Procapra przewalskii (Büchner, 1891), commonly called Przewalski’s gazelle, is polytypic with 1 of the 2 subspecies (P. p. diversicornis) likely extinct. The species now occurs only in the Qinghai Lake region in northeastern Qinghai Province, western China, and predominately inhabits semiarid grassland steppe, stable sand dunes, and the desert-shrub ecotone between them. Numbers and distribution of P. przewalskii have decreased severely from historic levels, and up to 10 small and disjunct populations are vulnerable because of agricultural usurpation of preferred habitat, competition with livestock, and illegal hunting. Total population is perhaps as high as 1,000–1,300 individuals. It is a Class I species and listed as “Critically Endangered” in China and considered “Endangered” by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. It is arguably among the most endangered large mammals on earth.

Author notes

Associate editors of this account were Meredith J. Hamilton and Pamela Owen. Alfred L. Gardner reviewed the synonymy. Editor was Meredith J. Hamilton.