# Preparing and Submitting Your Manuscript

Authors are encouraged to use the essential author checklist, the NAR Word template, and the NAR LaTeX template to prepare their manuscript.

## PUBLICATION CHARGES

NAR is fully Open Access, providing free access to all articles to readers worldwide. All articles are also automatically deposited in a public repository upon publication. Open access charges make this possible. For a comparison of journals publication charges, please click here.

For all papers published in NAR there is an Open Access charge of:

Author charge (per article) Member institution - £710 / $1385 / €1065 (50% discount) Non-member institution - £1420 /$2770 / €2130.

Papers published that occupy more than 9 pages also incur a charge of \$195/£100/€150 for each page in excess of 9.

An estimate of approximate final paper length can be carried out using the formula:

(Total no. words/925) + (Total no. figures and tables/2.8) = No. of printed pages.

Please note that this formula is not always accurate and your paper may be longer than the calculation suggests. There are no page charges for papers of 9 pages or less.

Waivers or discounts will be considered for corresponding authors from developing countries and those in genuine hardship. Further information is available from http://www.oxfordjournals.org/our_journals/nar/announce_openaccess.html

## THE NAR EDITORIAL PROCESS - OVERVIEW

### Initial Submission and the Review process

Manuscripts must be submitted using the online submission system. It is journal policy that the online submission process MUST be carried out by the corresponding author. All manuscripts are assigned to an Executive Editor, who is responsible for the peer review process and for deciding whether the manuscript should be accepted, returned for revision or rejected. The corresponding author will receive all correspondence, including an initial acknowledgment and the decision, by email.

### Prior publication

Electronic posting of experimental results using online preprint servers will be considered as prior publication if these are permanent citable records that are associated with electronic DOI identifiers. Such posting are therefore not appropriate for subsequent submission to NAR. Our policy towards such archives is kept under review, but we currently do not consider articles that have already been posted in Nature Precedings or PLoS Currents. Data depositories such as ArXiv.org do not count as prior publication. Authors are encouraged to contact the editorial offices if they are in any doubt about prior submission.

### Revision

Revised manuscripts should preferably be uploaded within 60 days of the decision email. Authors will receive an automatic reminder if this does not occur. If the revised version of a manuscript is not uploaded within six months of the decision email, the manuscript will be withdrawn from the system, unless the editor concerned agrees to extend the deadline.

### Resubmission

The resubmission of manuscripts must satisfy the following conditions, regardless of whether the resubmission covers all of the previous work or only a part, and regardless of any changes in authorship:

• • All resubmissions must be accompanied by a cover letter containing full details of the previous version.
• • The manuscript number of the earlier submission must be provided.
• • Where appropriate, a file must be uploaded which contains the authors' responses to any previous editorial or referee reports and a summary of the changes that have been made.

You are encouraged to carry out resubmission within twelve months of the decision date of the original manuscript. Please contact the editor if your resubmission is likely to take longer than this.

### Acceptance

The Executive Editor will inform the corresponding author of final acceptance by email. Copyright licence form (to be filled in online, OUP will provide instructions after acceptance), the Author charges site (to arrange payment for the Open Access publication fee, any offprints and excess pages) and any permission letters must then be submitted promptly to Oxford Journals by the communicating author. Please note that publication of your manuscript may be delayed or prevented without receipt of these forms.
The proof, with corrected typographical errors, should be returned preferably as an annotated PDF within 48 hours. A corresponding author likely to be absent during this time must provide the email address of a co-author who can assume responsibility for the manuscript. Any substantial changes and notes added in proof necessitate approval of the Executive Editor responsible for the paper. In general, corrections to figures are not permitted at this stage. The corresponding author must ensure that all co-authors agree with any corrections made.

## GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

### English and language editing pre-submission

Manuscripts must be clearly and concisely written in English. The Editors reserve the right to reject without review those that cannot adequately be assessed because of a poor standard of English.

### Text – files and format

The manuscript text (including references, figure legends and simple tables) may be in .doc, .rtf, or LaTeX format.

Authors are encouraged to use the NAR word template.

For your initial submission only, a .pdf file is also acceptable unless you are submitting to the Database issue. Revised manuscripts and all submissions to the Database issue must be in .doc, .rtf, or LaTeX format only.

LaTeX: please note that if you submit your manuscript in LaTeX you must upload your source file and all other files (bib/sty/etc). You must also ensure that you do not use Type 3 fonts. When you upload your TeX/LaTeX files, the conversion to PDF will work best if you:
1. Zip all the supporting files in one single zip file. Upload the zip file and, when prompted, designate each individual files as "TeX/LaTeX Suppl File".
2. Upload the main .tex file with the designation of "Manuscript File".

Manuscripts should be ordered into sections as follows: Title page, Abstract, Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, Discussion, Funding, Acknowledgements, References, Figure Legends. All pages should be numbered. Do not use a line-numbering facility, as line numbers will be superimposed during the submission process and these may be different. Please ensure that you have embedded TrueType fonts in your word document. (Select "Tools> Options" from the top menu bar, select "Save" tab and then check the box to Embed TrueType fonts and click OK. For word 2007, click "Save as"> Tools> Save Options> Preserve Fidelity". Select "Embed Fonts", tick the first box and untick the second box). Special characters should be inserted using the Symbol font. Text should be single-spaced. Do not use footnotes.

### Title

The title must be clearly intelligible to a non-specialist. The use of jargon and non-standard abbreviations in the title is not permitted.

### Abstract

The abstract should be a single paragraph, not exceeding 200 words. URLs and references to figures or schemes should NOT be included. However, note that URLs MUST be included in the abstract of manuscripts submitted to the Database and Web Server issues. References should not normally be included in the abstract.

### Funding

Details of all funding sources for the work in question should be given in a separate section entitled 'Funding'. This should appear before the 'Acknowledgements' section.

The following rules should be followed:

• • The sentence should begin: ‘This work was supported by …’
• • The full official funding agency name should be given, i.e. ‘National Institutes of Health’, not ‘NIH’ (full RIN-approved list of UK funding agencies). Grant numbers should be given in brackets as follows: ‘[grant number xxxx]’
• • Multiple grant numbers should be separated by a comma as follows: ‘[grant numbers xxxx, yyyy]’
• • Agencies should be separated by a semi-colon (plus ‘and’ before the last funding agency)
• • Where individuals need to be specified for certain sources of funding the following text should be added after the relevant agency or grant number 'to [author initials]'.

An example is given here: ‘This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health [AA123456 to C.S., BB765432 to M.H.]; and the Alcohol & Education Research Council [hfygr667789].

Crossref Funding Data Registry: In order to meet your funding requirements authors are required to name their funding sources, or state if there are none, during the submission process. For further information on this process or to find out more about the CHORUS initiative please click here.

### Dedications

The editors will entertain requests for dedications. Ordinarily, requests will be granted only for dedications to recently deceased scientists.

### References

These should be cited in the text by sequential number only, in order of appearance, and listed numerically in the References section. Online references should be cited as in example 5, below. Please see examples 6 and 7 for papers that have been published online in more than one version. The initial version of a paper published in this way can be cited by the Digital Object Identifier (doi) but, if available, the reference should also include the citation of the final version. Authors should check all references carefully, and in particular ensure that all references in the Reference section are cited in the text. Note that multiple references or page spans under one number are not allowed. Personal communications, unpublished results, manuscripts submitted or in preparation, statistical packages, computer programs and web sites should be cited in the text only, NOT included in the References section. Accession numbers may be cited either within the text or in the form of a reference. Preprints CANNOT be cited nor listed in the list of References.

You can download the current reference style for this journal at EndNote's website.

Citations should conform to the following examples. Journal names should be abbreviated in the style of Chemical Abstracts. Where the list of authors is extensive it is acceptable to list the first 10 authors followed by et al. NOTE THAT FULL TITLES OF JOURNAL ARTICLES MUST BE PROVIDED.

1. • Schmitt,E., Panvert,M., Blanquet,S. and Mechulam,Y. (1995) Transition state stabilisation by the 'high' motif of class I aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases: the case of Escherichia coli methionyl-tRNA synthetase. Nucleic Acids Res., 23, 4793-4798.
2. • Huynh,T.V., Young,R.A. and Davies,R.W. (1988) Constructing and screening cDNA libraries in lambdagt10 and lambdagt11. In Glover,D.M. (ed.), DNA Cloning - A Practical Approach. IRL Press, Oxford, Vol. I, pp. 49-78.
3. • Maniatis,T., Fritsch,E.F. and Sambrook,J. (1982) Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, Cold Spring Harbor, NY.
4. • Burnett,R.C. (1993) EMBL accession no. X52486.
5. • Capaldi,S., Getts,R.C. and Jayasena,S.D. (2000) Signal amplification through nucleotide extension and excision on a dendritic DNA platform. Nucleic Acids Res., 28, e21.
6. • Qiao,D., Chen,W., Stratagoules,E. and Martinez,J. (March 10, 2000) Bile acid-induced activation of activator protein-1 requires both extracellular signal-regulated kinase and protein kinase C signaling. J. Biol. Chem., 10.1074/jbc.M908890199
7. • Qiao,D., Chen,W., Stratagoules,E. and Martinez,J. (2000) Bile acid-induced activation of activator protein-1 requires both extracellular signal-regulated kinase and protein kinase C signaling. J. Biol. Chem., 275, 15090-15098. First published on May 19, 2000, 10.1074/jbc.M908890199
8. • Bernhagen,J., Elkine,B., Geiger,G., Tovar,G. and Vitzthum,F. (1999) Patent DE-198198889.2-44; PCT/WO/EP/99/03047.

### Nomenclature conventions

Restriction enzymes, DNA methyltransferases and homing endonucleases should be named or referred to using the conventions described in Roberts,R.J. et al. (2003) Nucleic Acids Res., 31, 1805-1812. Note that restriction enzyme names should NOT be italicized.

### Computer programs

For Computational Biology papers that describe a computer program, the authors should either make the program accessible as a web server with no login requirements or be prepared to make available to the reviewers an executable version of the program and instructions for use. Any costs associated with a reader acquiring the program must be specified in the text. Note that in general any complicated mathematics needed to explain an algorithm should be included as supplementary material.

### NMR papers

Resonance assignments should be reported relative to DSS and not to HOD.

### Structural papers

Submitted papers that describe the determination of new macromolecular structures must be accompanied by supplementary files for each structure (which will not be published but will be made available to editors and peer reviewers) corresponding to (i) final modeled coordinates, (ii) experimental data, and (iii) validation reports.

### Statistical analyses

Methods and Materials, and corresponding descriptions of actual experimental should contain, anywhere relevant:

1. The exact sample size (n) for each experimental group/condition, given as a number, not a range.

2. A precise description of the sample collection allowing the reader to understand whether the samples represent technical or biological replicates (including how many animals, litters, cultures, laboratory replicates, etc.)

3. If comparisons are made between groups, a clear description of the method used for statistical inference must be stated:

For the analysis of categorical outcomes, exact methods or asymptotic methods with appropriate adjustments for small sample size should be used when the numbers of events are small. Standard chi-squared or difference in proportions tests can be used when the sample sizes and numbers of events are sufficiently large.

For comparisons of continuous data that are normally distributed data, t-tests are appropriate for comparisons of two groups, whereas Analyses of Variance (ANOVA) are generally required for comparisons between for three or more groups. Such tests are also robust when applied to non-normal distributions with sufficiently large sample sizes. When the sample size is small, and prior evidence suggests that the measurements are unlikely to be normally distributed, appropriate nonparametric methods are usually preferable.

4. If p-values are presented, one-sided or two-sided should be specified. If one-sided, justification should be provided. Confidence intervals should also accompany the parameter for which statistical significance is being tested.

5. If multiple comparisons are made, there should either be appropriate adjustments to the p-values or a justification provided for why no adjustments were made.

6. Describe continuous data using averages, and specify if using the mean or median. Also specify measure of variation (for continuous data) as either standard deviation or standard error of the mean. If describing binary data, include numerator and denominator, not just percentage. For estimates of proportions and means, also provide confidence intervals.

There are a variety of online resources to assist authors with proper statistical choices and approaches, that can be found through simple internet searches for statistical tests in the biological sciences. Examples include:
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK153593/
http://www.biostathandbook.com

### Figures

You are required to submit high-resolution images, preferably with your initial submission but no later than revision stage. Electronic images (figures and schemes) must be at a minimum resolution of 600 d.p.i. for line drawings (black and white) and 300 d.p.i. for colour or greyscale. Please ensure that the prepared electronic image files print at a legible size (with lettering of at least 2 mm).

A number of different file formats are acceptable, including: Tagged Image File Format (.tif), Encapsulated PostScript (.eps), Adobe Illustrator (.ai) (please save your files in Illustrator's EPS format), Portable Network Graphics (.png), Microsoft Word (.doc), Rich Text Format (.rtf), PowerPoint (.ppt), Excel (.xls) and editable Portable Document Format (PDF) but NOT Joint Photographic Experts Group (.jpg).

Please ensure that the figure is clearly labelled with its figure number.

• Size and layout: The area of a page is 230 mm (height); 84 mm (single) or 178 mm (double) (column width). Figures should not exceed these dimensions and ideally should fit either a single or double column. Lettering should be of a consistent size within each figure. Figures in eps, ppt or pdf format should have a top and left white margin to avoid overlap of the figure with line numbers. The margin is in addition to the height and width measurements given above.
• Use of colour combinations: Please note that the use of red and green in figures is particularly problematic for approximately 5% of the male population. Advice on the preparation of colour-friendly figures is provided at http://jfly.iam.u-tokyo.ac.jp/html/color_blind/
• Representation of experimental data as computer images: If primary experimental data are presented in the form of a computer-generated image (such as those from a PhosphorImager or digital camera), any editing must be described in detail. A linear (rather than sigmoidal) relationship between signal and image intensity is assumed. Unless stated, it is assumed that the image is unedited.
Inappropriate manipulation of images to highlight desired results is not allowed. As you prepare your figures, please adhere to the following guidelines to accurately present your data:
• • No specific feature within an image may be enhanced, obscured, moved, removed, or introduced.
• • The grouping of images from different experiments or from different parts of the same experiment, whether they are gels, blots, photos, micrographs or any other type of image (i.e. the creation of a "composite image") must be made absolutely explicit by the arrangement of the figure (i.e., using dividing lines) and by the text of the figure legend.
• • Adjustments of brightness, contrast, or color balance are acceptable if they are applied to the whole image and as long as they do not obscure, eliminate, or misrepresent any information present in the original, including the background. Non-linear adjustments (e.g., changes to gamma settings) must be disclosed in the figure legend. Alteration of brightness or contrast that results in the disappearance of any features in a gel (either bands or cosmetic blemishes) or similar alterations in other experimental images is strictly forbidden.

### Cover Figures

Authors are encouraged to submit colour figures to be considered for use of the cover of NAR. If you would like to submit a cover image for consideration, please click here for details.

### Supplementary data

Manuscripts may include supplementary data to be made available by the publisher as online-only content, linked to the online manuscript. Such data should consist of electronic files and should not merely be a link to another web site. Manuscripts accompanied by online Supplementary data are designated with an ' S ' in the Table of Contents in the print edition.

For a definition of Supplementary data and guidelines for submitting it click here.

All Supplementary data MUST be referred to in the main manuscript at an appropriate point in the text.

Please note that Supplementary Material is considered as published material and is regulated by the same copyright and permissions rules as the published article to which it belongs.

## DATA DEPOSITION AND STANDARDIZATION

### Deposition of sequence and structural data

Sequence information, co-ordinates used to create molecular models described in a manuscript, and structural data must be submitted in electronic form, prior to manuscript submission, to the appropriate database for release no later than the date of on-line publication of the corresponding article in the Journal. Deposition numbers and/or accession numbers provided by the database should be included in the submitted manuscript and entered into the relevant boxes during online submission. In cases where there may be no appropriate database, authors must make their data available on request. Atomic co-ordinates may be included in the publication as supplementary material. Manuscripts will not be published until the Journal is in receipt of the deposition number.

### For papers reporting novel nucleic acid sequences

Nucleic acid sequence information must be deposited with one of the three major collaborative databases (EMBL/GenBank/DDBJ). For sequences obtained from a public or private web site, it is the author's responsibility to ensure that any sequence used within the manuscript is deposited before publication. It is necessary to submit sequences to one database only since data are exchanged between EMBL, GenBank and DDBJ on a daily basis. New sequence names and their accession numbers should be listed at the beginning of the Materials and Methods section to aid searches by readers. In order to allow new methods of data search, NAR encourages authors to cite GenBank accession numbers when referring to established sequences within their manuscript.

For Illumina-type sequencing, authors are encouraged to submit raw Illumina data to the NCBI’s Sequence Read Archive, and to include corresponding accession numbers in the manuscript.

### For papers reporting novel three-dimensional structures

1. Atomic co-ordinates and the related experimental data (structure factor amplitudes/intensities and/or NMR restraints) must be deposited within the appropriate database prior to manuscript submission. Authors must agree to release the atomic coordinates and experimental data when the associated article is published.

2. Authors should are encouraged to upload, as unpublished supplementary material, the output of the an appropriate structural validation server corresponding to deposited structure file structures described in the manuscript (see http://deposit.pdb.org/validate/). This material will be available to reviewers.

3. Authors should confirm release of coordinates with the appropriate database immediately upon online publication of their manuscript (i.e., PDB entries should be set to 'HPUB' prior to submission).

4. Databases:

The Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre (CCDC) is appropriate for deposition of data on nucleosides, nucleotides and other small molecules.

A member site of the Worldwide Protein Data Bank: RCSB PDB, Protein Databank in Europe (PDBe), Protein Databank in Japan (PDBj), or BMRB is appropriate for deposition of data on proteins determined by X-ray crystallography and for all macromolecules determined by NMR methods.

The Nucleic Acid Database (NDB) is appropriate for atomic co-ordinate and structure factor data for crystal structures of nucleic acids. This can generally be handled by the Worldwide Protein Data Bank or RCSB Protein Data Bank described above.

5. NMR papers: Resonance assignments should be reported relative to DSS and not to HOD.

### For papers reporting novel protein sequences

Protein sequences, which have been determined by direct sequencing of the protein, must be submitted to UniProt using the interactive submission tool SPIN. Please note that they do not provide accession numbers, IN ADVANCE, for protein sequences that are the result of translation of nucleic acid sequences. These translations will forwarded automatically from the nucleotide sequence databases (EMBL/GebBank/DDBJ) and assigned UniProt accession numbers on incorporation into UniProt. Results from characterization experiments should also be submitted to UniProt: for novel sequences, these should be included with the sequence submission. Existing UniProt entries should also be updated. This can include information such as function, subcellular location, subunit, etc.

### For papers reporting new ChIP-Seq data

New ChIP-Seq data must be deposited in GEO, with accession numbers at or before acceptance for publication.

### Microarray data

All authors must comply with the 'Minimal Information About a Microarray Experiment' (MIAME) guidelines published by the Microarray Gene Expression Data Society. NAR also requires submission of microarray data to the GEO or ArrayExpress databases, with accession numbers at or before acceptance for publication.

### Quantitative PCR

Authors are encouraged to follow the 'Minimal Information for Publication of Quantitative Real-Time PCR Experiments' (MIQE) guidelines, if appropriate. The guidelines are published by the Real-Time PCR Data Markup Language Consortium.

### Synthetic nucleic acid oligonucleotides

Experiments that include the use of synthetic oligonucleotides of any type must report both their exact sequences and exact chemical modifications at any position, as well as a source for acquisition of these reagents and/or precise methods for their creation.  This information can be provided either in the main text or in supplementary information.

## INITIAL SUBMISSION ONLINE

Prepare your manuscript as detailed above and then submit online via the web site http://mc.manuscriptcentral.com/nar.

### CHECKLIST prior to initial submission:

You must ensure that you have available the following files. Acceptable file formats are listed above. Please ensure that all files are named carefully and unambiguously so that their content is clear:

• • A file of your complete manuscript text including title page and abstract
• • Your high-resolution figure files containing your figures, schemes, equations and, if complex, tables. Please make sure that each figure etc is clearly labelled with its number
• Any supplementary data which MUST be in a file(s) separate from the main manuscript file
• • A file of any related manuscript currently under consideration by another journal (see Author responsibilities)
• • Your manuscript title and abstract text for cutting and pasting into the system
• • The email addresses of all of your co-authors [Please note that the journal reserves the right to contact the Senior Author of the manuscript if his/her contact details are not included.]
• • Names, institutes and email addresses of at least six suggested referees. They should be scientists working independently (i.e. not a recent collaborator) in areas similar to your own who have relevant expertise, such as those included in your reference list. If you have any queries please contact the Senior Editorial Office.
• • Your letter to the editor, either as a file to upload or for cutting and pasting into the system. You may upload more than one such file, so you may include supporting material that is not for publication. The letter must contain details of any previous submissions of the work to NAR (see Author responsibilities)
• • An estimate of approximate final paper length using the equation provided above under Length
• • Between two and five keywords or short relevant phrases

### Browser compatibility

The following browsers are compatible with the NAR online submission system: Internet Explorer 9, 10, 11, Firefox 32, Chrome 37, Safari 6, 7. For more details click 'System requirements' on the log-in screen.

1. You must submit your manuscript online at http://mc.manuscriptcentral.com/nar

• • Locate individual files using the 'Browse' buttons and select the appropriate 'File type’ from the pull-down menu. One of the files must be a 'Manuscript File'.
• • Upload your files (in groups of up to five) by clicking on the 'Upload files' button. This may take several minutes. A number of screens (one per file) will appear, in which you can provide figure/table captions. Click ‘save’ to confirm the upload of the file.
• • If you have more than five files to upload you should repeat this procedure until all are uploaded.
• • Indicate the order in which the files should appear. This is particularly important for figure files as it will determine the order in which they appear in the consolidated PDF used for peer review.
4. After your files have been uploaded, you should view and proofread your manuscript, by clicking on the PDF button and the HTML button. If the files have not been uploaded to your satisfaction, go back to the file upload screen where you can remove the files you do not want and repeat the process.
5. When you are satisfied with the uploaded manuscript proof click on 'Save and Continue' which will take you to the 'Review & Submit' screen. The system will check that you have completed all the mandatory fields and that you have viewed your manuscript proof. It will also present you with a summary of all the information you have provided and give you a final chance to edit it. If there is a red cross next to any section this will indicate that not all the fields have been filled in correctly. You may either go back to the relevant page or click the nearest ‘edit’ button.
6. When you have finished reviewing this information press 'Submit'. You should do this within 30 days of the start of your submission process to avoid losing your data.
7. After the manuscript has been submitted you will see a confirmation screen and receive an email confirmation stating that your manuscript has been successfully submitted. This will also give the assigned manuscript number, which is used in all correspondence during peer review. If you do not receive this, your manuscript will not have been successfully submitted to the journal and the paper cannot progress to peer review. If this is the case your manuscript will still be sitting in the 'Unsubmitted Manuscripts' section of your 'Author Centre' awaiting your attention.
8. If you return to your 'Author Centre' you will notice that your newly submitted manuscript can be found in the 'Submitted Manuscripts' area. The ‘Status' section provides information on the status of your manuscript as it moves through the review process.
9. After you have completed the submission process, if you then discover a mistake (e.g. missing or incorrect figures), do NOT go through the submission process a second time. Instead, please contact the Senior Editorial Office for advice.

## REVISED MANUSCRIPTS

### CHECKLIST prior to submitting revised manuscript:

Please ensure that you have available the following files, carefully labelled so that their content is clear:

• • A .doc, .rtf or LaTeX file of your revised manuscript. Changes made in response to referee or editor comments must be highlighted in red. The revised manuscript must NOT be in PDF format.
• • High-resolution figure files, if you have made changes to any of your figures, schemes, equations or tables, or if you had uploaded only low-resolution files during your initial submission.
• • Files of your supplementary data, if you have made changes, which MUST be in a file(s) separate from the main manuscript file.
• • Your responses to referee or editor comments specifying all changes made, which will be pasted in during the submission process.

1. Log on to the online submission web site as before and, in the 'Author Centre', click on the purple button 'Click here to submit a revision'. You will see those manuscripts that require a revision (or that have been revised). Locate the correct manuscript and create a revision by clicking on 'Create a Revision' under Actions. You will be able to see the editor and reviewer comments and to respond to these.
2. The ‘Upload files’ screen will automatically be populated with the files that you uploaded at initial submission. You should delete all files that have been changed during revision and upload your revised files in their place, by the procedure used during initial submission. You will also be able to amend, if necessary, any of the associated manuscript information, using the same 7 steps followed in your initial submission. If you wish to complete the process another time, you will find the manuscript in your 'Revised manuscripts in draft' list.
3. If you click on 'View comments/respond' you will see the editor's letter to you together with the referees' comments. You must cut and paste your responses into the text areas at the bottom of the screen. If you wish to upload any supplementary information not intended for publication, you should upload it as a ‘cover letter’ file.
4. When you have completed your revision, press the ‘Submit’ button. If your revised manuscript has been successfully submitted, you will see a confirmation screen showing your manuscript number; this will be the same as that of your initial submission with the prefix 'R1' (or R2, R3 as appropriate). You will also receive an email confirming the submission.

## ON ACCEPTANCE

When no further changes to your manuscript are required you will receive a final acceptance decision from the Editorial office. You should then carry out the following procedures:

1. Complete your licence to publish online. The production editor at Oxford Journals will send you instructions on how to do this.
2. Pay your open access charge online (details to be provided by the production editor after acceptance). Please note that your manuscript cannot be published without receipt of this.
3. Fax and post the following copies of any necessary permission letters from the copyright holders of previously published tables, figures or text to the production office at OUP.

These should be sent to:
Nucleic Acids Research
Production Team
Oxford Journals
Oxford University Press
Great Clarendon Street
Oxford OX2 6DP, UK
Tel: +44 1865 353275
Fax: +44 1865 355847
Email: narese@oup.com
Please note: if a customs declaration is required, it is essential that the contents are listed as OF NO COMMERCIAL VALUE. Bills for Customs or VAT will be returned to the author.
4. Request any offprints and pay for any excess pages using the Oxford Journals Author Services site. If applicable, you will recieve a link from the Production Editor to this site before your paper is published.

If you are likely to be absent during the preparation of your manuscript for publication you must assign a co-author to take responsibility and ensure that the production and editorial offices have his/her correct email address.

## GETTING HELP

If you experience any problems during the online submission process, please consult the Author’s User Guide which provides more detailed submission instructions and ‘movie tutorials’ explaining how to submit your manuscript. You will find this under ‘User Tutorials’ on the Log in screen.

If you still have queries please contact the Senior Editorial Office. If your problems are purely technical (e.g. failure of files to be uploaded or converted), contact the ScholarOne support team using the 'Get Help Now' link in the top right hand corner of every screen.

For queries about Standard categories, contact the Senior Executive Editors:
Professor K. R. Fox (foxnar@soton.ac.uk) or Dr B. Stoddard (stoddnar@fhcrc.org)

For queries specifically about Methods contact:
Dr A. Kimmel (ark.nar@gmail.com) or Dr G. Sczakiel (nar@imm.uni-luebeck.de)

For queries specifically about Surveys and Summaries contact:
Professor W. Dynan
Email: wsd.nar@gmail.com

For queries specifically about Database issue manuscripts contact:
Dr M. Galperin
Email: nardatabase@gmail.com

For queries specifically about Web Server issue manuscripts contact:
Dr G. Benson
Email: gbenson@bu.edu

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