Tetvacerus quadricornis (de Blainville, 1816) is 1 of the smallest Asian bovids and commonly is called the four-horned antelope or chousingha. It is endemic to Peninsular India and small parts of lowland Nepal. T. quadricornis is a sexually dimorphic boselaphid of small stature; only males have horns, with 2 of the 3 recognized subspecies having 2 anterior and 2 posterior smooth, sharp horns, unique among wild horned mammals. Tetracerus is monotypic. It prefers dry deciduous forested habitat and hilly terrain and is secretive and little studied. This diminutive species is considered Vulnerable by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, and it is very uncommon in captivity.

Author notes

Associate editors of this account were Eric Rickart and Pamela Owen. Alfred L. Gardner, Colin P. Groves, and Kris Helgen reviewed the synonymies. Editor was Meredith J. Hamilton.