters for the inner regions of the cluster. Berkeley 58 is estimated to have a nuclear radius of rn≃ 4.5 arcmin (4.0 pc) in the notation of Kholopov (1969), whereas the coronal (or tidal) radius is estimated to be Rc≃ 11 arcmin (9.7 pc) from the trends in the 2MASS star densities as well as the apparent flattening of the POSS-E star densities in the outermost rings.

Star counts predict a total of 197 ± 27 members brighter than the limit of the 2MASS survey lying within 5 arcmin of the cluster centre, 487 ± 82 members within 11 arcmin of the cluster centre, field stars within the same regions being 715 and 4835, respectively. Field stars clearly outnumber cluster members in both regions. CG Cas is located 5.8 arcmin from the centre of Berkeley 58, in the cluster coronal region just beyond its nuclear boundaries. Although not projected on the core of Berkeley 58, CG Cas is spatially coincident with the cluster, which occupies most of the field of Fig. 1.

4 BERKELEY 58

Fig. 3 is a UBV colour–colour diagram for the field of Berkeley 58 surveyed in this study, as constructed from the data of Tables 1, 3 and 4. The phase-averaged data for CG Cas are from Berdnikov (2007). A reddened sequence of B- and A-type cluster members can be detected in the data, but a cluster reddening of E(BV) ≃ 0.7 places them in a section of the colour–colour diagram where they can be confused photometrically with unreddened, foreground, G-type stars. For that reason, it becomes essential to make the process of photometric identification of likely spectral classes for individual stars as reliable as possible, through the use of a well-established interstellar extinction relation. The spectral types obtained for six of the B-type, photoelectrically observed, cluster stars imply a reddening law for Berkeley 58 described by E(UB)/E(BV) = 0.75, along with a small curvature term (Turner 1989), identical to the reddening slope found previously for star clusters spatially adjacent to Berkeley 58 (Turner 1976b). Berkeley 58 stars were therefore dereddened with such a relationship, except for late-type stars where a steeper relationship was adopted, dependent upon the likely intrinsic colours of the stars.

Figure 3

A UBV colour–colour diagram for observed Berkeley 58 stars: photoelectric observations (filled circles), photographic observations supplemented by CCD observations (open circles), CCD observations (filled triangles), and CG Cas (circled point). The intrinsic relation for main sequence stars is plotted as a solid line, with the same relation reddened by E(BV) = 0.38 and E(BV) = 0.70 shown by dotted lines. The reddening relations for stars of spectral type B6.5 V and A2 V are shown as dashed lines.

Figure 3

A UBV colour–colour diagram for observed Berkeley 58 stars: photoelectric observations (filled circles), photographic observations supplemented by CCD observations (open circles), CCD observations (filled triangles), and CG Cas (circled point). The intrinsic relation for main sequence stars is plotted as a solid line, with the same relation reddened by E(BV) = 0.38 and E(BV) = 0.70 shown by dotted lines. The reddening relations for stars of spectral type B6.5 V and A2 V are shown as dashed lines.

Fig. 3 data indicate an absence of any unreddened O-, B- or A-type stars in the observed sample. That feature is confirmed by available 2MASS data for the observed stars (Cutri et al. 2003), which are depicted in the JHK colour–colour diagram of Fig. 4. An intrinsic relation for main-sequence stars in the 2MASS system was constructed from 2MASS observations of unreddened standard stars and stars in open clusters of uniform reddening (e.g. Turner 1996b), adjusted with a reddening slope E(HK)/E(JH) = 0.55, as derived from reddened stars of known spectral type. The number of cluster stars with U-band observations is a small fraction of the total sample, so Fig. 4 contains many more stars than Fig. 3. The selection of 2MASS data was also not restricted according to the magnitude of cited uncertainties in the data, so several points in Fig. 4 display unusually large scatter. It seems clear, however, that the sample of cluster stars surveyed consists mainly of stars reddened by E(JH) ≥ 0.1, which corresponds to E(BV) ≥ 0.36.

Figure 4

A 2MASS colour–colour diagram, HK versus JH, for stars examined in the field of Berkeley 58, without regard to the uncertainties in the observations (Cutri et al. 2003). The intrinsic relation for main sequence stars is plotted as a solid line, as derived from the observed colours of standard stars and stars in clusters of uniform reddening. The direction of reddening in the 2MASS system is indicated.

Figure 4

A 2MASS colour–colour diagram, HK versus JH, for stars examined in the field of Berkeley 58, without regard to the uncertainties in the observations (Cutri et al. 2003). The intrinsic relation for main sequence stars is plotted as a solid line, as derived from the observed colours of standard stars and stars in clusters of uniform reddening. The direction of reddening in the 2MASS system is indicated.

The correlation of reddening with distance towards Berkeley 58 was established from the available UBV photometry by dereddening the colours for individual stars in conjunction with a copy of the POSS field on which derived colour excesses E(BV) were recorded as they were obtained, with multiple solutions resolved by reference to the reddenings for spatially adjacent stars as well as by the reddenings derived for the stars from their 2MASS colours (Fig. 4). In most cases, the smaller JHK reddening of stars relative to those obtained from UBV colours was sufficient to resolve questions about likely intrinsic colours for the stars, but there were a number of ambiguous cases where the data from the two surveys yielded disparate solutions, for example 2MASS colours implying an early spectral type and UBV colours implying a late spectral type. Such cases were unimportant in the final analysis, but are curious nevertheless.

Distance moduli were calculated for individual stars by adoption of zero-age main sequence (ZAMS) values of MV (Turner 1976a, 1979), so the values systematically underestimate VMV for unresolved binaries and evolved stars. The resulting scatter in the variable-extinction diagram of Fig. 5 therefore contains a systematic component towards small values of VMV. Within such constraints, it is possible to discern certain trends in the data, such as the lack of any significant reddening out to distances of ∼600 pc (V0MV= 8.9), with a reddening of E(BV) ≥ 0.4 beyond that to distances of ∼2700 pc (V0MV= 12.16) or more. At the Galactic location of CG Cas (l= 116°.845, b=−1°.315), a more encompassing survey by Neckel & Klare (1980) implies a similar trend, with the reddening beginning at distances of ∼400–900 pc. Apparently, the main extinction for stars in the direction of Berkeley 58 occurs near the far side of the local spiral arm feature.

Figure 5

A variable-extinction diagram for observed Berkeley 58 stars, with symbols as in Fig. 3. Reddening relations of slope R=AV/E(BV) = 2.95 are shown corresponding to distances of d≃ 600 pc (V0MV= 8.9) and d≃ 2700 pc (V0MV= 12.16).

Figure 5

A variable-extinction diagram for observed Berkeley 58 stars, with symbols as in Fig. 3. Reddening relations of slope R=AV/E(BV) = 2.95 are shown corresponding to distances of d≃ 600 pc (V0MV= 8.9) and d≃ 2700 pc (V0MV= 12.16).

But the picture is not that simple. When the derived reddenings are compared star-for-star in the field of Berkeley 58, there are no obvious trends with spatial location, and trends with distance are difficult to establish without highly accurate luminosities for the observed stars. It can be surmised that there is additional reddening occurring on the near side of the Perseus spiral arm, given the nature of the scatter in the colour excesses. Likely members of Berkeley 58 generally have reddenings of E(BV) ≃ 0.70, with larger values possibly arising from circumstellar extinction, particularly for late B-type stars where rapid rotation is common (e.g. Turner 1993, 1996a). An identical feature is observed in the adjacent cluster NGC 7790 (Takala 1988). A lower envelope trend for the reddened stars in Fig. 5 implies a ratio of total-to-selective extinction for the field of R=AV/E(BV) = 2.95 ± 0.30 from least squares and non-parametric analyses. The value is consistent with previous studies of clusters in this region of the Galaxy (Turner 1976b), as well as with a value of R≃ 2.95 expected for local extinction described by a reddening slope of 0.75 (Turner 1996a). For subsequent calculations a value of R= 2.95 was adopted, the exact choice affecting estimates of distance but not the derived luminosity for CG Cas as a cluster member.

An observational colour–magnitude diagram for the sampled stars is presented in Fig. 6, with a ZAMS plotted for VMV= 14.29, the apparent distance modulus at E(BV) = 0.70 for points on the lower relation of Fig. 5. Such parameters provide a reasonable fit to the data, but there remain anomalies requiring further examination. For example, Fig. 6 contains reddened B-type stars more luminous than the turnoff magnitude for a cluster containing CG Cas, a point also indicated in Fig. 3, where dashed relations indicate reddening lines for B6.5 V and A2 V stars, the former corresponding to the expected turnoff colour [(BV)0=−0.13] for stars associated with a 4.37 d Cepheid (Turner 1996c). Clearly, the field contains a number of stars younger than the expected evolutionary age of CG Cas.

Figure 6

A colour–magnitude diagram for Berkeley 58 from all observations: photoelectric (filled circles), photographic (open circles), and CCD (triangles) data. CG Cas is the circled point. The ZAMS is depicted for E(BV) = 0.70 and VMV= 14.29.

Figure 6

A colour–magnitude diagram for Berkeley 58 from all observations: photoelectric (filled circles), photographic (open circles), and CCD (triangles) data. CG Cas is the circled point. The ZAMS is depicted for E(BV) = 0.70 and VMV= 14.29.

Such complications may be endemic to the field of both Berkeley 58 and NGC 7790, where the line of sight crosses the interarm region between the Sun and portions of the local spiral feature, then intercepts the Perseus spiral arm with a marked increase in space density for young B-type stars and young-to-intermediate age star clusters. The separation of spiral arm stars from cluster members is difficult but achievable, since the radial velocities for CG Cas and Berkeley 58 stars listed in Table 5 imply a conspicuous

Table 5

Radial velocity data for Berkeley 58 Stars.

Star HJD VR (km s−1Adopted VR (km s−1
CG Cas 244 5906.955 −74.5 ± 3.8  
244 5908.942 −78.3 ± 1.4  
244 5909.944 −98.4 ± 3.0  
244 5910.933 −84.8 ± 1.3  
244 5911.935 −73.0 ± 1.8  
244 5912.923 −63.9 ± 1.7  
244 6326.874 −72.4 ± 2.3  
244 6327.907 −65.5 ± 3.7  
244 6328.910 −100.1 ± 1.2  
244 6330.890 −70.5 ± 1.2  
244 6331.881 −60.5 ± 2.3 −78.8 
24 45908.961 −13.3 ± 3.5  
244 6326.940 −88.3 ± 4.1  
244 6327.955 −47.7 ± 6.5 −52.3 
244 5909.963 −57.6 ± 5.3  
244 6327.942 −61.3 ± 2.9  
244 6331.020 −68.7 ± 4.2 −62.7 
11 244 5910.956 −80.7 ± 1.2  
244 6330.919 −70.9 ± 5.1  
244 6331.909 −70.4 ± 3.3 −79.1 
18 244 5911.760 −82.1 ± 10.1  
244 6326.914 −81.6 ± 3.3 −81.6 
23 244 6328.955 −77.8 ± 13.0 −77.8 
24 244 6330.972 −69.8 ± 8.5 −69.8 
 Cluster mean = −79.4 ± 1.0 
Star HJD VR (km s−1Adopted VR (km s−1
CG Cas 244 5906.955 −74.5 ± 3.8  
244 5908.942 −78.3 ± 1.4  
244 5909.944 −98.4 ± 3.0  
244 5910.933 −84.8 ± 1.3  
244 5911.935 −73.0 ± 1.8  
244 5912.923 −63.9 ± 1.7  
244 6326.874 −72.4 ± 2.3  
244 6327.907 −65.5 ± 3.7  
244 6328.910 −100.1 ± 1.2  
244 6330.890 −70.5 ± 1.2  
244 6331.881 −60.5 ± 2.3 −78.8 
24 45908.961 −13.3 ± 3.5  
244 6326.940 −88.3 ± 4.1  
244 6327.955 −47.7 ± 6.5 −52.3 
244 5909.963 −57.6 ± 5.3  
244 6327.942 −61.3 ± 2.9  
244 6331.020 −68.7 ± 4.2 −62.7 
11 244 5910.956 −80.7 ± 1.2  
244 6330.919 −70.9 ± 5.1  
244 6331.909 −70.4 ± 3.3 −79.1 
18 244 5911.760 −82.1 ± 10.1  
244 6326.914 −81.6 ± 3.3 −81.6 
23 244 6328.955 −77.8 ± 13.0 −77.8 
24 244 6330.972 −69.8 ± 8.5 −69.8 
 Cluster mean = −79.4 ± 1.0 

velocity difference between the cluster and spiral arm stars. The anomalously young B stars noted above are objects like stars 6 (V654 Cas), 7 and possibly 24, which have systematically more positive velocities than likely cluster members: stars 11, 18 and 23, which have radial velocities close to the systemic velocity of CG Cas (see Fig. 7, which includes radial velocity measurements from Joy 1937; Metzger et al. 1991; Gorynya et al. 1998). Except for star 11, which may be anomalous, stars with radial velocities close to that of CG Cas also have spectral types near the expected B6.5 V turnoff. Unfortunately, it is not possible to identify fainter cluster members by the same technique, given the bright limit for the present radial velocity survey. Follow-up observations would be useful in that regard.

Figure 7

The radial velocity variations of CG Cas, with cited uncertainties, as measured in this paper (open circles), from Metzger et al. (1991) (filled squares) and Gorynya et al. (1998) (filled circles), and from Joy (1937) (open squares). The curve is a simple spectroscopic binary solution to the data from the first three data sets, the data from Joy (1937) exhibiting systematic deviations near velocity minimum.

Figure 7

The radial velocity variations of CG Cas, with cited uncertainties, as measured in this paper (open circles), from Metzger et al. (1991) (filled squares) and Gorynya et al. (1998) (filled circles), and from Joy (1937) (open squares). The curve is a simple spectroscopic binary solution to the data from the first three data sets, the data from Joy (1937) exhibiting systematic deviations near velocity minimum.

The complications arising from contamination of the cluster field by young stars in the Perseus arm and likely circumstellar reddening for late B-type members were addressed by identifying unaffected cluster stars from their reddenings, which are close to E(BV) (B0) = 0.70. The field of the CCD survey near the cluster centre was found to exhibit a mean reddening of E(BV) (B0) = 0.697 ± 0.025, that for the region of CG Cas a mean reddening of E(BV) (B0) = 0.685 ± 0.022. Stars with full UBV data were identified as likely cluster members on the basis of reddenings comparable to or larger than those values, while stars near the cluster centre lacking U-band data were assumed to have B0 star colour excesses as above, but intrinsic colours adjusted for the spectral type dependence of reddening (see Fernie 1963). A-type dwarfs can suffer complications arising from the effects of rotation on their stellar continua and UBV colours (Turner, Usenko & Kovtyukh 2006b), so the adoption of space reddenings for such stars may circumvent potential biases introduced by dereddening their colours to the intrinsic relation for zero-age zero-rotation main-sequence stars. The resulting reddening-corrected colour–magnitude diagram for the cluster is plotted in Fig. 8 for 145 likely members, along with CG Cas and its light variations and star 5, which is considered to be a potential K giant member. The reddening for CG Cas corrected for its colour is E(BV) = 0.64 ± 0.02. A photometric reddening could be obtained from the BVIc observations of Henden (1996) (see Laney & Caldwell 2007), but a field reddening was adopted as a precaution against potential bias towards large-amplitude Cepheids lying near the centre of the instability strip (unnecessary in the present case, as it turns out).

Figure 8

A reddening free colour–magnitude diagram for Berkeley 58. The dashed curve represents the ZAMS for V0MV= 12.40, and the solid line with dotted lines on either side represents an isochrone from Meynet et al. (1993) for log τ= 8.0 ± 0.1. The range of light variations for CG Cas is depicted, as are the observational boundaries for the Cepheid instability strip. The red object on the evolved giant sequence is star 5.

Figure 8

A reddening free colour–magnitude diagram for Berkeley 58. The dashed curve represents the ZAMS for V0MV= 12.40, and the solid line with dotted lines on either side represents an isochrone from Meynet et al. (1993) for log τ= 8.0 ± 0.1. The range of light variations for CG Cas is depicted, as are the observational boundaries for the Cepheid instability strip. The red object on the evolved giant sequence is star 5.

The distance to Berkeley 58 is established by 40 of its A-type ZAMS members, which yield a value of V0MV= 12.40 ± 0.12 s.d., corresponding to a distance of 3026 ± 166 pc. Except for star 11, which is conceivably a rapid rotator observed nearly pole-on, the bluest cluster stars correspond to spectral type B6 with (BV)0=−0.16. A comparison with stellary evolutionary models (Meynet, Mermilliod & Maeder 1993) implies a cluster age of 10 ± 1 × 107yr (log τ= 8.0 ± 0.05). The corresponding mass of cluster stars falling at the tip of the main-sequence red turnoff is 5.4 M (Meynet et al. 1993).

5 CG CASSIOPEIAE

The systemic radial velocity of CG Cas (Table 5) is a close match to the mean velocity of Berkeley 58 derived from likely cluster members 11, 18 and 23, and the evolutionary age of the cluster closely matches what is predicted for the pulsation period of the Cepheid (Turner 1996c). The luminosity of CG Cas as a likely member of Berkeley 58 is 〈MV〉=−3.06 ± 0.12, which matches a value of 〈MV〉=−3.04 predicted with a Cepheid period–radius relation and the inferred effective temperature of CG Cas (log Teff= 3.775) from its derived intrinsic colour (Turner & Burke 2002). The case for membership of CG Cas in Berkeley 58 is very strong.

The exact evolutionary status of CG Cas can be established from the direction and rate of its period changes (Turner et al. 2006a), in conjunction with its large blue light amplitude of ΔB= 1.22 (Berdnikov 2007). The period changes for CG Cas were established here from examination of archival photographic plates in the Harvard and Sternberg collections, as well as from an analysis of new and existing photometry for the star. A working ephemeris for CG Cas based upon the available data was  

formula
where E is the number of elapsed cycles. An extensive analysis of all available observations produced the data summarized in Table 6, which lists the results for different epochs, the type of data analyzed (PG = photographic, VIS = visual telescopic observations, B = photoelectric B, and V = photoelectric V), the number of observations used to establish the times of light maximum and the source of the observations, in addition to the temporal parameters. The data are plotted in Fig. 9.

Table 6

Times of maximum light for CG Cas.

HJDmax ±σ Band Epoch (E) O−C (phase) Observations (n) Reference 
241 3407.3442 0.0292 PG −4359 +0.1714 55 This paper (Harvard) 
241 5144.8677 0.0428 PG −3961 +0.1746 This paper (SAI) 
241 6314.8382 0.0338 PG −3693 +0.1566 72 This paper (Harvard) 
241 7572.0492 0.1070 PG −3405 +0.0664 11 This paper (SAI) 
241 9794.1315 0.0336 PG −2896 +0.0436 63 This paper (Harvard) 
242 3788.6688 0.0271 PG −1981 +0.0304 98 This paper (Harvard) 
242 6102.4299 0.0196 PG −1451 +0.0082 128 This paper (Harvard) 
242 6940.6916 0.0567 VIS −1259 +0.0691 46 Lange (1933) 
242 8023.3553 0.0571 PG −1011 +0.0569 19 This paper (SAI) 
242 8455.5134 0.0271 PG −912 +0.0177 92 This paper (Harvard) 
242 9568.7382 0.0559 PG −657 +0.0071 28 This paper (SAI) 
243 0847.7814 0.0321 PG −364 −0.0790 81 This paper (Harvard) 
243 1576.8823 0.0854 PG −197 −0.0381 17 Erleksova (1961) 
243 3100.4046 0.0430 PG +152 −0.1203 59 This paper (Harvard) 
243 3183.4566 0.0308 PG +171 −0.0152 37 This paper (SAI) 
243 3371.0678 0.0848 PG +214 −0.1261 23 Erleksova (1961) 
243 4117.6643 0.0350 PG +385 −0.0521 25 This paper (SAI) 
243 5174.1804 0.0285 PG +627 −0.0182 74 This paper (SAI) 
243 5379.4291 0.0443 PG +674 +0.0459 10 Romano (1959) 
243 5619.5498 0.1388 PG +729 +0.0570 19 Erleksova (1961) 
243 5837.7841 0.0168 PG +779 +0.0099 18 Zonn & Semeniuk (1959) 
243 6802.5876 0.0070 B +1000 +0.0094 13 Oosterhoff (1960) 
243 6802.6183 0.0119 V +1000 +0.0401 15 Oosterhoff (1960) 
243 6933.5492 0.0054 B +1030 +0.0021 22 Bahner, Hiltner & Kraft (1962) 
243 6937.9440 0.0085 V +1031 +0.0313 23 Bahner et al. (1962) 
243 8666.6957 0.0174 PG +1427 −0.0061 41 This paper (SAI) 
243 9077.0406 0.0299 PG +1521 −0.0303 16 This paper (SAI) 
244 0268.8346 0.0241 PG +1794 −0.0530 24 This paper (SAI) 
244 1146.3548 0.0121 PG +1995 −0.0242 95 This paper (SAI) 
244 1866.7282 0.0142 PG +2160 +0.0204 55 This paper (SAI) 
244 2355.6761 0.0178 PG +2272 +0.0178 47 This paper (SAI) 
244 2862.0722 0.0159 PG +2388 +0.0010 74 This paper (SAI) 
244 3045.5091 0.0058 V +2430 +0.0815 71 Chekanikhina (1982) 
244 3957.9197 0.0206 PG +2639 +0.0756 25 This paper (SAI) 
244 4844.1310 0.0099 B +2842 +0.0643 Berdnikov (1986) 
244 4852.8817 0.0150 V +2844 +0.0837 11 Berdnikov (1986) 
244 5189.0177 0.0117 B +2921 +0.0663 Berdnikov (1986) 
244 5189.0509 0.0074 V +2921 +0.0995 Berdnikov (1986) 
244 5394.1872 0.0098 B +2968 +0.0512 14 This paper 
244 5429.1355 0.0115 V +2976 +0.0745 15 This paper 
244 5883.1690 0.0061 B +3080 +0.0826 Berdnikov (1986) 
244 5883.1870 0.0086 V +3080 +0.1006 Berdnikov (1986) 
244 7760.4530 0.0042 B +3510 +0.1461 39 Berdnikov (1992a) 
244 7760.4823 0.0059 V +3510 +0.1754 39 Berdnikov (1992a) 
244 8118.4162 0.0060 B +3592 +0.1277 18 Berdnikov (1992b) 
244 8118.4546 0.0085 V +3592 +0.1661 18 Berdnikov (1992b) 
244 8515.7127 0.0043 B +3683 +0.1520 20 Berdnikov (1992c) 
244 8515.7328 0.0052 V +3683 +0.1721 20 Berdnikov (1992c) 
245 1458.2287 0.0152 V +4357 +0.2341 27 Wozniak et al. (2004) 
HJDmax ±σ Band Epoch (E) O−C (phase) Observations (n) Reference 
241 3407.3442 0.0292 PG −4359 +0.1714 55 This paper (Harvard) 
241 5144.8677 0.0428 PG −3961 +0.1746 This paper (SAI) 
241 6314.8382 0.0338 PG −3693 +0.1566 72 This paper (Harvard) 
241 7572.0492 0.1070 PG −3405 +0.0664 11 This paper (SAI) 
241 9794.1315 0.0336 PG −2896 +0.0436 63 This paper (Harvard) 
242 3788.6688 0.0271 PG −1981 +0.0304 98 This paper (Harvard) 
242 6102.4299 0.0196 PG −1451 +0.0082 128 This paper (Harvard) 
242 6940.6916 0.0567 VIS −1259 +0.0691 46 Lange (1933) 
242 8023.3553 0.0571 PG −1011 +0.0569 19 This paper (SAI) 
242 8455.5134 0.0271 PG −912 +0.0177 92 This paper (Harvard) 
242 9568.7382 0.0559 PG −657 +0.0071 28 This paper (SAI) 
243 0847.7814 0.0321 PG −364 −0.0790 81 This paper (Harvard) 
243 1576.8823 0.0854 PG −197 −0.0381 17 Erleksova (1961) 
243 3100.4046 0.0430 PG +152 −0.1203 59 This paper (Harvard) 
243 3183.4566 0.0308 PG +171 −0.0152 37 This paper (SAI) 
243 3371.0678 0.0848 PG +214 −0.1261 23 Erleksova (1961) 
243 4117.6643 0.0350 PG +385 −0.0521 25 This paper (SAI) 
243 5174.1804 0.0285 PG +627 −0.0182 74 This paper (SAI) 
243 5379.4291 0.0443 PG +674 +0.0459 10 Romano (1959) 
243 5619.5498 0.1388 PG +729 +0.0570 19 Erleksova (1961) 
243 5837.7841 0.0168 PG +779 +0.0099 18 Zonn & Semeniuk (1959) 
243 6802.5876 0.0070 B +1000 +0.0094 13 Oosterhoff (1960) 
243 6802.6183 0.0119 V +1000 +0.0401 15 Oosterhoff (1960) 
243 6933.5492 0.0054 B +1030 +0.0021 22 Bahner, Hiltner & Kraft (1962) 
243 6937.9440 0.0085 V +1031 +0.0313 23 Bahner et al. (1962) 
243 8666.6957 0.0174 PG +1427 −0.0061 41 This paper (SAI) 
243 9077.0406 0.0299 PG +1521 −0.0303 16 This paper (SAI) 
244 0268.8346 0.0241 PG +1794 −0.0530 24 This paper (SAI) 
244 1146.3548 0.0121 PG +1995 −0.0242 95 This paper (SAI) 
244 1866.7282 0.0142 PG +2160 +0.0204 55 This paper (SAI) 
244 2355.6761 0.0178 PG +2272 +0.0178 47 This paper (SAI) 
244 2862.0722 0.0159 PG +2388 +0.0010 74 This paper (SAI) 
244 3045.5091 0.0058 V +2430 +0.0815 71 Chekanikhina (1982) 
244 3957.9197 0.0206 PG +2639 +0.0756 25 This paper (SAI) 
244 4844.1310 0.0099 B +2842 +0.0643 Berdnikov (1986) 
244 4852.8817 0.0150 V +2844 +0.0837 11 Berdnikov (1986) 
244 5189.0177 0.0117 B +2921 +0.0663 Berdnikov (1986) 
244 5189.0509 0.0074 V +2921 +0.0995 Berdnikov (1986) 
244 5394.1872 0.0098 B +2968 +0.0512 14 This paper 
244 5429.1355 0.0115 V +2976 +0.0745 15 This paper 
244 5883.1690 0.0061 B +3080 +0.0826 Berdnikov (1986) 
244 5883.1870 0.0086 V +3080 +0.1006 Berdnikov (1986) 
244 7760.4530 0.0042 B +3510 +0.1461 39 Berdnikov (1992a) 
244 7760.4823 0.0059 V +3510 +0.1754 39 Berdnikov (1992a) 
244 8118.4162 0.0060 B +3592 +0.1277 18 Berdnikov (1992b) 
244 8118.4546 0.0085 V +3592 +0.1661 18 Berdnikov (1992b) 
244 8515.7127 0.0043 B +3683 +0.1520 20 Berdnikov (1992c) 
244 8515.7328 0.0052 V +3683 +0.1721 20 Berdnikov (1992c) 
245 1458.2287 0.0152 V +4357 +0.2341 27 Wozniak et al. (2004) 
Figure 9

The differences between observed (O) and computed (C) times of light maximum for CG Cas, computed in units of pulsation phase. The upper diagram shows the actual O−C variations with their uncertainties, the lower diagram the residuals from the calculated parabolic evolutionary trend.

Figure 9

The differences between observed (O) and computed (C) times of light maximum for CG Cas, computed in units of pulsation phase. The upper diagram shows the actual O−C variations with their uncertainties, the lower diagram the residuals from the calculated parabolic evolutionary trend.

A regression analysis of the O−C data of Table 6 produced a parabolic solution for the ephemeris defined by  

formula
which is plotted in Fig. 9. The parabolic trend corresponds to a period increase of +0.170 ± 0.014 s yr−1forumla, a value typical of Cepheids lying slightly blueward of the centre of the instability strip and in the third crossing. The location of CG Cas in Fig. 8 relative to the observational boundaries of the Cepheid instability strip (Turner et al. 2006b) is consistent with that conclusion, although the stellar evolutionary models seem to require adjustments (metallicity, mixing of surface layers?) to match the observations.

6 DISCUSSION

The case for potential membership of the Cepheid CG Cas in the sparse open cluster Berkeley 58 has been studied using photometric (pe, pg, CCD) observations, spectroscopy (VR, spectral types), star counts and O−C data for the Cepheid. The cluster Berkeley 58 is particularly difficult to separate from the young stars of the Perseus spiral arm, which raises concerns about future studies of distant open cluster calibrators for the Cepheid PL relation. Careful analysis of the available data leads to a cluster reddening of E(BV) (B0) = 0.70, a distance of 3.03 ± 0.17 kpc and an age of 10 ± 1 × 107yr. CG Cas is a likely member on the basis of radial velocity, location outside the cluster nucleus within the cluster coronal region, evolutionary status indicated by its period changes and light amplitude, and implied luminosity. It becomes an important Cepheid calibrator lying near the centre of the instability strip.

It may seem unusual that many potential Cepheid calibrators lie in cluster coronae rather than in cluster nuclear regions (Turner 1985), but a possible explanation relates to two dynamical lines of evidence. First, massive cluster members lie preferentially in outer regions of clusters (Burki 1978), possibly because of how protocluster interstellar clouds fragment into protostars. Secondly, as indicated by colour–magnitude diagrams for NGC 654 (Stone 1980) and other young clusters (Turner 1996b), cluster nuclear regions tend to be dominated by rapidly rotating stars, possibly the result of merged binary systems, and other close binaries, in which case potential Cepheid progenitors are less likely to evolve to the dimensions typical of pulsating variables because of restrictions on their dimensions engendered by potential physical companions. The case of CG Cas in Berkeley 58 appears to be yet another example of the effect.

The present study was supported by research funding awarded through the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC), through the Small Research Grants program of the American Astronomical Society, through the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (RFBR), and through the program of Support for Leading Scientific Schools of Russia. We are indebted to Ron Lyons for scanning the radial velocity plates used in this study, and to the director of Harvard College Observatory for access to the plate stacks.

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SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL

The following supplementary material is available for this article

Table 3. Photographic UBV data for stars in Berkeley 58.

Table 4. CCD UBV data for stars in the nucleus of Berkeley 58.

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