Introduction

The objective of CBTRUS Statistical Report: Primary Brain and Central Nervous System Tumors Diagnosed in the United States in 2005–2009 is to provide a current and comprehensive review of the descriptive epidemiology of primary brain and central nervous system (CNS) tumors in the United States population. CBTRUS has obtained data on all primary brain and CNS tumors from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Program of Cancer Registries (NPCR) and the National Cancer Institute, Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) program for diagnosis years 2005–2009. Incidence counts and rates of primary malignant and non-malignant brain and CNS tumors are documented by histology, gender, age, race, and Hispanic ethnicity.

Background

The Central Brain Tumor Registry of the United States (CBTRUS) is a unique professional research organization that focuses exclusively on providing quality statistical data on population-based primary brain and CNS incident tumors in the United States. CBTRUS is currently the only population-based site-specific registry in the United States that works in partnership with a public surveillance organization, the National Program of Central Registries (NPCR), and from which data are directly received under a special agreement. This agreement permits transfer of data through the NPCR-CSS Submission Specifications mechanism,1 the system utilized for collection of central (state) cancer data as mandated in 1992 by Public Law 102-515, the Cancer Registries Amendment Act.2 CBTRUS combines the NPCR data with data from the SEER program3 which was established for national cancer surveillance in the early 1970s. Working with these premier surveillance organizations enables CBTRUS to report high quality data on brain and CNS tumors that are useful to the communities it serves.

Since 1995, CBTRUS has self-published fourteen reports that have contributed to the surveillance of brain and CNS tumors in the United States. As a result of partnering with the Society for Neuro-Oncology (SNO)4, this fifteenth CBTRUS report is the first to be published as a supplement to Neuro-Oncology, the official journal of SNO and marks an historic milestone for both organizations.

CBTRUS was incorporated as a nonprofit 501(c)3 organization with a founding and sustaining grant from the Pediatric Brain Tumor Foundation in 1992 following a two–year study conducted by the American Brain Tumor Association to determine the feasibility of a central registry for all primary brain and CNS tumor cases in the United States. Until that time, standard data reporting in the United States had been limited to only malignant cases. Non–malignant brain tumors, those classified as having a benign or uncertain behavior, however, may, and often do, impose similar costs to society in terms of medical care, case fatality, and lost productivity as do malignant brain tumors. In addition, as molecular markers have been discovered, it has become clear that certain non–malignant brain tumors may become malignant over time.

Passed in 2002, the Benign Brain Tumor Cancer Registries Amendment Act (Public Law 107–260)5 expanded the collection of primary brain and CNS tumor incidence data by the NPCR to include non-malignant brain and CNS tumors having International Classification of Diseases for Oncology Third Edition (ICD-O-3)6 codes beginning with the 2004 diagnosis year. All central (state) cancer registries now include these data in their collection practices. Starting in 2004, Uniform Data Standards (UDS) as directed by the North American Association of Cancer Registries (NAACCR)7, an umbrella organization for tumor registries, governmental agencies, professional associations and private groups, guide the collection of required information on non-malignant brain and CNS tumors; in 2005, the UDS for the collection of malignant brain and CNS tumors were revised. The Multiple Primary and Histology Coding Rules for malignant and non-malignant brain and CNS tumors have been undergoing revision in 2012 under the leadership of SEER.

The CBTRUS database contains the largest aggregation of population–based data on the incidence of all primary brain and CNS tumors in the United States. This report represents a dramatic increase in population coverage (approximately 97% from the initial CBTRUS Reports). The central cancer registries receive population-based, standardized data from all healthcare data sources primarily through certified tumor registrars. Along with the UDS, there are quality control checks and a system for rating each central registry to further insure that these data are reported as accurately and completely as possible. These individuals and organizations provide the high quality data that are the foundation of the CBTRUS statistical reports and scientific activities.

This statistical report continues the past efforts that CBTRUS has made to provide population–based incidence rates for all primary brain and CNS tumors by histology, age, gender, race, and Hispanic ethnicity. As in previous reports, these data have been organized by clinically relevant histological groupings that are useful for surveillance. The information is important for allocation and planning of specialty health–care services, in the planning of disease prevention and control programs, and in research activities. These data may lead to clues that will stimulate research into the causes of this terrible disease.

In 2012, the CBTRUS staff in collaboration with three neuropathologists, Drs. Janet Bruner (University of Texas M.D. Anderson Medical Center), Roger McLendon (Duke University) and Tarik Tihan (University of California at San Francisco) revised the CBTRUS Histology Grouping Scheme to reflect the 2007 WHO Classification of Tumours of the Central Nervous System.8 CBTRUS will continue to update its grouping scheme to reflect state-of-the-art classification for brain and CNS tumors mindful that any future revisions will incorporate accepted ICD-O coding. CBTRUS will continue to share its expertise and to work cooperatively with other surveillance organizations as well as brain tumor clinicians and researchers to assure that primary brain and CNS tumors are collected and reported as accurately and completely as possible.

Technical Notes

Data Collection

CBTRUS does not collect data directly from patient's medical records. As noted, data for CBTRUS analyses come from NPCR and SEER programs. By law, cancer and benign brain tumors are reportable diseases, and central cancer registries in states are mandated to collect pertinent information on their residents, collate these data, and provide data files to NPCR and SEER. State central cancer registries (including the District of Columbia) play an essential role in the collection process, diagrammatically presented as follows.

graphic

CBTRUS obtained incidence data from 49 population-based cancer registries (44 NPCR and 5 SEER) that include cases of malignant and non–malignant (benign and uncertain) primary brain and CNS tumors. It should be noted that metastatic tumors including those found in the brain and CNS are not collected by surveillance organizations in the United States. Data were requested for all newly-diagnosed primary malignant and non-malignant tumors in 2005–2009 at any of the following anatomic sites (ICD-O-3 topography codes in parentheses): brain (C71.0–C71.9), meninges (C70.0–C70.9), spinal cord, cranial nerves, and other parts of the central nervous system (C72.0–C72.9), pituitary and pineal glands (C75.1–C75.3), and olfactory tumors of the nasal cavity [C30.0 (ICD-O-3 histology codes 9522 and 9523)].6

NPCR provided data on 300,205 primary brain and CNS tumors diagnosed in 2005–2009. NPCR cancer registries had to agree to participate in the CBTRUS Statistical Report and to pass certain data quality standards required by NPCR in order for CBTRUS to receive data. From the SEER research data files, data from state central cancer registries not included in the NPCR dataset were obtained and included 12,339 primary brain and CNS tumor case records diagnosed in 2005–2009. These data were combined into a single data set for analyses. A total of 1,342 records (0.43%) were deleted from the final analytic data set because of invalid site/histology combinations based on a review by the CBTRUS consulting neuropathologist, or because of reclassification based on adjudication of multiple records. Of these, 131 cases had bilateral acoustic neuromas in which the records were consolidated. The final analytic data set included 311,202 records from 49 population-based central cancer registries.

Definitions

Measures in Surveillance Epidemiology

The incidence rate is the basic measure of disease occurrence as it expresses probability or risk of disease in a defined population over a specified period of time. Incidence Rates measure the occurrence of newly-diagnosed cases of disease per 100,000 population. Mortality Rates quantify the number of people who have died from the disease per 100,000 population in a specific time period. Prevalence Rates measure the number of people with a disease per 100,000 population at a particular point in time or during a particular period of time. Survival Rates (percentages) are the probability of surviving for a specified time period. Relative Survival Rates are defined as the observed probability of survival adjusted for the expected survival rate of the population for that age, gender and calendar year.

Incidence and mortality rates in this report are expressed per units of observation. For cancer, rates are usually expressed per 100,000 population. The unadjusted rate of disease in an entire population is the Crude Rate. Crude rates are frequently adjusted by age because as a population ages the crude rate would increase, reflecting only the aging of the population, not an actual incidence increase. Age–Adjusted Rates to a common standard population allow for comparisons of rates in populations across regions with different age structures. Incidence and mortality brain and CNS tumor rates in this report are age adjusted to the Year 2000 U.S. Standard Population. Rates for a subset of a population are termed specific rates. Age–Specific Rates that describe the rate of disease in a defined age group are presented in this report. Specific rates by gender, race, and Hispanic ethnicity are also reported. The variability around the estimates of rates is reflected in the Standard Error, which is incorporated into the formula for computing the confidence interval associated with a certain rate. A Confidence Interval (CI) is the computed interval with a given probability, eg, 95 percent, that the true value of a variable such as a mean, proportion or rate occurs within the interval. For example, the age–adjusted primary brain and CNS tumor incidence rate is 20.59 cases per 100,000. We can assume with 95 percent certainty that the actual incidence rate is within the range of 20.52 and 20.66 cases per 100,000. Statistically Significant refers to the likelihood that a result or relationship is caused by something other than mere random chance. Statistical hypothesis testing is traditionally employed to determine if a result is statistically significant or not. This provides a “p-value” representing the probability that random chance could explain the result. In general, a 5% or lower p-value is considered to be statistically significant.

In order to be able to compare incidence rates among statistical reports, agencies, or registries a number of factors should be considered such as whether the case definition, data collection, and rate calculation are similar by asking some of the following questions:

  • How is an incident case defined?

  • Are all primary malignant and non–malignant tumors included in the data set?

  • Or, are only malignant tumors being analyzed?

  • What anatomic locations (primary sites) are included?

  • Are lymphomas and hematopoietic neoplasms included in the incidence rates?

  • Are the populations comparable?

  • Are the incidence rates age–adjusted? And if so, to which standard population are they age–adjusted?

Classification by Behavior and Histology

Brain and CNS tumor classifications according to behavior ICD-O-3 standards for benign, uncertain and malignant behaviors are coded 0, 1, and 3, respectively. The histology groupings in CBTRUS statistical reports were initially developed in collaboration with the CBTRUS consulting neuropathologist, Dr. Janet Bruner. In 2012, Drs. Roger McLendon and Tarik Tihan joined Dr. Bruner and the CBTRUS staff to synchronize the CBTRUS histology grouping scheme with the 2007 World Health Organization (WHO) classification of tumors of the central nervous system.8,9 This report uses this most recent 2012 CBTRUS histology grouping scheme (Table 1). The classification scheme utilizes ICD-O-3 codes6 and may include morphology codes that were not previously reported to CBTRUS.10 Tables 1a and 1b list malignant only and non-malignant only histologies, respectively. In this report, incidence rates are provided by major histology grouping and detailed histology.

Table 1.

Central Brain Tumor Registry of the United States (CBTRUS), Brain and Central Nervous System Tumor Histology Groupings

Histology ICD-O-3 Histology Code 
Tumors of Neuroepithelial Tissue  
 Pilocytic astrocytoma 9421 
 Diffuse astrocytoma 9400, 9410, 9411, 9420 
 Anaplastic astrocytoma 9401 
 Unique astrocytoma variants 9381, 9384, 9424 
 Glioblastoma 9440, 9441, 9442/3 
 Oligodendroglioma 9450 
 Anaplastic oligodendroglioma 9451, 9460 
 Oligoastrocytic tumors 9382 
 Ependymal tumors 9383, 9391, 9392, 9393, 9394 
 Glioma malignant, NOS 9380 
 Choroid plexus tumors 9390 
 Other neuroepithelial tumors 9363, 9423, 9430, 9444 
 Neuronal and mixed neuronal-glial tumors 8680, 8681, 8690, 8693, 9412, 9413, 9442/1§
 9492 (excluding site C75.1), 9493, 9505, 9506, 9522, 9523 
 Tumors of the pineal region 9360, 9361, 9362 
 Embryonal tumors 8963, 9364, 9470, 9471, 9472, 9473, 9474, 
 9490, 9500, 9501, 9502, 9508 
Tumors of Cranial and Spinal Nerves  
 Nerve sheath tumors 9540, 9541, 9550, 9560, 9561, 9570, 9571 
 Other tumors of cranial and spinal nerves 9562 
Tumors of Meninges  
 Meningioma 9530, 9531, 9532, 9533, 9534, 9537, 9538, 9539 
 Mesenchymal tumors 8324, 8800, 8801, 8802, 8803, 8804, 8805, 8806, 8810, 8815, 8824, 8830, 
 8831, 8835, 8836, 8850, 8851, 8852, 8853, 8854, 8857, 8861, 8870, 8880, 
 8890, 8897, 8900, 8901, 8902, 8910, 8912, 8920, 8921, 8935, 8990, 9040, 9136, 
 9150, 9170, 9180, 9210, 9241, 9260, 9373, 9480 
 Primary melanocytic lesions 8720, 8728, 8770, 8771 
 Other neoplasms related to the meninges 9161, 9220, 9231, 9240, 9243, 9370, 9371, 9372, 9535 
Lymphomas and Hemopoietic Neoplasms  
 Lymphoma 9590, 9591, 9596, 9650, 9651, 9652, 9653, 9654, 9655, 9659, 9661, 
 9662, 9663, 9664, 9665, 9667, 9670, 9671, 9673, 9675, 9680, 9684, 
 9687, 9690, 9691, 9695, 9698, 9699, 9701, 9702, 9705, 9714, 9719, 
 9728, 9729 
 Other hemopoietic neoplasms 9727, 9731, 9733, 9734, 9740, 9741, 9750, 9751, 9752, 9753, 9754, 9755, 
 9756, 9757, 9758, 9760, 9766, 9823, 9826, 9827, 9832, 9837, 9860, 9861, 9866, 9930, 9970 
Germ Cell Tumors and Cysts  
 Germ cell tumors, cysts and heterotopias 8020, 8440, 9060, 9061, 9064, 9065, 9070, 9071, 9072, 9080, 9081, 9082, 
 9083, 9084, 9085, 9100, 9101 
Tumors of Sellar Region  
 Tumors of the pituitary 8040, 8140, 8146, 8246, 8260, 8270, 8271, 8272, 
 8280, 8281, 8290, 8300, 8310, 8323, 9492 (Site C75.1 only), 9582 
 Craniopharyngioma 9350, 9351, 9352 
Unclassified Tumors  
 Hemangioma 9120, 9121, 9122, 9123, 9125, 9130, 9131, 9133, 9140 
 Neoplasm, unspecified 8000, 8001, 8002, 8003, 8004, 8005, 8010, 8021 
 All other 8320, 8452, 8710, 8711, 8713, 8811, 8840, 8896, 8980, 9173, 9503, 9580 
Histology ICD-O-3 Histology Code 
Tumors of Neuroepithelial Tissue  
 Pilocytic astrocytoma 9421 
 Diffuse astrocytoma 9400, 9410, 9411, 9420 
 Anaplastic astrocytoma 9401 
 Unique astrocytoma variants 9381, 9384, 9424 
 Glioblastoma 9440, 9441, 9442/3 
 Oligodendroglioma 9450 
 Anaplastic oligodendroglioma 9451, 9460 
 Oligoastrocytic tumors 9382 
 Ependymal tumors 9383, 9391, 9392, 9393, 9394 
 Glioma malignant, NOS 9380 
 Choroid plexus tumors 9390 
 Other neuroepithelial tumors 9363, 9423, 9430, 9444 
 Neuronal and mixed neuronal-glial tumors 8680, 8681, 8690, 8693, 9412, 9413, 9442/1§
 9492 (excluding site C75.1), 9493, 9505, 9506, 9522, 9523 
 Tumors of the pineal region 9360, 9361, 9362 
 Embryonal tumors 8963, 9364, 9470, 9471, 9472, 9473, 9474, 
 9490, 9500, 9501, 9502, 9508 
Tumors of Cranial and Spinal Nerves  
 Nerve sheath tumors 9540, 9541, 9550, 9560, 9561, 9570, 9571 
 Other tumors of cranial and spinal nerves 9562 
Tumors of Meninges  
 Meningioma 9530, 9531, 9532, 9533, 9534, 9537, 9538, 9539 
 Mesenchymal tumors 8324, 8800, 8801, 8802, 8803, 8804, 8805, 8806, 8810, 8815, 8824, 8830, 
 8831, 8835, 8836, 8850, 8851, 8852, 8853, 8854, 8857, 8861, 8870, 8880, 
 8890, 8897, 8900, 8901, 8902, 8910, 8912, 8920, 8921, 8935, 8990, 9040, 9136, 
 9150, 9170, 9180, 9210, 9241, 9260, 9373, 9480 
 Primary melanocytic lesions 8720, 8728, 8770, 8771 
 Other neoplasms related to the meninges 9161, 9220, 9231, 9240, 9243, 9370, 9371, 9372, 9535 
Lymphomas and Hemopoietic Neoplasms  
 Lymphoma 9590, 9591, 9596, 9650, 9651, 9652, 9653, 9654, 9655, 9659, 9661, 
 9662, 9663, 9664, 9665, 9667, 9670, 9671, 9673, 9675, 9680, 9684, 
 9687, 9690, 9691, 9695, 9698, 9699, 9701, 9702, 9705, 9714, 9719, 
 9728, 9729 
 Other hemopoietic neoplasms 9727, 9731, 9733, 9734, 9740, 9741, 9750, 9751, 9752, 9753, 9754, 9755, 
 9756, 9757, 9758, 9760, 9766, 9823, 9826, 9827, 9832, 9837, 9860, 9861, 9866, 9930, 9970 
Germ Cell Tumors and Cysts  
 Germ cell tumors, cysts and heterotopias 8020, 8440, 9060, 9061, 9064, 9065, 9070, 9071, 9072, 9080, 9081, 9082, 
 9083, 9084, 9085, 9100, 9101 
Tumors of Sellar Region  
 Tumors of the pituitary 8040, 8140, 8146, 8246, 8260, 8270, 8271, 8272, 
 8280, 8281, 8290, 8300, 8310, 8323, 9492 (Site C75.1 only), 9582 
 Craniopharyngioma 9350, 9351, 9352 
Unclassified Tumors  
 Hemangioma 9120, 9121, 9122, 9123, 9125, 9130, 9131, 9133, 9140 
 Neoplasm, unspecified 8000, 8001, 8002, 8003, 8004, 8005, 8010, 8021 
 All other 8320, 8452, 8710, 8711, 8713, 8811, 8840, 8896, 8980, 9173, 9503, 9580 

International Classification of Diseases for Oncology, 3rd Edition, 2000. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.

Morphology 9442/3 only.

§ Morphology 9442/1 only.

CBTRUS defines the broad category of gliomas to include ICD-O-3 histology codes 9380-9384,9391-9460,9480.

Abbreviations: CBTRUS, Central Brain Tumor Registry of the United States; NOS, not otherwise specified.

Table 1a.

Central Brain Tumor Registry of the United States (CBTRUS), Brain and Central Nervous System Tumor Malignant Histologies

Histology ICD-O-3 Histology Code 
Tumors of Neuroepithelial Tissue  
 Pilocytic astrocytoma 9421/1 [Included with malignant tumors] 
 Diffuse astrocytoma 9400/3, 9410/3, 9411/3, 9420/3 
 Anaplastic astrocytoma 9401/3 
 Unique astrocytoma variants 9381/3, 9424/3 
 Glioblastoma 9440/3, 9441/3, 9442/3 
 Oligodendroglioma 9450/3 
 Anaplastic oligodendroglioma 9451/3, 9460/3 
 Oligoastrocytic tumors 9382/3 
 Ependymal tumors 9391/3, 9392/3, 9393/3 
 Glioma malignant, NOS 9380/3 
 Choroid plexus 9390/3 
 Other neuroepithelial tumors 9423/3, 9430/3 
 Neuronal and mixed neuronal- glial tumors 8680/3, 8693/3, 9505/3, 9522/3, 9523/3 
 Tumors of the pineal region 9362/3 
 Embryonal tumors 8963/3, 9364/3, 9470/3, 9471/3, 9472/3,9473/3, 9474/3, 
 9490/3, 9500/3, 9501/3, 9502/3, 9508/3 
Tumors of Cranial and Spinal Nerves  
 Nerve sheath tumors 9540/3, 9560/3, 9561/3, 9571/3 
Tumors of Meninges  
 Meningioma 9530/3, 9538/3, 9539/3 
 Mesenchymal tumors 8800/3, 8801/3, 8802/3, 8803/3, 8804/3, 8805/3, 8806/3, 8810/3, 8815/3, 8830/3, 
 8850/3, 8851/3, 8852/3, 8853/3, 8854/3, 8857/3, 8890/3, 8900/3, 8901/3, 8902/3, 
 8910/3, 8912/3, 8920/3, 8921/3, 8990/3, 9040/3, 9150/3, 9170/3, 9180/3, 9260/3, 9480/3 
 Primary melanocytic lesions 8720/3, 8728/3, 8770/3, 8771/3 
 Other neoplasms related to the meninges 9220/3, 9231/3, 9240/3, 9243/3, 9370/3, 9371/3, 9372/3 
Lymphomas and Hemopoietic Neoplasms  
 Lymphoma 9590/3, 9591/3, 9596/3, 9650/3, 9651/3, 9652/3, 9653/3, 9654/3, 9655/3, 9659/3, 
 9661/3, 9662/3, 9663/3, 9664/3, 9665/3, 9667/3, 9670/3, 9671/3, 9673/3, 9675/3, 
 9680/3, 9684/3, 9687/3, 9690/3, 9691/3, 9695/3, 9698/3, 9699/3, 9701/3, 9702/3, 
 9705/3, 9714/3, 9719/3, 9728/3, 9729/3 
 Other hemopoietic neoplasms 9727/3, 9731/3, 9733/3, 9734/3, 9740/3, 9741/3, 9750/3, 9754/3, 9755/3, 9756/3, 9757/3, 9758/3, 
 9760/3, 9823/3, 9826/3, 9827/3, 9832/3, 9837/3, 9860/3, 9861/3, 9866/3, 9930/3 
Germ Cell Tumors and Cysts  
 Germ cell tumors, cysts and 8020/3, 8440/3, 9060/3, 9061/3, 9064/3, 9065/3, 9070/3, 9071/3, 9072/3, 9080/3, 
  heterotopias 9081/3, 9082/3, 9083/3, 9084/3, 9085/3, 9100/3, 9101/3 
Tumors of Sellar Region  
 Tumors of the pituitary 8140/3, 8246/3, 8260/3, 8270/3, 8272/3, 8280/3, 8281/3, 8290/3, 8300/3, 8310/3, 8323/3 
Unclassified Tumors  
 Hemangioma 9120/3, 9130/3, 9133/3, 9140/3 
 Neoplasm, unspecified 8000/3, 8001/3, 8002/3, 8003/3, 8004/3, 8005/3, 8010/3, 8021/3 
 All other 8320/3, 8710/3, 8711/3, 8811/3, 8840/3, 8896/3, 8980/3, 9503/3, 9580/3 
Histology ICD-O-3 Histology Code 
Tumors of Neuroepithelial Tissue  
 Pilocytic astrocytoma 9421/1 [Included with malignant tumors] 
 Diffuse astrocytoma 9400/3, 9410/3, 9411/3, 9420/3 
 Anaplastic astrocytoma 9401/3 
 Unique astrocytoma variants 9381/3, 9424/3 
 Glioblastoma 9440/3, 9441/3, 9442/3 
 Oligodendroglioma 9450/3 
 Anaplastic oligodendroglioma 9451/3, 9460/3 
 Oligoastrocytic tumors 9382/3 
 Ependymal tumors 9391/3, 9392/3, 9393/3 
 Glioma malignant, NOS 9380/3 
 Choroid plexus 9390/3 
 Other neuroepithelial tumors 9423/3, 9430/3 
 Neuronal and mixed neuronal- glial tumors 8680/3, 8693/3, 9505/3, 9522/3, 9523/3 
 Tumors of the pineal region 9362/3 
 Embryonal tumors 8963/3, 9364/3, 9470/3, 9471/3, 9472/3,9473/3, 9474/3, 
 9490/3, 9500/3, 9501/3, 9502/3, 9508/3 
Tumors of Cranial and Spinal Nerves  
 Nerve sheath tumors 9540/3, 9560/3, 9561/3, 9571/3 
Tumors of Meninges  
 Meningioma 9530/3, 9538/3, 9539/3 
 Mesenchymal tumors 8800/3, 8801/3, 8802/3, 8803/3, 8804/3, 8805/3, 8806/3, 8810/3, 8815/3, 8830/3, 
 8850/3, 8851/3, 8852/3, 8853/3, 8854/3, 8857/3, 8890/3, 8900/3, 8901/3, 8902/3, 
 8910/3, 8912/3, 8920/3, 8921/3, 8990/3, 9040/3, 9150/3, 9170/3, 9180/3, 9260/3, 9480/3 
 Primary melanocytic lesions 8720/3, 8728/3, 8770/3, 8771/3 
 Other neoplasms related to the meninges 9220/3, 9231/3, 9240/3, 9243/3, 9370/3, 9371/3, 9372/3 
Lymphomas and Hemopoietic Neoplasms  
 Lymphoma 9590/3, 9591/3, 9596/3, 9650/3, 9651/3, 9652/3, 9653/3, 9654/3, 9655/3, 9659/3, 
 9661/3, 9662/3, 9663/3, 9664/3, 9665/3, 9667/3, 9670/3, 9671/3, 9673/3, 9675/3, 
 9680/3, 9684/3, 9687/3, 9690/3, 9691/3, 9695/3, 9698/3, 9699/3, 9701/3, 9702/3, 
 9705/3, 9714/3, 9719/3, 9728/3, 9729/3 
 Other hemopoietic neoplasms 9727/3, 9731/3, 9733/3, 9734/3, 9740/3, 9741/3, 9750/3, 9754/3, 9755/3, 9756/3, 9757/3, 9758/3, 
 9760/3, 9823/3, 9826/3, 9827/3, 9832/3, 9837/3, 9860/3, 9861/3, 9866/3, 9930/3 
Germ Cell Tumors and Cysts  
 Germ cell tumors, cysts and 8020/3, 8440/3, 9060/3, 9061/3, 9064/3, 9065/3, 9070/3, 9071/3, 9072/3, 9080/3, 
  heterotopias 9081/3, 9082/3, 9083/3, 9084/3, 9085/3, 9100/3, 9101/3 
Tumors of Sellar Region  
 Tumors of the pituitary 8140/3, 8246/3, 8260/3, 8270/3, 8272/3, 8280/3, 8281/3, 8290/3, 8300/3, 8310/3, 8323/3 
Unclassified Tumors  
 Hemangioma 9120/3, 9130/3, 9133/3, 9140/3 
 Neoplasm, unspecified 8000/3, 8001/3, 8002/3, 8003/3, 8004/3, 8005/3, 8010/3, 8021/3 
 All other 8320/3, 8710/3, 8711/3, 8811/3, 8840/3, 8896/3, 8980/3, 9503/3, 9580/3 

Includes all the histologies listed in the standard definition of reportable brain tumors from the Consensus Conference10 on Brain Tumor Definitions.

International Classification of Diseases for Oncology, 3rd Edition, 2000. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.

Abbreviations: CBTRUS, Central Brain Tumor Registry of the United States; NOS, not otherwise specified.

Table 1b.

Central Brain Tumor Registry of the United States (CBTRUS), Brain and Central Nervous System Tumor Non-Malignant Histologies

Histology ICD-O-3 Histology Code 
Tumors of Neuroepithelial Tissue  
 Pilocytic astrocytoma 9421/1 [Included with malignant tumors] 
 Unique astrocytoma variants 9384/1 
 Ependymal tumors 9383/1; 9394/1 
 Choroid plexus 9390/0,1 
 Other neuroepithelial tumors 9363/0; 9444/1 
 Neuronal and mixed neuronalglial tumors 8680/0,1; 8681/1; 8690/1; 8693/1; 9412/1; 9413/0; 9442/1; 
 9492/0 (excluding site C75.1); 9493/0; 9505/1; 9506/1 
 Tumors of the pineal region 9360/1; 9361/1 
 Embryonal tumors 9490/0 
Tumors of Cranial and Spinal Nerves  
 Nerve sheath tumors 9540/0,1; 9541/0, 9550/0; 9560/0,1; 9570/0; 9571/0 
 Other tumors of cranial and spinal nerves 9562/0 
Tumors of Meninges  
 Meningioma 9530/0,1; 9531/0; 9532/0; 9533/0; 9534/0; 9537/0; 9538/1; 9539/1 
 Mesenchymal tumors 8324/0; 8800/0; 8810/0; 8815/0; 8824/0,1; 8830/0,1; 8831/0; 8835/1; 8836/1; 
 8850/0,1; 8851/0; 8852/0, 8854/0; 8857/0; 8861/0; 8870/0; 8880/0, 8890/0,1; 8897/1; 
 8900/0; 8920/1; 8935/0,1; 8990/0,1; 9040/0; 9136/1, 9150/0,1; 9170/0; 9180/0; 9210/0; 9241/0; 9373/0 
 Primary melanocytic lesions 8728/0,1; 8770/0; 8771/0 
 Other neoplasms related to the meninges 9161/1; 9220/0,1; 9535/0 
Lymphomas and Hemopoietic Neoplasms  
 Other hemopoietic neoplasms 9740/1; 9751/1; 9752/1; 9753/1; 9766/1; 9970/1 
Germ Cell Tumors and Cysts  
 Germ cell tumors, cysts and heterotopias 8440/0; 9080/0,1; 9084/0 
Tumors of Sellar Region  
 Tumors of the pituitary 8040/0,1; 8140/0,1; 8146/0; 8260/0; 8270/0; 8271/0; 8272/0; 
 8280/0; 8281/0; 8290/0; 8300/0; 8310/0; 8323/0; 9492/0 (site C75.1 only); 9582/0 
 Craniopharyngioma 9350/1; 9351/1; 9352/1 
Unclassified Tumors  
 Hemangioma 9120/0; 9121/0; 9122/0; 9123/0; 9125/0; 9130/0,1; 9131/0; 9133/1 
 Neoplasm, unspecified 8000/0,1; 8001/0,1; 8005/0; 8010/0 
 All other 8452/1; 8711/0; 8713/0; 8811/0; 8840/0; 9173/0; 9580/0 
Histology ICD-O-3 Histology Code 
Tumors of Neuroepithelial Tissue  
 Pilocytic astrocytoma 9421/1 [Included with malignant tumors] 
 Unique astrocytoma variants 9384/1 
 Ependymal tumors 9383/1; 9394/1 
 Choroid plexus 9390/0,1 
 Other neuroepithelial tumors 9363/0; 9444/1 
 Neuronal and mixed neuronalglial tumors 8680/0,1; 8681/1; 8690/1; 8693/1; 9412/1; 9413/0; 9442/1; 
 9492/0 (excluding site C75.1); 9493/0; 9505/1; 9506/1 
 Tumors of the pineal region 9360/1; 9361/1 
 Embryonal tumors 9490/0 
Tumors of Cranial and Spinal Nerves  
 Nerve sheath tumors 9540/0,1; 9541/0, 9550/0; 9560/0,1; 9570/0; 9571/0 
 Other tumors of cranial and spinal nerves 9562/0 
Tumors of Meninges  
 Meningioma 9530/0,1; 9531/0; 9532/0; 9533/0; 9534/0; 9537/0; 9538/1; 9539/1 
 Mesenchymal tumors 8324/0; 8800/0; 8810/0; 8815/0; 8824/0,1; 8830/0,1; 8831/0; 8835/1; 8836/1; 
 8850/0,1; 8851/0; 8852/0, 8854/0; 8857/0; 8861/0; 8870/0; 8880/0, 8890/0,1; 8897/1; 
 8900/0; 8920/1; 8935/0,1; 8990/0,1; 9040/0; 9136/1, 9150/0,1; 9170/0; 9180/0; 9210/0; 9241/0; 9373/0 
 Primary melanocytic lesions 8728/0,1; 8770/0; 8771/0 
 Other neoplasms related to the meninges 9161/1; 9220/0,1; 9535/0 
Lymphomas and Hemopoietic Neoplasms  
 Other hemopoietic neoplasms 9740/1; 9751/1; 9752/1; 9753/1; 9766/1; 9970/1 
Germ Cell Tumors and Cysts  
 Germ cell tumors, cysts and heterotopias 8440/0; 9080/0,1; 9084/0 
Tumors of Sellar Region  
 Tumors of the pituitary 8040/0,1; 8140/0,1; 8146/0; 8260/0; 8270/0; 8271/0; 8272/0; 
 8280/0; 8281/0; 8290/0; 8300/0; 8310/0; 8323/0; 9492/0 (site C75.1 only); 9582/0 
 Craniopharyngioma 9350/1; 9351/1; 9352/1 
Unclassified Tumors  
 Hemangioma 9120/0; 9121/0; 9122/0; 9123/0; 9125/0; 9130/0,1; 9131/0; 9133/1 
 Neoplasm, unspecified 8000/0,1; 8001/0,1; 8005/0; 8010/0 
 All other 8452/1; 8711/0; 8713/0; 8811/0; 8840/0; 9173/0; 9580/0 

Includes all the histologies listed in the standard definition of reportable brain tumors from the Consensus Conference10 on Brain Tumor Definition.

International Classification of Diseases for Oncology, 3rd Edition, 2000. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.

Abbreviations: CBTRUS, Central Brain Tumor Registry of the United States; NOS, not otherwise specified.

Gliomas are tumors that arise from glial cells, and include astrocytoma, glioblastoma, oligodendroglioma, ependymoma, mixed glioma, malignant glioma, not otherwise specified (NOS), and a few more rare histologies. Whereas there is no standard definition, CBTRUS defines glioma as ICD-O-3 histology codes 9380-9384, 9391-9460, and 9480. It is also important to note that the statistics for lymphomas and hematopoietic neoplasms contained in this report refer only to those lymphomas and hematopoietic neoplasms that arise in the brain and CNS.

Anatomic Location of Tumor Sites

Various terms are used to describe the regions of the brain and central nervous system. The sites referred to in this report are broadly based on the categories and site codes defined in the SEER Site/Histology Validation List.11 Tumors include olfactory tumors of the nasal cavity in addition to brain tumors located in sites included in the standard definition from the Consensus Conference on Brain Tumor Definition for Registration.10 According to the standard definition from the Consensus Conference, reportable primary brain–related tumors (intracranial and central nervous system tumors) are all primary tumors, irrespective of histology and behavior, occurring in the following sites: brain; meninges; pineal gland; pituitary gland and craniopharyngeal duct; and spinal cord, cranial nerves, and other parts of the central nervous system. As per the site definition outlined by the Consensus Conference, brain lymphomas coded to any of the brain or CNS site codes listed above are included in the CBTRUS report. The group of tumors known as spinal cord tumors is coded to the following sites: spinal meninges, spinal cord, and cauda equina, and is highlighted in this report.

Statistics by ICD-O-3 primary sites are grouped in the following manner: the frontal lobe (C71.1); temporal lobe (C71.2); parietal lobe (C71.3); and occipital lobe (C71.4) are grouped together. Cerebrum (C71.0), ventricle (C71.5), cerebellum (C71.6), and brain stem (C71.7) are each grouped independently. Overlapping lesions of the brain, as well as brain sites not otherwise specified (NOS), are defined by ICD-O site codes C71.8–C71.9. The cranial nerve category (C72.2–C72.5) includes the olfactory nerve, optic nerve, acoustic nerve, and other cranial nerves. The spinal cord (C72.0) and cauda equina (C72.1) are grouped together. Overlapping lesions of the brain and central nervous system, as well as nervous system sites not otherwise specified (NOS), are defined by ICD-O site codes C72.8–C72.9. The meninges (C70.0–C70.9) include the cerebral meninges and spinal meninges. Pituitary tumors (C75.1–C75.2) include tumors located in the pituitary gland and craniopharyngeal duct. Pineal tumors (C75.3) include tumors located in the pineal gland. In this report, tumors located in the nasal cavity (C30.0) are olfactory tumors (defined by ICD-O-3 histology codes 9522 and 9523).

Measurement Methods

Counts, means, rates, ratios, proportions, and other relevant statistics were calculated using SPSS and/or SEER*Stat statistical software.12,13 Statistics are suppressed when counts are fewer than 16 within a cell. However, the data in the suppressed cells are included in the counts and rates for the totals.

Population data for each geographic region were obtained from the SEER program website14 for the purpose of rate calculation. The estimates adjusted for the impact of the Katrina and Rita hurricanes on affected state populations were used in the data analyses for the statistics presented in this report.

Age-adjusted incidence rates and 95% confidence intervals15 for malignant and non–malignant tumors and for selected histology groupings by gender, race, Hispanic ethnicity, and pediatric, young adult, and adult age groups were estimated. Age–adjustment was based on five–year age groupings and standardized to the Year 2000 U.S. standard population. Age-specific incidence rates by five-year age groups were also calculated. The age distribution of the 2000 U.S. standard population is shown in Appendix A. Combined populations for the regions included in this report are shown in Appendix B and Appendix C.

CBTRUS presents statistics on the pediatric age group 0-19 years in order to include and describe specific brain and CNS tumor patterns in age groups 0-4, 5-9, 10-14 as well as 15-19 years. However, the 0-14 year age group is a standard age category for childhood cancer used by other cancer surveillance organizations and has been included in this report for consistency and comparison purposes. Race categories in this report are all races, white, black, American Indian/Alaskan Native (AIAN), and Asian Pacific Islander (API). Other race: unspecified and unknown race are included in all race statistics. Hispanic ethnicity was defined using the NAACCR Hispanic Identification Algorithm, version 2, data element, which utilizes a combination of cancer registry data fields (Spanish/Hispanic Origin data element, birthplace, race, and surnames) to directly and indirectly classify cases as Hispanic or non–Hispanic.16 Trends across annual incidence rates were not estimated because a timeframe of five years for both malignant and non-malignant tumors as presented in this report is not sufficient to detect a real change in the rate pattern with any degree of confidence.

Brain Tumor Definition Differences

It should be noted that NPCR, SEER, and NAACCR report brain tumors differently than CBTRUS. The definition of brain and CNS tumors used by these organizations (in their published incidence and mortality statistics) includes tumors located in the brain, meninges, and other central nervous system tumors (C70.0–9, C71.0–9, and C72.0–9), but excludes lymphoma and leukemia histologies (9590–9989) from all brain and CNS sites. NPCR and SEER include separate tables for malignant and non–malignant brain and CNS tumors reflecting the 2002 Consensus Conference10 definition in their respective publications. With the inclusion of non-malignant brain tumors, an increase in incidence rates may result, especially for the following histology groups and subgroups: (groups) tumors of meninges; tumors of cranial and spinal nerves; tumors of the sellar region; and (subgroups) unique astrocytoma variants; ependymal tumors; choroid plexus; neuronal and mixed neuronal-glial tumors; tumors of the pineal region; nerve sheath tumors; meningioma; mesenchymal tumors; other neoplasms related to the meninges; germ cell tumors; tumors of the pituitary; craniopharyngioma; hemangioma; neoplasm, unspecified; and all other.

In contrast, the CBTRUS reports data on all tumor morphologies located within the Consensus Conference site definition including the leukemia and lymphoma histologies (9590–9989) as well as olfactory tumors of the nasal cavity [C30.0 (9522–9523)].10 NPCR, SEER, and NAACCR include pilocytic astrocytomas [a tumor listed in the WHO Classification of Tumours of the Central Nervous System8 as having uncertain behavior (ICD-0-3 behavior code of 1)] in their malignant (ICD-0-3 behavior code of 3) brain tumor data and statistics. In support of consistency within cancer surveillance reporting, the CBTRUS categorizes pilocytic astrocytomas in the malignant tumor category to enhance comparability of rates to those reported by NPCR, SEER, and NAACCR, especially for comparison of childhood brain and CNS tumor rates. It is important to understand these differences in definition, as they influence the direct comparison of published rates.

Estimation of Expected Numbers of Brain and CNS Tumors in 2012 and 2013

Estimated numbers of expected malignant and non–malignant brain and CNS tumors were calculated for diagnosis years 2012 and 2013. The age-specific rate method was utilized to project 2012 and 2013 estimates of all primary brain and CNS tumors using the CBTRUS 2005–2009 age-sex-race-specific brain tumor incidence rates for a group by the age-sex-race-specific population projections for that group. Projected population estimates for 2012 and 2013 were derived for the 50 states and District of Columbia using the US Census Bureau 2000-2009 population data (seer.cancer.gov/popdata/index.html).14

Estimation of Mortality Rates for Underlying Cause from Brain and CNS Tumors

Age-adjusted mortality rates for deaths resulting from all brain and CNS tumors were calculated using SEER Stat 7.0.9.12,17 The underlying mortality data were provided to the SEER program by the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) (www.cdc.gov/nchs). In addition to total age-adjusted rate for the United States, age-adjusted rates are presented by gender and state.

Estimation of Survival Rates

SEER*Stat 7.0.9 statistical software was used to estimate one–through ten–year relative survival rates for primary malignant brain tumor cases diagnosed between 1995–2009 in eighteen SEER areas.12,18 This software utilizes life–table (actuarial) methods to compute survival estimates and accounts for current follow-up. The traditional cohort analysis of survival rates was utilized for the survival estimates presented in this report. Survival was estimated for brain (C71.0–C71.9), meninges (C70.0–C70.9), spinal cord, cranial nerves, and other parts of the central nervous system (C72.0–C72.9), pituitary and pineal glands (C75.1–C75.3), and olfactory tumors of the nasal cavity [C30.0 (9522–9523)]. Lymphomas and leukemias (morphology codes 9590–9989) and meningiomas (9530–9539) are included from all brain and CNS sites. Second or later primary tumors, cases diagnosed at autopsy, cases in which race or sex is coded as other or unknown, and cases known to be alive but for whom follow–up time could not be calculated were excluded from the SEER survival data analyses.

Data Interpretation

The CBTRUS works diligently to support the broader surveillance efforts aimed at improving the collection and reporting of primary brain and CNS tumors. The central cancer registry data provided to NPCR and SEER and, subsequently, to CBTRUS vary from year-to-year due to ongoing updates in collection and data refinement aimed to improve completeness and accuracy. The data presented in this report must be interpreted within this surveillance framework as well as taking into account the information provided in the technical notes. Therefore, it is important to note that data from previous CBTRUS Reports cannot be compared to data in CBTRUS Statistical Report: Primary Brain and Central Nervous System Tumors Diagnosed in the United States in 2005–2009.

Random fluctuations in average annual rates are usual especially for rates based on small incidence counts. The CBTRUS policy to suppress data presentation for cells with counts of less than 16 is consistent with the NPCR policy. The rationale for this policy is that rates produced with small counts are unreliable. The suppression of data with counts of fewer than 16 is more than adequate to protect confidentially given the CBTRUS data set is an aggregate of 48 states and the District of Columbia for 2005–2009.

Delays in reporting and late ascertainment are a reality and a known issue influencing registry completeness and, consequently, rate underestimations - especially for more recent data collection years.19 CBTRUS also recognizes that the problem may be even more likely to occur in the reporting of non-malignant brain and CNS tumors, where reporting often comes from non-hospital based sources and mandated collection is relatively recent (2004).

Reporting from Veteran's Health Administration (VHA) hospitals, the sole source of data for cancer cases diagnosed among Veterans served by those institutions, affects completeness of data. Cancer cases from VHA facilities account for at least three percent and possibly as much as eight percent of all cancer cases diagnosed among men. VHA policy that went into effect in 2007 restricting Veterans' health data sharing has resulted in the underreporting of cancer incidence data for diagnosis years 2005 through 2007. Since late 2008, VHA facilities and states with central cancer registries have been working to establish data transfer agreements that correct the problem to assure more complete ascertainment of national cancer incidence including brain and CNS tumor incidence data used in CBTRUS statistical reports.20

CBTRUS editing practices conducted yearly aim to refine the data for accuracy and clinical relevance should also be recognized in interpreting these report data. Exclusion of site and histology combinations considered to be invalid by the consulting neuropathologists may have the impact of conservatively underestimating the incidence of brain and CNS tumors. Editing changes also incorporate updates to the cancer registration coding rules that influence case ascertainment and data collection. For example, beginning in 2004, some brain and CNS site codes were reconsidered as paired sites, that is having a tumor on the left and right hemispheres, would result in multiple tumors being reported rather than unpaired sites which has likely caused some increase in reported incidence. Another relevant coding tool affecting reporting was the 2007 Multiple Primary and Histology Coding Rules. These rules revised the way malignant and non-malignant brain tumors are reported and may affect incident rate changes for certain histologies.

Population estimates used for denominators affect incidence rates. CBTRUS has utilized population data estimates for years 2005–2009 available on the SEER website for rate calculations in this report. These population estimates are provided to SEER on an annual basis from the United States Bureau of the Census. It should be noted that these estimates do not reflect the 2010 decennial census which may or may not impact the rates published. Finally, because this report includes incidence for diagnosis year 2005, adjusted population estimates were used for rate calculation in this report. These estimates adjust for the impact of hurricanes Katrina and Rita on the displacement of populations along the Gulf Coast of Louisiana, Alabama, Mississippi, and Texas in the fall of 2005.

Results

Primary Brain and CNS Tumors: Distributions and Incidence by Histology Group, Histology, Gender, Race, Hispanic Ethnicity, Age Group, Cancer Registry and Behavior

Counts of the 311,202 incident tumors (109,695 malignant; 201,507 non-malignant) reported during 2005–2009 by histology and demographic characteristics for all ages and for children ages 0-19 are presented in Tables 2–34. Approximately seven percent of the cases were in individuals less than 20 years of age at the time of diagnosis, and 93% were in individuals 20 years of age or older. Approximately 42% of all brain and CNS tumors occurred in males and 58% in females. The overall number of all reported tumors is listed by central cancer registry in Table 5. The average annual combined 2005–2009 population of 293,011,631 represents approximately 97% of the U.S. population for those years. The overall percent of non–malignant tumors varied considerably by cancer registry (range: 53-73%). About 65% of all tumors had a histologically confirmed diagnosis, with substantial regional variation (see range: 53-97% in Table 5).

Table 2.

Number of Brain and Central Nervous System Tumors by Major Histology Groupings, Histology, Gender, Race and Hispanic Ethnicity, CBTRUS Statistical Report: NPCR and SEER, 2005–2009

 Total Gender
 
Race
 
Hispanic Ethnicity
 
Histology  Male Female White Black AIAN API Hispanic Non-Hispanic 
Tumors of Neuroepithelial Tissue 99,063 55,149 43,914 88,414 6,666 516 1,823 9,034 90,029 
 Pilocytic astrocytoma 4,636 2,374 2,262 3,870 491 39 104 649 3,987 
 Diffuse astrocytoma 8,616 4,811 3,805 7,616 591 67 170 814 7,802 
 Anaplastic astrocytoma 5,374 3,059 2,315 4,856 295 31 103 455 4,919 
 Unique astrocytoma variants 938 500 438 757 126 – – 132 806 
 Glioblastoma 49,088 27,994 21,094 45,140 2,614 182 668 3,203 45,885 
 Oligodendroglioma 3,973 2,181 1,792 3,558 231 19 85 419 3,554 
 Anaplastic oligodendroglioma 1,687 933 754 1,507 88 – 40 156 1,531 
 Oligoastrocytic tumors 3,020 1,724 1,296 2,691 165 22 81 310 2,710 
 Ependymal tumors 6,117 3,371 2,746 5,311 473 41 144 707 5,410 
 Glioma malignant, NOS 6,574 3,329 3,245 5,569 638 33 164 770 5,804 
 Choroid plexus tumors 772 375 397 664 58 – 21 131 641 
 Other neuroepithelial tumors 95 35 60 80 – – – – 82 
 Neuronal and mixed neuronal-glial tumors 3,887 2,093 1,794 3,245 396 25 108 438 3,449 
 Tumors of the pineal region 579 240 339 444 103 – – 80 499 
 Embryonal tumors 3,707 2,130 1,577 3,106 384 24 111 757 2,950 
Tumors of Cranial and Spinal Nerves 25,942 12,377 13,565 22,614 1,349 106 854 2,108 23,834 
 Nerve sheath tumors 25,926 12,371 13,555 22,603 1,348 106 852 2,107 23,819 
 Other tumors of cranial and spinal nerves 16 – – – – – – – – 
Tumors of Meninges 114,363 31,030 83,333 94,854 13,112 592 3,380 9,790 104,573 
 Meningioma 110,359 28,884 81,475 91,469 12,757 561 3,238 9,298 101,061 
 Mesenchymal tumors 1,192 584 608 998 113 – 38 127 1,065 
 Primary melanocytic lesions 106 65 41 95 – – – – 91 
 Other neoplasms related to the meninges 2,706 1,497 1,209 2,292 236 19 101 350 2,356 
Lymphomas and Hemopoietic Neoplasms 6,956 3,701 3,255 5,874 693 39 251 721 6,235 
 Lymphoma 6,774 3,607 3,167 5,731 667 36 245 694 6,080 
 Other hemopoietic neoplasms 182 94 88 143 26 – – 27 155 
Germ Cell Tumors and Cysts 1,418 967 451 1,126 146  91 285 1,133 
 Germ cell tumors, cysts and heterotopias 1,418 967 451 1,126 146 – 91 285 1,133 
Tumors of Sellar Region 46,562 21,057 25,505 34,608 8,535 372 1,566 6,699 39,863 
 Tumors of the pituitary 43,882 19,728 24,154 32,590 8,056 351 1,473 6,289 37,593 
 Craniopharyngioma 2,680 1,329 1,351 2,018 479 21 93 410 2,270 
Unclassified Tumors 16,898 7,489 9,409 14,313 1,733 108 337 1,791 15,107 
 Hemangioma 3,240 1,436 1,804 2,765 256 17 111 370 2,870 
 Neoplasm, unspecified 13,566 6,008 7,558 11,471 1,470 89 222 1,409 12,157 
 All other 92 45 47 77 – – – – 80 
Total 311,202 131,770 179,432 261,803 32,234 1,742 8,302 30,428 280,774 
 Total Gender
 
Race
 
Hispanic Ethnicity
 
Histology  Male Female White Black AIAN API Hispanic Non-Hispanic 
Tumors of Neuroepithelial Tissue 99,063 55,149 43,914 88,414 6,666 516 1,823 9,034 90,029 
 Pilocytic astrocytoma 4,636 2,374 2,262 3,870 491 39 104 649 3,987 
 Diffuse astrocytoma 8,616 4,811 3,805 7,616 591 67 170 814 7,802 
 Anaplastic astrocytoma 5,374 3,059 2,315 4,856 295 31 103 455 4,919 
 Unique astrocytoma variants 938 500 438 757 126 – – 132 806 
 Glioblastoma 49,088 27,994 21,094 45,140 2,614 182 668 3,203 45,885 
 Oligodendroglioma 3,973 2,181 1,792 3,558 231 19 85 419 3,554 
 Anaplastic oligodendroglioma 1,687 933 754 1,507 88 – 40 156 1,531 
 Oligoastrocytic tumors 3,020 1,724 1,296 2,691 165 22 81 310 2,710 
 Ependymal tumors 6,117 3,371 2,746 5,311 473 41 144 707 5,410 
 Glioma malignant, NOS 6,574 3,329 3,245 5,569 638 33 164 770 5,804 
 Choroid plexus tumors 772 375 397 664 58 – 21 131 641 
 Other neuroepithelial tumors 95 35 60 80 – – – – 82 
 Neuronal and mixed neuronal-glial tumors 3,887 2,093 1,794 3,245 396 25 108 438 3,449 
 Tumors of the pineal region 579 240 339 444 103 – – 80 499 
 Embryonal tumors 3,707 2,130 1,577 3,106 384 24 111 757 2,950 
Tumors of Cranial and Spinal Nerves 25,942 12,377 13,565 22,614 1,349 106 854 2,108 23,834 
 Nerve sheath tumors 25,926 12,371 13,555 22,603 1,348 106 852 2,107 23,819 
 Other tumors of cranial and spinal nerves 16 – – – – – – – – 
Tumors of Meninges 114,363 31,030 83,333 94,854 13,112 592 3,380 9,790 104,573 
 Meningioma 110,359 28,884 81,475 91,469 12,757 561 3,238 9,298 101,061 
 Mesenchymal tumors 1,192 584 608 998 113 – 38 127 1,065 
 Primary melanocytic lesions 106 65 41 95 – – – – 91 
 Other neoplasms related to the meninges 2,706 1,497 1,209 2,292 236 19 101 350 2,356 
Lymphomas and Hemopoietic Neoplasms 6,956 3,701 3,255 5,874 693 39 251 721 6,235 
 Lymphoma 6,774 3,607 3,167 5,731 667 36 245 694 6,080 
 Other hemopoietic neoplasms 182 94 88 143 26 – – 27 155 
Germ Cell Tumors and Cysts 1,418 967 451 1,126 146  91 285 1,133 
 Germ cell tumors, cysts and heterotopias 1,418 967 451 1,126 146 – 91 285 1,133 
Tumors of Sellar Region 46,562 21,057 25,505 34,608 8,535 372 1,566 6,699 39,863 
 Tumors of the pituitary 43,882 19,728 24,154 32,590 8,056 351 1,473 6,289 37,593 
 Craniopharyngioma 2,680 1,329 1,351 2,018 479 21 93 410 2,270 
Unclassified Tumors 16,898 7,489 9,409 14,313 1,733 108 337 1,791 15,107 
 Hemangioma 3,240 1,436 1,804 2,765 256 17 111 370 2,870 
 Neoplasm, unspecified 13,566 6,008 7,558 11,471 1,470 89 222 1,409 12,157 
 All other 92 45 47 77 – – – – 80 
Total 311,202 131,770 179,432 261,803 32,234 1,742 8,302 30,428 280,774 

- Counts are not presented when fewer than 16 cases were reported for the specific histology category. The suppressed cases are included in the counts for totals. Counts for other race, unspecified and unknown race are included in the counts for totals.

† Hispanic ethnicity is not mutually exclusive of race; Classified using the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries Hispanic Identification Algorithm, version 2 (NHIA v2).

Abbreviations: CBTRUS, Central Brain Tumor Registry of the United States; NPCR, CDC's National Program of Cancer Registries; SEER, NCI's Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results program; AIAN, American Indian/Alaskan Native; API, Asian Pacific Islander.

Table 3.

Number of Childhood (Ages 0-19) Brain and Central Nervous System Tumors by Major Histology Groupings, Histology, Gender, Race and Hispanic Ethnicity, CBTRUS Statistical Report: NPCR and SEER, 2005–2009

 Total Gender
 
Race
 
Hispanic Ethnicity
 
Histology  Male Female White Black AIAN API Hispanic Non-Hispanic 
Tumors of Neuroepithelial Tissue 14,152 7,631 6,521 11,484 1,717 114 399 2,449 11,703 
 Pilocytic astrocytoma 3,220 1,668 1,552 2,654 367 28 74 502 2,718 
 Diffuse astrocytoma 1,082 577 505 869 136 – 31 178 904 
 Anaplastic astrocytoma 320 187 133 258 40 – – 61 259 
 Unique astrocytoma variants 430 224 206 328 74 – – 73 357 
 Glioblastoma 562 324 238 425 101 – 23 105 457 
 Oligodendroglioma 233 131 102 187 38 – – 34 199 
 Anaplastic oligodendroglioma 49 27 22 40 – – – – 40 
 Oligoastrocytic tumors 137 63 74 117 – – – 18 119 
 Ependymal tumors 1,112 641 471 899 126 16 48 228 884 
 Glioma malignant, NOS 2,345 1,148 1,197 1,885 273 – 76 397 1,948 
 Choroid plexus tumors 394 221 173 339 26 – – 86 308 
 Other neuroepithelial tumors 30 – 24 23 – – – – 29 
 Neuronal and mixed neuronal-glial tumors 1,456 805 651 1,203 163 – 27 204 1,252 
 Tumors of the pineal region 165 80 85 103 51 – – 34 131 
 Embryonal tumors 2,617 1,529 1,088 2,154 294 21 84 519 2,098 
Tumors of Cranial and Spinal Nerves 1,100 558 542 884 134  27 193 907 
 Nerve sheath tumors 1,100 558 542 884 134 – 27 193 907 
 Other tumors of cranial and spinal nerves – – – – – – – – – 
Tumors of Meninges 857 409 448 687 107  23 144 713 
 Meningioma 548 263 285 431 74 – 17 71 477 
 Mesenchymal tumors 150 61 89 129 – – – 28 122 
 Primary melanocytic lesions 19 – – 16 – – – – – 
 Other neoplasms related to the meninges 140 75 65 111 18 – – 39 101 
Lymphomas and Hemopoietic Neoplasms 90 56 34 67    27 63 
 Lymphoma 59 38 21 40 – – – 18 41 
 Other hemopoietic neoplasms 31 18 – 27 – – – – 22 
Germ Cell Tumors and Cysts 823 581 242 640 88  63 186 637 
 Germ cell tumors, cysts and heterotopias 823 581 242 640 88 – 63 186 637 
Tumors of Sellar Region 2,660 931 1,729 2,028 377 45 72 614 2,046 
 Tumors of the pituitary 1,894 542 1,352 1,441 262 35 53 436 1,458 
 Craniopharyngioma 766 389 377 587 115 – 19 178 588 
Unclassified Tumors 1,027 543 484 834 106  23 243 784 
 Hemangioma 293 158 135 249 23 – – 68 225 
 Neoplasm, unspecified 727 381 346 579 83 – – 174 553 
 All other – – – – – – – – – 
Total 20,709 10,709 10,000 16,624 2,542 199 612 3,856 16,853 
 Total Gender
 
Race
 
Hispanic Ethnicity
 
Histology  Male Female White Black AIAN API Hispanic Non-Hispanic 
Tumors of Neuroepithelial Tissue 14,152 7,631 6,521 11,484 1,717 114 399 2,449 11,703 
 Pilocytic astrocytoma 3,220 1,668 1,552 2,654 367 28 74 502 2,718 
 Diffuse astrocytoma 1,082 577 505 869 136 – 31 178 904 
 Anaplastic astrocytoma 320 187 133 258 40 – – 61 259 
 Unique astrocytoma variants 430 224 206 328 74 – – 73 357 
 Glioblastoma 562 324 238 425 101 – 23 105 457 
 Oligodendroglioma 233 131 102 187 38 – – 34 199 
 Anaplastic oligodendroglioma 49 27 22 40 – – – – 40 
 Oligoastrocytic tumors 137 63 74 117 – – – 18 119 
 Ependymal tumors 1,112 641 471 899 126 16 48 228 884 
 Glioma malignant, NOS 2,345 1,148 1,197 1,885 273 – 76 397 1,948 
 Choroid plexus tumors 394 221 173 339 26 – – 86 308 
 Other neuroepithelial tumors 30 – 24 23 – – – – 29 
 Neuronal and mixed neuronal-glial tumors 1,456 805 651 1,203 163 – 27 204 1,252 
 Tumors of the pineal region 165 80 85 103 51 – – 34 131 
 Embryonal tumors 2,617 1,529 1,088 2,154 294 21 84 519 2,098 
Tumors of Cranial and Spinal Nerves 1,100 558 542 884 134  27 193 907 
 Nerve sheath tumors 1,100 558 542 884 134 – 27 193 907 
 Other tumors of cranial and spinal nerves – – – – – – – – – 
Tumors of Meninges 857 409 448 687 107  23 144 713 
 Meningioma 548 263 285 431 74 – 17 71 477 
 Mesenchymal tumors 150 61 89 129 – – – 28 122 
 Primary melanocytic lesions 19 – – 16 – – – – – 
 Other neoplasms related to the meninges 140 75 65 111 18 – – 39 101 
Lymphomas and Hemopoietic Neoplasms 90 56 34 67    27 63 
 Lymphoma 59 38 21 40 – – – 18 41 
 Other hemopoietic neoplasms 31 18 – 27 – – – – 22 
Germ Cell Tumors and Cysts 823 581 242 640 88  63 186 637 
 Germ cell tumors, cysts and heterotopias 823 581 242 640 88 – 63 186 637 
Tumors of Sellar Region 2,660 931 1,729 2,028 377 45 72 614 2,046 
 Tumors of the pituitary 1,894 542 1,352 1,441 262 35 53 436 1,458 
 Craniopharyngioma 766 389 377 587 115 – 19 178 588 
Unclassified Tumors 1,027 543 484 834 106  23 243 784 
 Hemangioma 293 158 135 249 23 – – 68 225 
 Neoplasm, unspecified 727 381 346 579 83 – – 174 553 
 All other – – – – – – – – – 
Total 20,709 10,709 10,000 16,624 2,542 199 612 3,856 16,853 

- Counts are not presented when fewer than 16 cases were reported for the specific histology category. The suppressed cases are included in the counts for totals. Counts for other race, unspecified and unknown race are included in the counts for totals.

Hispanic ethnicity is not mutually exclusive of race; Classified using the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries Hispanic Identification Algorithm, version 2 (NHIA v2).

Abbreviations: CBTRUS, Central Brain Tumor Registry of the United States; NPCR, CDC's National Program of Cancer Registries; SEER, NCI's Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results program; AIAN, American Indian/Alaskan Native; API, Asian Pacific Islander.

Table 4.

Number of Childhood (Ages 0-19) Brain and Central Nervous System Tumors by Major Histology Groupings, Histology and Age at Diagnosis, CBTRUS Statistical Report: NPCR and SEER, 2005–2009

 Age at Diagnosis
 
Histology 0-4 5-9 10-14 15-19 0-19 0-14 
Tumors of Neuroepithelial Tissue 4,566 3,596 3,136 2,854 14,152 11,298 
 Pilocytic astrocytoma 886 867 849 618 3,220 2,602 
 Diffuse astrocytoma 334 217 259 272 1,082 810 
 Anaplastic astrocytoma 53 80 91 96 320 224 
 Unique astrocytoma variants 65 94 134 137 430 293 
 Glioblastoma 89 139 160 174 562 388 
 Oligodendroglioma 30 36 57 110 233 123 
 Anaplastic oligodendroglioma – – – 25 49 24 
 Oligoastrocytic tumors 28 25 32 52 137 85 
 Ependymal tumors 402 226 211 273 1,112 839 
 Glioma malignant, NOS 875 789 427 254 2,345 2,091 
 Choroid plexus tumors 265 40 38 51 394 343 
 Other neuroepithelial tumors – – – – 30 23 
 Neuronal and mixed neuronal-glial tumors 248 297 429 482 1,456 974 
 Tumors of the pineal region 53 38 32 42 165 123 
 Embryonal tumors 1,232 737 387 261 2,617 2,356 
Tumors of Cranial and Spinal Nerves 272 207 252 369 1,100 731 
 Nerve sheath tumors 272 207 252 369 1,100 731 
 Other tumors of cranial and spinal nerves – – – – – – 
Tumors of Meninges 139 98 210 410 857 447 
 Meningioma 70 60 143 275 548 273 
 Mesenchymal tumors 56 28 31 35 150 115 
 Primary melanocytic lesions – – – – 19 – 
 Other neoplasms related to the meninges – – 33 94 140 46 
Lymphomas and Hemopoietic Neoplasms  22 20 35 90 55 
 Lymphoma – – – 25 59 34 
 Other hemopoietic neoplasms – – – – 31 21 
Germ Cell Tumors and Cysts 129 133 262 299 823 524 
 Germ cell tumors, cysts and heterotopias 129 133 262 299 823 524 
Tumors of Sellar Region 174 358 608 1,520 2,660 1,140 
 Tumors of the pituitary 33 107 392 1,362 1,894 532 
 Craniopharyngioma 141 251 216 158 766 608 
Unclassified Tumors 224 175 252 376 1,027 651 
 Hemangioma 49 38 74 132 293 161 
 Neoplasm, unspecified 173 136 176 242 727 485 
 All other – – – – – – 
Total 5,517 4,589 4,740 5,863 20,709 14,846 
 Age at Diagnosis
 
Histology 0-4 5-9 10-14 15-19 0-19 0-14 
Tumors of Neuroepithelial Tissue 4,566 3,596 3,136 2,854 14,152 11,298 
 Pilocytic astrocytoma 886 867 849 618 3,220 2,602 
 Diffuse astrocytoma 334 217 259 272 1,082 810 
 Anaplastic astrocytoma 53 80 91 96 320 224 
 Unique astrocytoma variants 65 94 134 137 430 293 
 Glioblastoma 89 139 160 174 562 388 
 Oligodendroglioma 30 36 57 110 233 123 
 Anaplastic oligodendroglioma – – – 25 49 24 
 Oligoastrocytic tumors 28 25 32 52 137 85 
 Ependymal tumors 402 226 211 273 1,112 839 
 Glioma malignant, NOS 875 789 427 254 2,345 2,091 
 Choroid plexus tumors 265 40 38 51 394 343 
 Other neuroepithelial tumors – – – – 30 23 
 Neuronal and mixed neuronal-glial tumors 248 297 429 482 1,456 974 
 Tumors of the pineal region 53 38 32 42 165 123 
 Embryonal tumors 1,232 737 387 261 2,617 2,356 
Tumors of Cranial and Spinal Nerves 272 207 252 369 1,100 731 
 Nerve sheath tumors 272 207 252 369 1,100 731 
 Other tumors of cranial and spinal nerves – – – – – – 
Tumors of Meninges 139 98 210 410 857 447 
 Meningioma 70 60 143 275 548 273 
 Mesenchymal tumors 56 28 31 35 150 115 
 Primary melanocytic lesions – – – – 19 – 
 Other neoplasms related to the meninges – – 33 94 140 46 
Lymphomas and Hemopoietic Neoplasms  22 20 35 90 55 
 Lymphoma – – – 25 59 34 
 Other hemopoietic neoplasms – – – – 31 21 
Germ Cell Tumors and Cysts 129 133 262 299 823 524 
 Germ cell tumors, cysts and heterotopias 129 133 262 299 823 524 
Tumors of Sellar Region 174 358 608 1,520 2,660 1,140 
 Tumors of the pituitary 33 107 392 1,362 1,894 532 
 Craniopharyngioma 141 251 216 158 766 608 
Unclassified Tumors 224 175 252 376 1,027 651 
 Hemangioma 49 38 74 132 293 161 
 Neoplasm, unspecified 173 136 176 242 727 485 
 All other – – – – – – 
Total 5,517 4,589 4,740 5,863 20,709 14,846 

- Counts are not presented when fewer than 16 cases were reported for the specific histology category. The suppressed cases are included in the counts for totals.

Abbreviation: CBTRUS, Central Brain Tumor Registry of the United States; NPCR, CDC's National Program of Cancer Registries; SEER, NCI's Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results program.

Table 5.

Characteristics of Brain and Central Nervous System Tumors by Population-Based Cancer Registry, CBTRUS Statistical Report: NPCR and SEER, 2005–2009

State No. of Newly Diagnosed Tumors Percent Non-Malignant Tumors Histologically Confirmed Percent Radio-graphically Confirmed Percent Average Annual 2005–2009 Population 
Alabama 4,170 57.4 71.7 24.6 4,632,619 
Alaska 669 68.5 62.0 34.8 683,142 
Arizona 6,343 63.9 64.8 29.2 6,324,866 
Arkansas 2,954 63.6 58.8 35.1 2,838,145 
California 33,666 64.8 69.0 27.6 36,308,524 
Colorado 6,123 71.8 53.7 43.5 4,843,209 
Connecticut 3,499 58.1 73.1 24.0 3,494,486 
Delaware 898 59.8 71.0 25.3 863,831 
District of Columbia 485 56.9 67.0 27.4 588,433 
Florida 23,552 68.3 58.2 38.2 18,222,422 
Georgia 8,805 65.0 63.7 32.6 9,497,665 
Hawaii 1,264 73.4 60.8 36.1 1,280,241 
Idaho 1,438 58.2 68.8 26.4 1,492,565 
Illinois 13,649 66.3 60.1 37.5 12,785,049 
Indiana 6,500 62.2 58.2 39.0 6,342,471 
Iowa 3,363 60.8 63.3 34.1 2,978,881 
Kentucky 5,629 69.5 52.9 43.3 4,251,998 
Louisiana 4,271 66.7 65.1 31.2 4,383,629 
Maine 1,291 52.9 76.8 19.1 1,316,379 
Massachusetts 6,426 58.2 74.4 21.7 6,511,177 
Michigan 11,158 64.0 62.4 33.2 10,039,210 
Minnesota 4,210 56.7 96.8 0.0 5,188,579 
Mississippi 2,754 64.4 63.4 31.8 2,916,885 
Missouri 6,727 65.3 61.3 34.4 5,904,390 
Montana 1,022 62.2 69.2 26.5 956,256 
Nebraska 1,729 59.1 70.9 25.9 1,772,127 
Nevada 2,117 60.8 71.7 22.5 2,545,764 
New Hampshire 1,385 59.9 72.1 25.2 1,315,420 
New Jersey 9,001 60.9 68.4 27.1 8,650,548 
New Mexico 1,659 61.5 71.5 20.9 1,964,862 
New York 23,773 68.4 61.3 35.4 19,423,895 
North Carolina 9,568 65.2 69.9 27.0 9,045,704 
North Dakota 554 55.6 60.3 33.9 639,721 
Ohio 10,658 56.2 70.4 24.4 11,511,858 
Oklahoma 3,286 56.6 64.6 31.6 3,610,073 
Oregon 4,031 60.7 72.3 25.7 3,727,404 
Pennsylvania 15,836 65.8 61.8 32.8 12,516,594 
Rhode Island 1,149 64.6 68.9 27.9 1,057,381 
South Carolina 4,524 63.4 63.1 30.9 4,416,870 
South Dakota 714 60.8 65.7 30.7 796,511 
Tennessee 7,026 66.0 60.4 36.4 6,158,955 
Texas 25,611 68.8 56.5 37.2 23,818,417 
Utah 2,517 66.0 74.3 24.9 2,651,814 
Vermont 899 65.3 63.1 34.5 620,414 
Virginia 7,064 63.1 69.9 27.0 7,721,729 
Washington 8,530 69.9 56.7 39.8 6,465,754 
West Virginia 2,063 61.0 61.3 35.8 1,811,401 
Wisconsin 6,143 60.8 92.8 4.2 5,599,416 
Wyoming 499 62.7 72.1 27.3 523,950 
Total 311,202 64.8 64.6 31.5 293,011,631 
State No. of Newly Diagnosed Tumors Percent Non-Malignant Tumors Histologically Confirmed Percent Radio-graphically Confirmed Percent Average Annual 2005–2009 Population 
Alabama 4,170 57.4 71.7 24.6 4,632,619 
Alaska 669 68.5 62.0 34.8 683,142 
Arizona 6,343 63.9 64.8 29.2 6,324,866 
Arkansas 2,954 63.6 58.8 35.1 2,838,145 
California 33,666 64.8 69.0 27.6 36,308,524 
Colorado 6,123 71.8 53.7 43.5 4,843,209 
Connecticut 3,499 58.1 73.1 24.0 3,494,486 
Delaware 898 59.8 71.0 25.3 863,831 
District of Columbia 485 56.9 67.0 27.4 588,433 
Florida 23,552 68.3 58.2 38.2 18,222,422 
Georgia 8,805 65.0 63.7 32.6 9,497,665 
Hawaii 1,264 73.4 60.8 36.1 1,280,241 
Idaho 1,438 58.2 68.8 26.4 1,492,565 
Illinois 13,649 66.3 60.1 37.5 12,785,049 
Indiana 6,500 62.2 58.2 39.0 6,342,471 
Iowa 3,363 60.8 63.3 34.1 2,978,881 
Kentucky 5,629 69.5 52.9 43.3 4,251,998 
Louisiana 4,271 66.7 65.1 31.2 4,383,629 
Maine 1,291 52.9 76.8 19.1 1,316,379 
Massachusetts 6,426 58.2 74.4 21.7 6,511,177 
Michigan 11,158 64.0 62.4 33.2 10,039,210 
Minnesota 4,210 56.7 96.8 0.0 5,188,579 
Mississippi 2,754 64.4 63.4 31.8 2,916,885 
Missouri 6,727 65.3 61.3 34.4 5,904,390 
Montana 1,022 62.2 69.2 26.5 956,256 
Nebraska 1,729 59.1 70.9 25.9 1,772,127 
Nevada 2,117 60.8 71.7 22.5 2,545,764 
New Hampshire 1,385 59.9 72.1 25.2 1,315,420 
New Jersey 9,001 60.9 68.4 27.1 8,650,548 
New Mexico 1,659 61.5 71.5 20.9 1,964,862 
New York 23,773 68.4 61.3 35.4 19,423,895 
North Carolina 9,568 65.2 69.9 27.0 9,045,704 
North Dakota 554 55.6 60.3 33.9 639,721 
Ohio 10,658 56.2 70.4 24.4 11,511,858 
Oklahoma 3,286 56.6 64.6 31.6 3,610,073 
Oregon 4,031 60.7 72.3 25.7 3,727,404 
Pennsylvania 15,836 65.8 61.8 32.8 12,516,594 
Rhode Island 1,149 64.6 68.9 27.9 1,057,381 
South Carolina 4,524 63.4 63.1 30.9 4,416,870 
South Dakota 714 60.8 65.7 30.7 796,511 
Tennessee 7,026 66.0 60.4 36.4 6,158,955 
Texas 25,611 68.8 56.5 37.2 23,818,417 
Utah 2,517 66.0 74.3 24.9 2,651,814 
Vermont 899 65.3 63.1 34.5 620,414 
Virginia 7,064 63.1 69.9 27.0 7,721,729 
Washington 8,530 69.9 56.7 39.8 6,465,754 
West Virginia 2,063 61.0 61.3 35.8 1,811,401 
Wisconsin 6,143 60.8 92.8 4.2 5,599,416 
Wyoming 499 62.7 72.1 27.3 523,950 
Total 311,202 64.8 64.6 31.5 293,011,631 

Population estimates were obtained from the United States Bureau of the Census available on the SEER program website.

Abbreviations: CBTRUS, Central Brain Tumor Registry of the United States; CNS, central nervous system; NPCR, CDC's National Program of Cancer Registries; SEER, NCI's Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results program.

Overall Incidence Rates

The overall average annual age-adjusted incidence rate for 2005–2009 for primary brain and CNS tumors was 20.59 per 100,000. The overall incidence rate was 5.13 per 100,000 for children 0–19 years of age (4.97 per 100,000 for children less than 15 years), and 26.81 per 100,000 for adults (20+ years). The overall incidence rates of tumors by behavior and age group (0–19 years and 20+ years) are shown in Figure 1.

Fig. 1.

Average Annual Age-Adjusted Incidence Rates of Primary Brain and CNS Tumors by Age and Behavior.

Fig. 1.

Average Annual Age-Adjusted Incidence Rates of Primary Brain and CNS Tumors by Age and Behavior.

Overall Incidence Rates by Year

Figure 2 presents annual age-adjusted incidence rates of all primary brain and CNS tumors by behavior from 2005 through 2009. The incidence rates of all primary brain and CNS tumors during diagnostic years 2005–2009 did not differ statistically significantly from each other.

Fig. 2.

Annual Age-Adjusted Incidence Rates of Primary Brain and CNS Tumors by Year and Behavior.

Fig. 2.

Annual Age-Adjusted Incidence Rates of Primary Brain and CNS Tumors by Year and Behavior.

Incidence Rates by Central Cancer Registry, Age, and Behavior

The overall average annual age-adjusted incidence rates by central cancer registry, age group, and behavior are presented in Table 6. The overall average annual age-adjusted incidence rates of all primary brain and CNS tumors (malignant and non–malignant) for each individual central cancer registry ranged from 15.78 to 26.39 per 100,000. In addition, the average annual age-adjusted incidence rates of all primary malignant brain and CNS tumors ranged from 4.95 to 8.97 per 100,000, and the average annual age-adjusted incidence rates of all primary non–malignant brain and CNS tumors ranged from 8.90 to 19.02 per 100,000. Among adults 20 years of age and older, the central cancer registry–specific incidence rates ranged from 5.80 to 11.70 per 100,000 for malignant tumors and from 11.94 to 25.94 per 100,000 for non-malignant tumors. For several central cancer registries, the numbers of non-malignant tumors in those less than 20 years of age were too small to report; the highest reported incidence rate was 4.09 per 100,000 for malignant tumors and 3.61 per 100,000 for non-malignant tumors among the age group.

Table 6.

Brain and Central Nervous System Tumor Average Annual Age-Adjusted Incidence Rates by Age, Behavior, and Central Cancer Registry, CBTRUS Statistical Report: NPCR and SEER, 2005–2009

 0-19 Years
 
20+ Years
 
All Ages
 
  
State Malignant
 
Non-Malignant
 
Malignant
 
Non-Malignant
 
Malignant
 
Non-Malignant
 
All Tumors
 
 Rate 95% CI Rate 95% CI Rate 95% CI Rate 95% CI Rate 95% CI Rate 95% CI Rate 95% CI 
Alabama 2.99 (2.57-3.45) 0.99 (0.76–1.26) 8.95 (8.51–9.40) 13.24 (12.70–13.79) 7.24 (6.90–7.58) 9.72 (9.34–10.13) 16.96 (16.45–17.49) 
Alaska 2.77 (1.84–4.00) 3.61 (2.56–4.96) 8.98 (7.63–10.50) 19.96 (17.97–22.12) 7.20 (6.19–8.32) 15.27 (13.82–16.84) 22.47 (20.69–24.37) 
Arizona 3.23 (2.87–3.62) 1.59 (1.34–1.87) 8.67 (8.29–9.06) 17.10 (16.57–17.65) 7.11 (6.82–7.41) 12.65 (12.26–13.05) 19.76 (19.28–20.26) 
Arkansas 3.42 (2.87–4.06) 3.51 (2.95–4.14) 8.63 (8.08–9.20) 16.18 (15.42–16.97) 7.13 (6.71–7.58) 12.55 (11.98–13.13) 19.68 (18.97–20.41) 
California 2.95 (2.80–3.10) 1.74 (1.63–1.86) 8.29 (8.13–8.46) 16.79 (16.56–17.02) 6.76 (6.64–6.88) 12.47 (12.30–12.64) 19.23 (19.02–19.44) 
Colorado 2.78 (2.40–3.21) 1.83 (1.51–2.18) 9.21 (8.75–9.69) 25.94 (25.15–26.74) 7.37 (7.02–7.73) 19.02 (18.45–19.60) 26.39 (25.72–27.07) 
Connecticut 3.33 (2.82–3.90) 1.54 (1.21–1.94) 9.68 (9.16–10.23) 14.41 (13.77–15.07) 7.86 (7.46–8.28) 10.72 (10.25–11.20) 18.58 (17.96–19.21) 
Delaware 3.25 (2.29–4.48) 2.09 (1.34–3.11) 9.72 (8.68–10.85) 15.28 (13.98–16.68) 7.86 (7.07–8.73) 11.50 (10.54–12.52) 19.36 (18.10–20.68) 
District of Columbia 2.73 (1.61–4.32) – – 8.82 (7.60–10.18) 12.01 (10.58–13.57) 7.08 (6.13–8.12) 9.18 (8.11–10.34) 16.25 (14.82–17.79) 
Florida 3.40 (3.16–3.65) 1.94 (1.76–2.13) 8.77 (8.56–8.99) 20.29 (19.97–20.62) 7.23 (7.06–7.40) 15.03 (14.79–15.27) 22.26 (21.97–22.55) 
Georgia 3.04 (2.75–3.34) 1.59 (1.39–1.81) 8.44 (8.12–8.77) 17.41 (16.95–17.89) 6.89 (6.64–7.14) 12.87 (12.54–13.22) 19.76 (19.34–20.18) 
Hawaii 2.85 (2.08–3.80) 1.48 (0.95–2.20) 5.80 (5.14–6.52) 18.27 (17.08–19.51) 4.95 (4.43–5.52) 13.45 (12.59–14.36) 18.40 (17.39–19.46) 
Idaho 2.86 (2.21–3.64) 1.42 (0.97–2.01) 10.26 (9.40–11.18) 15.56 (14.49–16.68) 8.14 (7.49–8.82) 11.50 (10.73–12.32) 19.64 (18.63–20.69) 
Illinois 2.98 (2.73–3.24) 1.83 (1.64–2.04) 8.80 (8.53–9.08) 18.87 (18.47–19.27) 7.13 (6.93–7.34) 13.98 (13.69–14.27) 21.11 (20.76–21.47) 
Indiana 3.58 (3.19–3.99) 1.85 (1.57–2.15) 9.09 (8.70–9.48) 16.62 (16.10–17.15) 7.51 (7.21–7.81) 12.38 (12.00–12.77) 19.89 (19.40–20.38) 
Iowa 3.30 (2.76–3.91) 1.57 (1.21–2.00) 10.11 (9.53–10.71) 16.90 (16.15–17.67) 8.16 (7.72–8.62) 12.50 (11.95–13.06) 20.66 (19.95–21.38) 
Kentucky 3.43 (2.96–3.95) 2.33 (1.95–2.77) 9.46 (8.99–9.96) 23.68 (22.93–24.46) 7.73 (7.37–8.11) 17.56 (17.01–18.12) 25.29 (24.63–25.97) 
Louisiana 2.97 (2.56–3.44) 1.68 (1.37–2.03) 7.78 (7.35–8.23) 17.32 (16.67–17.98) 6.40 (6.07–6.75) 12.83 (12.36–13.32) 19.23 (18.65–19.82) 
Maine 3.80 (2.89–4.91) 1.39 (0.87–2.12) 9.85 (9.03–10.73) 12.31 (11.37–13.31) 8.11 (7.47–8.80) 9.18 (8.49–9.91) 17.29 (16.34–18.28) 
Massachusetts 3.42 (3.03–3.85) 1.61 (1.35–1.90) 9.51 (9.13–9.91) 14.18 (13.72–14.66) 7.77 (7.47–8.07) 10.57 (10.24–10.92) 18.34 (17.89–18.80) 
Michigan 3.48 (3.17–3.81) 1.90 (1.68–2.15) 9.34 (9.03–9.66) 18.17 (17.74–18.61) 7.66 (7.42–7.90) 13.50 (13.19–13.82) 21.16 (20.76–21.56) 
Minnesota 2.98 (2.59–3.42) 1.34 (1.09–1.64) 8.45 (8.03–8.87) 11.94 (11.45–12.44) 6.88 (6.56–7.21) 8.90 (8.54–9.27) 15.78 (15.30–16.27) 
Mississippi 2.80 (2.32–3.35) 1.58 (1.23–2.00) 8.16 (7.62–8.73) 16.28 (15.51–17.08) 6.62 (6.21–7.05) 12.06 (11.51–12.64) 18.68 (17.99–19.40) 
Missouri 3.20 (2.82–3.62) 1.50 (1.25–1.80) 9.19 (8.80–9.60) 19.05 (18.48–19.64) 7.47 (7.17–7.78) 14.02 (13.60–14.44) 21.49 (20.97–22.01) 
Montana 2.36 (1.58–3.40) 1.74 (1.10–2.62) 9.28 (8.32–10.32) 16.44 (15.13–17.83) 7.30 (6.57–8.08) 12.22 (11.27–13.23) 19.52 (18.31–20.78) 
Nebraska 3.58 (2.88–4.39) 2.58 (1.99–3.29) 9.49 (8.75–10.28) 14.58 (13.66–15.55) 7.80 (7.23–8.40) 11.14 (10.46–11.85) 18.94 (18.05–19.86) 
Nevada 2.40 (1.91–2.96) 0.63 (0.39–0.95) 8.17 (7.58–8.78) 14.27 (13.49–15.10) 6.51 (6.07–6.98) 10.36 (9.79–10.95) 16.87 (16.15–17.61) 
New Hampshire 3.71 (2.84–4.77) 2.26 (1.61–3.08) 9.70 (8.85–10.61) 15.30 (14.24–16.42) 7.98 (7.32–8.68) 11.56 (10.78–12.39) 19.54 (18.51–20.61) 
New Jersey 3.63 (3.29–4.00) 1.88 (1.63–2.15) 9.40 (9.07–9.74) 15.85 (15.42–16.29) 7.75 (7.49–8.01) 11.84 (11.53–12.16) 19.59 (19.18–20.00) 
New Mexico 2.17 (1.66–2.78) 1.70 (1.25–2.26) 7.99 (7.34–8.68) 13.57 (12.72–14.46) 6.32 (5.83–6.83) 10.17 (9.55–10.81) 16.48 (15.69–17.30) 
New York 3.57 (3.34–3.81) 2.37 (2.19–2.57) 8.93 (8.71–9.15) 21.07 (20.74–21.41) 7.39 (7.23–7.56) 15.71 (15.46–15.95) 23.10 (22.80–23.40) 
North Carolina 3.20 (2.89–3.53) 1.91 (1.68–2.17) 8.78 (8.46–9.10) 18.03 (17.57–18.50) 7.18 (6.93–7.42) 13.41 (13.07–13.75) 20.58 (20.17–21.00) 
North Dakota 2.96 (1.89–4.40) – – 8.90 (7.74–10.18) 12.05 (10.69–13.54) 7.19 (6.30–8.18) 8.95 (7.95–10.03) 16.14 (14.79–17.58) 
Ohio 3.41 (3.12–3.72) 2.01 (1.79–2.24) 9.32 (9.03–9.61) 12.84 (12.51–13.18) 7.62 (7.40–7.85) 9.73 (9.49–9.99) 17.36 (17.03–17.69) 
Oklahoma 2.92 (2.47–3.44) 1.42 (1.11–1.79) 9.44 (8.92–9.98) 13.32 (12.70–13.95) 7.57 (7.18–7.98) 9.90 (9.45–10.37) 17.47 (16.87–18.09) 
Oregon 3.77 (3.24–4.36) 2.39 (1.98–2.87) 9.75 (9.24–10.28) 16.15 (15.49–16.83) 8.03 (7.64–8.44) 12.20 (11.72–12.71) 20.24 (19.61–20.88) 
Pennsylvania 3.52 (3.23–3.83) 1.98 (1.77–2.21) 9.46 (9.19–9.73) 19.73 (19.34–20.12) 7.76 (7.55–7.97) 14.63 (14.35–14.92) 22.39 (22.04–22.75) 
Rhode Island 3.11 (2.23–4.23) 1.87 (1.22–2.75) 8.73 (7.85–9.69) 17.23 (15.98–18.56) 7.12 (6.44–7.86) 12.83 (11.91–13.80) 19.95 (18.80–21.15) 
South Carolina 3.11 (2.67–3.59) 1.63 (1.32–1.98) 8.71 (8.27–9.17) 16.71 (16.08–17.35) 7.10 (6.76–7.46) 12.38 (11.93–12.85) 19.48 (18.91–20.07) 
South Dakota 2.60 (1.74–3.74) – – 8.28 (7.27–9.39) 13.89 (12.58–15.30) 6.65 (5.88–7.49) 10.22 (9.26–11.24) 16.87 (15.64–18.17) 
Tennessee 3.52 (3.13–3.95) 2.24 (1.93–2.59) 8.95 (8.57–9.34) 19.18 (18.62–19.76) 7.39 (7.10–7.70) 14.32 (13.91–14.74) 21.71 (21.20–22.23) 
Texas 3.41 (3.22–3.60) 2.28 (2.13–2.44) 8.66 (8.46–8.87) 21.80 (21.47–22.14) 7.16 (7.00–7.32) 16.20 (15.96–16.45) 23.36 (23.07–23.65) 
Utah 4.09 (3.53–4.72) 1.76 (1.39–2.19) 8.45 (7.81–9.13) 20.48 (19.47–21.53) 7.20 (6.71–7.71) 15.11 (14.38–15.86) 22.31 (21.43–23.21) 
Vermont 2.20 (1.29–3.51) 2.54 (1.56–3.92) 11.70 (10.38–13.14) 22.99 (21.10–25.01) 8.97 (7.99–10.05) 17.13 (15.74–18.60) 26.10 (24.39–27.90) 
Virginia 2.97 (2.65–3.33) 1.19 (0.99–1.42) 8.13 (7.80–8.48) 15.41 (14.95–15.88) 6.65 (6.40–6.92) 11.33 (10.99–11.67) 17.98 (17.56–18.41) 
Washington 3.65 (3.26–4.08) 2.76 (2.42–3.14) 9.44 (9.05–9.85) 24.18 (23.55–24.82) 7.78 (7.48–8.09) 18.04 (17.58–18.51) 25.82 (25.27–26.38) 
West Virginia 3.06 (2.36–3.89) 1.45 (0.99–2.05) 9.67 (8.98–10.41) 16.18 (15.27–17.13) 7.78 (7.24–8.35) 11.95 (11.29–12.65) 19.73 (18.87–20.62) 
Wisconsin 3.67 (3.24–4.13) 1.64 (1.36–1.95) 10.02 (9.60–10.46) 16.99 (16.43–17.56) 8.20 (7.87–8.54) 12.59 (12.18–13.00) 20.78 (20.26–21.32) 
Wyoming 2.39 (1.39–3.82) – – 8.79 (7.49–10.25) 15.23 (13.52–17.09) 6.95 (5.97–8.05) 11.37 (10.12–12.72) 18.32 (16.72–20.03) 
 0-19 Years
 
20+ Years
 
All Ages
 
  
State Malignant
 
Non-Malignant
 
Malignant
 
Non-Malignant
 
Malignant
 
Non-Malignant
 
All Tumors
 
 Rate 95% CI Rate 95% CI Rate 95% CI Rate 95% CI Rate 95% CI Rate 95% CI Rate 95% CI 
Alabama 2.99 (2.57-3.45) 0.99 (0.76–1.26) 8.95 (8.51–9.40) 13.24 (12.70–13.79) 7.24 (6.90–7.58) 9.72 (9.34–10.13) 16.96 (16.45–17.49) 
Alaska 2.77 (1.84–4.00) 3.61 (2.56–4.96) 8.98 (7.63–10.50) 19.96 (17.97–22.12) 7.20 (6.19–8.32) 15.27 (13.82–16.84) 22.47 (20.69–24.37) 
Arizona 3.23 (2.87–3.62) 1.59 (1.34–1.87) 8.67 (8.29–9.06) 17.10 (16.57–17.65) 7.11 (6.82–7.41) 12.65 (12.26–13.05) 19.76 (19.28–20.26) 
Arkansas 3.42 (2.87–4.06) 3.51 (2.95–4.14) 8.63 (8.08–9.20) 16.18 (15.42–16.97) 7.13 (6.71–7.58) 12.55 (11.98–13.13) 19.68 (18.97–20.41) 
California 2.95 (2.80–3.10) 1.74 (1.63–1.86) 8.29 (8.13–8.46) 16.79 (16.56–17.02) 6.76 (6.64–6.88) 12.47 (12.30–12.64) 19.23 (19.02–19.44) 
Colorado 2.78 (2.40–3.21) 1.83 (1.51–2.18) 9.21 (8.75–9.69) 25.94 (25.15–26.74) 7.37 (7.02–7.73) 19.02 (18.45–19.60) 26.39 (25.72–27.07) 
Connecticut 3.33 (2.82–3.90) 1.54 (1.21–1.94) 9.68 (9.16–10.23) 14.41 (13.77–15.07) 7.86 (7.46–8.28) 10.72 (10.25–11.20) 18.58 (17.96–19.21) 
Delaware 3.25 (2.29–4.48) 2.09 (1.34–3.11) 9.72 (8.68–10.85) 15.28 (13.98–16.68) 7.86 (7.07–8.73) 11.50 (10.54–12.52) 19.36 (18.10–20.68) 
District of Columbia 2.73 (1.61–4.32) – – 8.82 (7.60–10.18) 12.01 (10.58–13.57) 7.08 (6.13–8.12) 9.18 (8.11–10.34) 16.25 (14.82–17.79) 
Florida 3.40 (3.16–3.65) 1.94 (1.76–2.13) 8.77 (8.56–8.99) 20.29 (19.97–20.62) 7.23 (7.06–7.40) 15.03 (14.79–15.27) 22.26 (21.97–22.55) 
Georgia 3.04 (2.75–3.34) 1.59 (1.39–1.81) 8.44 (8.12–8.77) 17.41 (16.95–17.89) 6.89 (6.64–7.14) 12.87 (12.54–13.22) 19.76 (19.34–20.18) 
Hawaii 2.85 (2.08–3.80) 1.48 (0.95–2.20) 5.80 (5.14–6.52) 18.27 (17.08–19.51) 4.95 (4.43–5.52) 13.45 (12.59–14.36) 18.40 (17.39–19.46) 
Idaho 2.86 (2.21–3.64) 1.42 (0.97–2.01) 10.26 (9.40–11.18) 15.56 (14.49–16.68) 8.14 (7.49–8.82) 11.50 (10.73–12.32) 19.64 (18.63–20.69) 
Illinois 2.98 (2.73–3.24) 1.83 (1.64–2.04) 8.80 (8.53–9.08) 18.87 (18.47–19.27) 7.13 (6.93–7.34) 13.98 (13.69–14.27) 21.11 (20.76–21.47) 
Indiana 3.58 (3.19–3.99) 1.85 (1.57–2.15) 9.09 (8.70–9.48) 16.62 (16.10–17.15) 7.51 (7.21–7.81) 12.38 (12.00–12.77) 19.89 (19.40–20.38) 
Iowa 3.30 (2.76–3.91) 1.57 (1.21–2.00) 10.11 (9.53–10.71) 16.90 (16.15–17.67) 8.16 (7.72–8.62) 12.50 (11.95–13.06) 20.66 (19.95–21.38) 
Kentucky 3.43 (2.96–3.95) 2.33 (1.95–2.77) 9.46 (8.99–9.96) 23.68 (22.93–24.46) 7.73 (7.37–8.11) 17.56 (17.01–18.12) 25.29 (24.63–25.97) 
Louisiana 2.97 (2.56–3.44) 1.68 (1.37–2.03) 7.78 (7.35–8.23) 17.32 (16.67–17.98) 6.40 (6.07–6.75) 12.83 (12.36–13.32) 19.23 (18.65–19.82) 
Maine 3.80 (2.89–4.91) 1.39 (0.87–2.12) 9.85 (9.03–10.73) 12.31 (11.37–13.31) 8.11 (7.47–8.80) 9.18 (8.49–9.91) 17.29 (16.34–18.28) 
Massachusetts 3.42 (3.03–3.85) 1.61 (1.35–1.90) 9.51 (9.13–9.91) 14.18 (13.72–14.66) 7.77 (7.47–8.07) 10.57 (10.24–10.92) 18.34 (17.89–18.80) 
Michigan 3.48 (3.17–3.81) 1.90 (1.68–2.15) 9.34 (9.03–9.66) 18.17 (17.74–18.61) 7.66 (7.42–7.90) 13.50 (13.19–13.82) 21.16 (20.76–21.56) 
Minnesota 2.98 (2.59–3.42) 1.34 (1.09–1.64) 8.45 (8.03–8.87) 11.94 (11.45–12.44) 6.88 (6.56–7.21) 8.90 (8.54–9.27) 15.78 (15.30–16.27) 
Mississippi 2.80 (2.32–3.35) 1.58 (1.23–2.00) 8.16 (7.62–8.73) 16.28 (15.51–17.08) 6.62 (6.21–7.05) 12.06 (11.51–12.64) 18.68 (17.99–19.40) 
Missouri 3.20 (2.82–3.62) 1.50 (1.25–1.80) 9.19 (8.80–9.60) 19.05 (18.48–19.64) 7.47 (7.17–7.78) 14.02 (13.60–14.44) 21.49 (20.97–22.01) 
Montana 2.36 (1.58–3.40) 1.74 (1.10–2.62) 9.28 (8.32–10.32) 16.44 (15.13–17.83) 7.30 (6.57–8.08) 12.22 (11.27–13.23) 19.52 (18.31–20.78) 
Nebraska 3.58 (2.88–4.39) 2.58 (1.99–3.29) 9.49 (8.75–10.28) 14.58 (13.66–15.55) 7.80 (7.23–8.40) 11.14 (10.46–11.85) 18.94 (18.05–19.86) 
Nevada 2.40 (1.91–2.96) 0.63 (0.39–0.95) 8.17 (7.58–8.78) 14.27 (13.49–15.10) 6.51 (6.07–6.98) 10.36 (9.79–10.95) 16.87 (16.15–17.61) 
New Hampshire 3.71 (2.84–4.77) 2.26 (1.61–3.08) 9.70 (8.85–10.61) 15.30 (14.24–16.42) 7.98 (7.32–8.68) 11.56 (10.78–12.39) 19.54 (18.51–20.61) 
New Jersey 3.63 (3.29–4.00) 1.88 (1.63–2.15) 9.40 (9.07–9.74) 15.85 (15.42–16.29) 7.75 (7.49–8.01) 11.84 (11.53–12.16) 19.59 (19.18–20.00) 
New Mexico 2.17 (1.66–2.78) 1.70 (1.25–2.26) 7.99 (7.34–8.68) 13.57 (12.72–14.46) 6.32 (5.83–6.83) 10.17 (9.55–10.81) 16.48 (15.69–17.30) 
New York 3.57 (3.34–3.81) 2.37 (2.19–2.57) 8.93 (8.71–9.15) 21.07 (20.74–21.41) 7.39 (7.23–7.56) 15.71 (15.46–15.95) 23.10 (22.80–23.40) 
North Carolina 3.20 (2.89–3.53) 1.91 (1.68–2.17) 8.78 (8.46–9.10) 18.03 (17.57–18.50) 7.18 (6.93–7.42) 13.41 (13.07–13.75) 20.58 (20.17–21.00) 
North Dakota 2.96 (1.89–4.40) – – 8.90 (7.74–10.18) 12.05 (10.69–13.54) 7.19 (6.30–8.18) 8.95 (7.95–10.03) 16.14 (14.79–17.58) 
Ohio 3.41 (3.12–3.72) 2.01 (1.79–2.24) 9.32 (9.03–9.61) 12.84 (12.51–13.18) 7.62 (7.40–7.85) 9.73 (9.49–9.99) 17.36 (17.03–17.69) 
Oklahoma 2.92 (2.47–3.44) 1.42 (1.11–1.79) 9.44 (8.92–9.98) 13.32 (12.70–13.95) 7.57 (7.18–7.98) 9.90 (9.45–10.37) 17.47 (16.87–18.09) 
Oregon 3.77 (3.24–4.36) 2.39 (1.98–2.87) 9.75 (9.24–10.28) 16.15 (15.49–16.83) 8.03 (7.64–8.44) 12.20 (11.72–12.71) 20.24 (19.61–20.88) 
Pennsylvania 3.52 (3.23–3.83) 1.98 (1.77–2.21) 9.46 (9.19–9.73) 19.73 (19.34–20.12) 7.76 (7.55–7.97) 14.63 (14.35–14.92) 22.39 (22.04–22.75) 
Rhode Island 3.11 (2.23–4.23) 1.87 (1.22–2.75) 8.73 (7.85–9.69) 17.23 (15.98–18.56) 7.12 (6.44–7.86) 12.83 (11.91–13.80) 19.95 (18.80–21.15) 
South Carolina 3.11 (2.67–3.59) 1.63 (1.32–1.98) 8.71 (8.27–9.17) 16.71 (16.08–17.35) 7.10 (6.76–7.46) 12.38 (11.93–12.85) 19.48 (18.91–20.07) 
South Dakota 2.60 (1.74–3.74) – – 8.28 (7.27–9.39) 13.89 (12.58–15.30) 6.65 (5.88–7.49) 10.22 (9.26–11.24) 16.87 (15.64–18.17) 
Tennessee 3.52 (3.13–3.95) 2.24 (1.93–2.59) 8.95 (8.57–9.34) 19.18 (18.62–19.76) 7.39 (7.10–7.70) 14.32 (13.91–14.74) 21.71 (21.20–22.23) 
Texas 3.41 (3.22–3.60) 2.28 (2.13–2.44) 8.66 (8.46–8.87) 21.80 (21.47–22.14) 7.16 (7.00–7.32) 16.20 (15.96–16.45) 23.36 (23.07–23.65) 
Utah 4.09 (3.53–4.72) 1.76 (1.39–2.19) 8.45 (7.81–9.13) 20.48 (19.47–21.53) 7.20 (6.71–7.71) 15.11 (14.38–15.86) 22.31 (21.43–23.21) 
Vermont 2.20 (1.29–3.51) 2.54 (1.56–3.92) 11.70 (10.38–13.14) 22.99 (21.10–25.01) 8.97 (7.99–10.05) 17.13 (15.74–18.60) 26.10 (24.39–27.90) 
Virginia 2.97 (2.65–3.33) 1.19 (0.99–1.42) 8.13 (7.80–8.48) 15.41 (14.95–15.88) 6.65 (6.40–6.92) 11.33 (10.99–11.67) 17.98 (17.56–18.41) 
Washington 3.65 (3.26–4.08) 2.76 (2.42–3.14) 9.44 (9.05–9.85) 24.18 (23.55–24.82) 7.78 (7.48–8.09) 18.04 (17.58–18.51) 25.82 (25.27–26.38) 
West Virginia 3.06 (2.36–3.89) 1.45 (0.99–2.05) 9.67 (8.98–10.41) 16.18 (15.27–17.13) 7.78 (7.24–8.35) 11.95 (11.29–12.65) 19.73 (18.87–20.62) 
Wisconsin 3.67 (3.24–4.13) 1.64 (1.36–1.95) 10.02 (9.60–10.46) 16.99 (16.43–17.56) 8.20 (7.87–8.54) 12.59 (12.18–13.00) 20.78 (20.26–21.32) 
Wyoming 2.39 (1.39–3.82) – – 8.79 (7.49–10.25) 15.23 (13.52–17.09) 6.95 (5.97–8.05) 11.37 (10.12–12.72) 18.32 (16.72–20.03) 

Rates are per 100,000 and are age–adjusted to the 2000 United States standard population.

Abbreviations: CBTRUS, Central Brain Tumor Registry of the United States; NPCR, CDC's National Program of Cancer Registries; SEER, NCI's Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results program; CI, confidence interval; NOS, not otherwise specified.

It is apparent that there is less variation by state in malignant tumor incidence rates as compared to incidence rates for tumors of non-malignant behavior, suggesting greater consistency in reporting of the malignant tumors. The central cancer registry and regional variations apparent in Table 6, especially in reported incidence rates for the non–malignant tumors, likely reflects differences in reporting practices including case ascertainment. Improvements in standardization of brain and CNS tumor collection and reporting with time will allow observation of the true variation in the incidence of brain and CNS tumors among states. Many non–malignant brain and CNS tumors are not histologically confirmed, ie the percent of diagnostically confirmed non-malignant tumors is lower than the percent of diagnostically confirmed malignant tumors. A statistically significant negative correlation exists between the proportion of tumors with non–malignant behavior and the proportion of tumors diagnostically confirmed by central cancer registry for the data presented in Table 5. Conversely, a statistically significant positive correlation is evident for the proportion of non-malignant tumors with the proportion of radiographic diagnostic confirmations.

Primary Brain and CNS Tumors: Incidence by Site, Histology, Age, Gender, Race, and Hispanic Ethnicity

Distribution of Tumors by Site and Histology

The distribution of brain and CNS tumors by site is shown in Figure 3. The most common tumor site is the meninges (35%). Twenty-one percent of tumors are located within the frontal, temporal, parietal, and occipital lobes of the brain. Cerebrum, ventricle, cerebellum, and brain stem tumors account for 7.5% of all tumors. The cranial nerves and the spinal cord/cauda equina account for 10% of all tumors. Together, the pituitary and pineal glands account for about 16% of tumors. Olfactory tumors of the nasal cavity account for less than 1% of tumors.

Fig. 3.

Distribution of Primary Brain and CNS Tumors by Site (N = 311,202).

Fig. 3.

Distribution of Primary Brain and CNS Tumors by Site (N = 311,202).

The distribution by brain and CNS histology is shown in Figure 4. The most frequently reported histology is the predominately non–malignant meningioma, which accounts for more than one-third of all tumors, followed by glioblastoma, a malignant brain tumor. Tumors of the pituitary and nerve sheath tumors combined account for about one-fourth of all tumors, the majority of which are non-malignant. Acoustic neuromas (defined by ICD-O-3 site code C72.4 and histology code 9560) account for 65% of all nerve sheath tumors (data not shown).

Fig. 4.

Distribution of Primary Brain and CNS Tumors by Histology (N = 311,202).

Fig. 4.

Distribution of Primary Brain and CNS Tumors by Histology (N = 311,202).

The broad category glioma represents approximately 30% of all tumors (Figure 4). The distribution of tumors by site for glioma is shown in Figure 5. About 60% of gliomas occur in the four lobes of the brain.

Fig. 5.

Distribution of Primary Brain and CNS Gliomas by Site (N = 90,828).

Fig. 5.

Distribution of Primary Brain and CNS Gliomas by Site (N = 90,828).

The distribution by specific histology for glioma is illustrated in Figure 6. Glioblastoma accounts for the majority of gliomas, while astrocytoma and glioblastoma combined account for about three–fourths of gliomas.

Fig. 6.

Distribution of Primary Brain and CNS Gliomas by Histology Subtypes (N = 90,828).

Fig. 6.

Distribution of Primary Brain and CNS Gliomas by Histology Subtypes (N = 90,828).

Incidence of Spinal Cord Tumors

Spinal Cord Tumors are a special group of CNS tumors located in the spinal cord, spinal meninges, and cauda equina. Although these tumors account for a relatively small percentage of all brain and CNS tumors, they result in significant morbidity and are highlighted in this report. The most prevalent histologies found in the spinal cord, spinal meninges, and cauda equina are presented in Figure 7 for both children (0-19 years) and adults (20+ years). For the age group 0-19 years, the predominant histology is ependymal tumors followed by other neuroepithelial tumors, whereas tumors of the meninges account for the largest proportion of histologies among those ages 20 years and older.

Fig. 7.

Distribution of Spinal Cord, Spinal Meninges and Cauda Equina Tumors by Age Group and Histology.

Fig. 7.

Distribution of Spinal Cord, Spinal Meninges and Cauda Equina Tumors by Age Group and Histology.

Distribution of Tumors by Site and Histology in Young Adults (Ages 20-34 Years)

Almost 9% of all brain and CNS tumors occurred in young adults, ages 20-34 years and the distribution of these tumors by site is shown in Figure 8. Approximately 22% of tumors diagnosed in young adults are located within the frontal, temporal, parietal and occipital lobes of the brain. Cerebrum, ventricle, cerebellum and brain stem tumors combined account for about 12% of all young adult tumors. Tumors of the meninges represent 14%, while the cranial nerves and the spinal cord and cauda equina combined account for about 12%. Tumors located in the pituitary and pineal glands together account for about 32% of young adult tumors. The distribution by histology for young adults is also shown in Figure 8. Over half of reported histologies for tumors diagnosed in those 20-34 years of age are the predominately non–malignant tumors of the pituitary (29%), meningioma (14%), and nerve sheath (9%). The broad category glioma accounts for 31% of all brain and CNS tumors and about 81% of malignant tumors in young adults.

Fig. 8.

Distribution of Primary Brain and CNS Tumors by Site and Histology in Young Adults (Ages 20-34 years) (N = 26,616)

Fig. 8.

Distribution of Primary Brain and CNS Tumors by Site and Histology in Young Adults (Ages 20-34 years) (N = 26,616)

Incidence Rates by Site and Gender

Incidence counts and average annual age-adjusted rates for brain and CNS tumors by site and gender are provided in Table 7. Incidence rates were highest for tumors located in the meninges (7.18 per 100,000), followed by tumors located in the four lobes of the brain, pituitary, other areas of the brain, cranial nerves, spinal cord/cauda equina, cerebellum, cerebrum, brain stem, ventricle, other nervous system and pineal gland. Incidence rates were lowest for olfactory tumors of the nasal cavity (0.04 per 100,000). By gender, incidence rates were statistically significantly higher in females than in males for tumors located in the meninges, pituitary, and cranial nerves. Males had statistically significantly higher incidence rates of tumors located in the four lobes of the brain, cerebrum, ventricle, cerebellum, brain stem, other brain, spinal cord and cauda equina, other nervous system, pineal and olfactory tumors of the nasal cavity compared to females.

Table 7.

Brain and Central Nervous System Tumor Average Annual Age-Adjusted Incidence Rates by Site and Gender, CBTRUS Statistical Report: NPCR and SEER, 2005–2009

ICD-O-3 Code Site Total
 
Male
 
Female
 
  Adjusted Rate 95% CI Adjusted Rate 95% CI Adjusted Rate 95% CI 
C71.1-C71.4 Frontal, temporal, parietal, & occipital lobes of the brain 65,532 4.33 (4.29–4.36) 36,171 5.13 (5.08–5.18) 29,361 3.65 (3.60–3.69) 
C71.0 Cerebrum 6,007 0.40 (0.39–0.41) 3,148 0.45 (0.43–0.46) 2,859 0.37 (0.35–0.38) 
C71.5 Ventricle 3,639 0.25 (0.24–0.26) 1,993 0.28 (0.26–0.29) 1,646 0.22 (0.21–0.24) 
C71.6 Cerebellum 8,601 0.59 (0.58–0.60) 4,655 0.65 (0.63–0.67) 3,946 0.53 (0.52–0.55) 
C71.7 Brain stem 4,924 0.34 (0.33–0.35) 2,606 0.36 (0.35–0.38) 2,318 0.32 (0.31–0.33) 
C71.8–C71.9 Other brain 30,334 2.00 (1.98–2.03) 15,763 2.28 (2.25–2.32) 14,571 1.77 (1.74–1.80) 
C72.0–C72.1 Spinal cord and cauda equina 9,538 0.64 (0.63–0.65) 4,867 0.67 (0.65–0.69) 4,671 0.61 (0.59–0.62) 
C72.2–C72.5 Cranial nerves 21,489 1.41 (1.39–1.43) 10,055 1.38 (1.35–1.41) 11,434 1.44 (1.42–1.47) 
C72.8–C72.9 Other nervous system 1,902 0.13 (0.12–0.13) 1,013 0.14 (0.13–0.15) 889 0.11 (0.11–0.12) 
C70.0–C70.9 Meninges (cerebral & spinal) 109,660 7.18 (7.14–7.22) 28,856 4.27 (4.22–4.32) 80,804 9.68 (9.61–9.75) 
C75.1–C75.2 Pituitary 47,614 3.19 (3.16–3.22) 21,473 3.02 (2.98–3.06) 26,141 3.45 (3.40–3.49) 
C75.3 Pineal 1,391 0.10 (0.09–0.10) 831 0.11 (0.11–0.12) 560 0.08 (0.07–0.08) 
C30.0 (9522–9523) Olfactory tumors of the nasal cavity 571 0.04 (0.03–0.04) 339 0.05 (0.04–0.05) 232 0.03 (0.03–0.03) 
Total  311,202 20.59 (20.52–20.66) 131,770 18.80 (18.69–18.90) 179,432 22.25 (22.15–22.35) 
ICD-O-3 Code Site Total
 
Male
 
Female
 
  Adjusted Rate 95% CI Adjusted Rate 95% CI Adjusted Rate 95% CI 
C71.1-C71.4 Frontal, temporal, parietal, & occipital lobes of the brain 65,532 4.33 (4.29–4.36) 36,171 5.13 (5.08–5.18) 29,361 3.65 (3.60–3.69) 
C71.0 Cerebrum 6,007 0.40 (0.39–0.41) 3,148 0.45 (0.43–0.46) 2,859 0.37 (0.35–0.38) 
C71.5 Ventricle 3,639 0.25 (0.24–0.26) 1,993 0.28 (0.26–0.29) 1,646 0.22 (0.21–0.24) 
C71.6 Cerebellum 8,601 0.59 (0.58–0.60) 4,655 0.65 (0.63–0.67) 3,946 0.53 (0.52–0.55) 
C71.7 Brain stem 4,924 0.34 (0.33–0.35) 2,606 0.36 (0.35–0.38) 2,318 0.32 (0.31–0.33) 
C71.8–C71.9 Other brain 30,334 2.00 (1.98–2.03) 15,763 2.28 (2.25–2.32) 14,571 1.77 (1.74–1.80) 
C72.0–C72.1 Spinal cord and cauda equina 9,538 0.64 (0.63–0.65) 4,867 0.67 (0.65–0.69) 4,671 0.61 (0.59–0.62) 
C72.2–C72.5 Cranial nerves 21,489 1.41 (1.39–1.43) 10,055 1.38 (1.35–1.41) 11,434 1.44 (1.42–1.47) 
C72.8–C72.9 Other nervous system 1,902 0.13 (0.12–0.13) 1,013 0.14 (0.13–0.15) 889 0.11 (0.11–0.12) 
C70.0–C70.9 Meninges (cerebral & spinal) 109,660 7.18 (7.14–7.22) 28,856 4.27 (4.22–4.32) 80,804 9.68 (9.61–9.75) 
C75.1–C75.2 Pituitary 47,614 3.19 (3.16–3.22) 21,473 3.02 (2.98–3.06) 26,141 3.45 (3.40–3.49) 
C75.3 Pineal 1,391 0.10 (0.09–0.10) 831 0.11 (0.11–0.12) 560 0.08 (0.07–0.08) 
C30.0 (9522–9523) Olfactory tumors of the nasal cavity 571 0.04 (0.03–0.04) 339 0.05 (0.04–0.05) 232 0.03 (0.03–0.03) 
Total  311,202 20.59 (20.52–20.66) 131,770 18.80 (18.69–18.90) 179,432 22.25 (22.15–22.35) 

Rates are per 100,000 and are age adjusted to the 2000 US standard population.

The sites referred to in this table are loosely based on the categories and site codes defined in the SEER site/histology validation list.

Abbreviations: CBTRUS, Central Brain Tumor Registry of the United States; NPCR, CDC's National Program of Cancer Registries; SEER, NCI's Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results program; CI, confidence interval.

Incidence Rates by Major Histology Groupings and Specific Histologies

Tables 8 through 16 present incidence rates by major histology groupings and specific histologies. Among major histology groupings, incidence rates were highest for tumors of the meninges (7.49 per 100,000), followed by tumors of the neuroepithelial tissue (6.60 per 100,000 person–years), tumors of the sellar region (3.12 per 100,000) and tumors of the cranial and spinal nerves (1.70 per 100,000) (Table 8).

Table 8.

Distribution and Average Annual Age-Adjusted Incidence Rates of Brain and Central Nervous System Tumors by Major Histology Groupings and Histology, CBTRUS Statistical Report: NPCR and SEER, 2005–2009

 Total
 
Malignant
 
Non-malignant
 
Histology % of All Tumors Median Age Rate (95% CI) Rate (95% CI) Rate (95% CI) 
Tumors of Neuroepithelial Tissue 99,063 31.8 55 6.60 (6.56–6.64) 92,418 6.14 (6.10–6.18) 6,645 0.46 (0.45–0.47) 
 Pilocytic astrocytoma 4,636 1.5 13 0.33 (0.32–0.34) 4,636 0.33 (0.32–0.34) – – – 
 Diffuse astrocytoma 8,616 2.8 48 0.58 (0.57–0.60) 8,616 0.58 (0.57–0.60) – – – 
 Anaplastic astrocytoma 5,374 1.7 54 0.36 (0.35–0.37) 5,374 0.36 (0.35–0.37) – – – 
 Unique astrocytoma variants 938 0.3 22 0.07 (0.06–0.07) 613 0.04 (0.04–0.05) 325 0.02 (0.02–0.03) 
 Glioblastoma 49,088 15.8 64 3.19 (3.16–3.22) 49,088 3.19 (3.16–3.22) – – – 
 Oligodendroglioma 3,973 1.3 43 0.27 (0.26–0.28) 3,973 0.27 (0.26–0.28) – – – 
 Anaplastic oligodendroglioma 1,687 0.5 49 0.11 (0.11–0.12) 1,685 0.11 (0.11–0.12) – – – 
 Oligoastrocytic tumors 3,020 1.0 42 0.21 (0.20–0.21) 3,019 0.21 (0.20–0.21) – – – 
 Ependymal tumors 6,117 2.0 43 0.41 (0.40–0.42) 3,906 0.26 (0.26–0.27) 2,211 0.15 (0.14–0.16) 
 Glioma malignant, NOS 6,574 2.1 40 0.45 (0.44–0.46) 6,574 0.45 (0.44–0.46) – – – 
 Choroid plexus tumors 772 0.2 19 0.05 (0.05–0.06) 133 0.01 (0.01–0.01) 639 0.04 (0.04–0.05) 
 Other neuroepithelial tumors 95 0.0 38 0.01 (0.01–0.01) 59 0.00 (0.00–0.01) 36 0.00 (0.00–0.00) 
 Neuronal and mixed neuronal–glial tumors 3,887 1.2 27 0.27 (0.26–0.28) 806 0.05 (0.05–0.06) 3,081 0.21 (0.21–0.22) 
 Tumors of the pineal region 579 0.2 34 0.04 (0.04–0.04) 324 0.02 (0.02–0.03) 255 0.02 (0.02–0.02) 
 Embryonal tumors 3,707 1.2 0.26 (0.25–0.27) 3,612 0.25 (0.24–0.26) 95 0.01 (0.01–0.01) 
Tumors of Cranial and Spinal Nerves 25,942 8.3 54 1.70 (1.68–1.73) 241 0.02 (0.01–0.02) 25,701 1.69 (1.67–1.71) 
 Nerve sheath tumors 25,926 8.3 54 1.70 (1.68–1.72) 241 0.02 (0.01–0.02) 25,685 1.69 (1.67–1.71) 
 Other tumors of cranial and spinal nerves 16 0.0 58 0.00 (0.00–0.00) – – – 16 0.00 (0.00–0.00) 
Tumors of Meninges 114,363 36.7 65 7.49 (7.45–7.54) 2,587 0.17 (0.16–0.18) 111,776 7.32 (7.28–7.37) 
 Meningioma 110,359 35.5 65 7.22 (7.18–7.27) 1,878 0.12 (0.12–0.13) 108,481 7.10 (7.06–7.14) 
 Mesenchymal tumors 1,192 0.4 47 0.08 (0.08–0.09) 374 0.03 (0.02–0.03) 818 0.06 (0.05–0.06) 
 Primary melanocytic lesions 106 0.0 50 0.01 (0.01–0.01) 71 0.01 (0.00–0.01) 35 0.00 (0.00–0.00) 
 Other neoplasms related to the meninges 2,706 0.9 48 0.18 (0.17–0.19) 264 0.02 (0.02–0.02) 2,442 0.16 (0.16–0.17) 
Lymphomas and Hemopoietic Neoplasms 6,956 2.2 64 0.46 (0.45–0.47) 6,920 0.46 (0.45–0.47) 36 0.00 (0.00–0.00) 
 Lymphoma 6,774 2.2 65 0.45 (0.44–0.46) 6,773 0.45 (0.44–0.46) – – – 
 Other hemopoietic neoplasms 182 0.1 51 0.01 (0.01–0.01) 147 0.01 (0.01–0.01) 35 0.00 (0.00–0.00) 
Germ Cell Tumors and Cysts 1,418 0.5 17 0.10 (0.09–0.10) 947 0.07 (0.06–0.07) 471 0.03 (0.03–0.04) 
 Germ cell tumors, cysts and heterotopias 1,418 0.5 17 0.10 (0.09–0.10) 947 0.07 (0.06–0.07) 471 0.03 (0.03–0.04) 
Tumors of Sellar Region 46,562 15.0 50 3.12 (3.09–3.15) 140 0.01 (0.01–0.01) 46,422 3.11 (3.08–3.14) 
 Tumors of the pituitary 43,882 14.1 51 2.94 (2.91–2.97) 133 0.01 (0.01–0.01) 43,749 2.93 (2.90–2.96) 
 Craniopharyngioma 2,680 0.9 41 0.18 (0.18–0.19) – – – 2,673 0.18 (0.18–0.19) 
Unclassified Tumors 16,898 5.4 65 1.12 (1.10–1.13) 6,442 0.42 (0.41–0.43) 10,456 0.70 (0.68–0.71) 
 Hemangioma 3,240 1.0 49 0.22 (0.21–0.23) 20 0.00 (0.00–0.00) 3,220 0.22 (0.21–0.22) 
 Neoplasm, unspecified 13,566 4.4 71 0.89 (0.88–0.91) 6,402 0.42 (0.41–0.43) 7,164 0.47 (0.46–0.49) 
 All other 92 0.0 61 0.01 (0.01–0.01) 20 0.00 (0.00–0.00) 72 0.01 (0.00–0.01) 
Total 311,202 100.0 59 20.59 (20.52–20.66) 109,695 7.28 (7.24–7.33) 201,507 13.31 (13.25–13.37) 
 Total
 
Malignant
 
Non-malignant
 
Histology % of All Tumors Median Age Rate (95% CI) Rate (95% CI) Rate (95% CI) 
Tumors of Neuroepithelial Tissue 99,063 31.8 55 6.60 (6.56–6.64) 92,418 6.14 (6.10–6.18) 6,645 0.46 (0.45–0.47) 
 Pilocytic astrocytoma 4,636 1.5 13 0.33 (0.32–0.34) 4,636 0.33 (0.32–0.34) – – – 
 Diffuse astrocytoma 8,616 2.8 48 0.58 (0.57–0.60) 8,616 0.58 (0.57–0.60) – – – 
 Anaplastic astrocytoma 5,374 1.7 54 0.36 (0.35–0.37) 5,374 0.36 (0.35–0.37) – – – 
 Unique astrocytoma variants 938 0.3 22 0.07 (0.06–0.07) 613 0.04 (0.04–0.05) 325 0.02 (0.02–0.03) 
 Glioblastoma 49,088 15.8 64 3.19 (3.16–3.22) 49,088 3.19 (3.16–3.22) – – – 
 Oligodendroglioma 3,973 1.3 43 0.27 (0.26–0.28) 3,973 0.27 (0.26–0.28) – – – 
 Anaplastic oligodendroglioma 1,687 0.5 49 0.11 (0.11–0.12) 1,685 0.11 (0.11–0.12) – – – 
 Oligoastrocytic tumors 3,020 1.0 42 0.21 (0.20–0.21) 3,019 0.21 (0.20–0.21) – – – 
 Ependymal tumors 6,117 2.0 43 0.41 (0.40–0.42) 3,906 0.26 (0.26–0.27) 2,211 0.15 (0.14–0.16) 
 Glioma malignant, NOS 6,574 2.1 40 0.45 (0.44–0.46) 6,574 0.45 (0.44–0.46) – – – 
 Choroid plexus tumors 772 0.2 19 0.05 (0.05–0.06) 133 0.01 (0.01–0.01) 639 0.04 (0.04–0.05) 
 Other neuroepithelial tumors 95 0.0 38 0.01 (0.01–0.01) 59 0.00 (0.00–0.01) 36 0.00 (0.00–0.00) 
 Neuronal and mixed neuronal–glial tumors 3,887 1.2 27 0.27 (0.26–0.28) 806 0.05 (0.05–0.06) 3,081 0.21 (0.21–0.22) 
 Tumors of the pineal region 579 0.2 34 0.04 (0.04–0.04) 324 0.02 (0.02–0.03) 255 0.02 (0.02–0.02) 
 Embryonal tumors 3,707 1.2 0.26 (0.25–0.27) 3,612 0.25 (0.24–0.26) 95 0.01 (0.01–0.01) 
Tumors of Cranial and Spinal Nerves 25,942 8.3 54 1.70 (1.68–1.73) 241 0.02 (0.01–0.02) 25,701 1.69 (1.67–1.71) 
 Nerve sheath tumors 25,926 8.3 54 1.70 (1.68–1.72) 241 0.02 (0.01–0.02) 25,685 1.69 (1.67–1.71) 
 Other tumors of cranial and spinal nerves 16 0.0 58 0.00 (0.00–0.00) – – – 16 0.00 (0.00–0.00) 
Tumors of Meninges 114,363 36.7 65 7.49 (7.45–7.54) 2,587 0.17 (0.16–0.18) 111,776 7.32 (7.28–7.37) 
 Meningioma 110,359 35.5 65 7.22 (7.18–7.27) 1,878 0.12 (0.12–0.13) 108,481 7.10 (7.06–7.14) 
 Mesenchymal tumors 1,192 0.4 47 0.08 (0.08–0.09) 374 0.03 (0.02–0.03) 818 0.06 (0.05–0.06) 
 Primary melanocytic lesions 106 0.0 50 0.01 (0.01–0.01) 71 0.01 (0.00–0.01) 35 0.00 (0.00–0.00) 
 Other neoplasms related to the meninges 2,706 0.9 48 0.18 (0.17–0.19) 264 0.02 (0.02–0.02) 2,442 0.16 (0.16–0.17) 
Lymphomas and Hemopoietic Neoplasms 6,956 2.2 64 0.46 (0.45–0.47) 6,920 0.46 (0.45–0.47) 36 0.00 (0.00–0.00) 
 Lymphoma 6,774 2.2 65 0.45 (0.44–0.46) 6,773 0.45 (0.44–0.46) – – – 
 Other hemopoietic neoplasms 182 0.1 51 0.01 (0.01–0.01) 147 0.01 (0.01–0.01) 35 0.00 (0.00–0.00) 
Germ Cell Tumors and Cysts 1,418 0.5 17 0.10 (0.09–0.10) 947 0.07 (0.06–0.07) 471 0.03 (0.03–0.04) 
 Germ cell tumors, cysts and heterotopias 1,418 0.5 17 0.10 (0.09–0.10) 947 0.07 (0.06–0.07) 471 0.03 (0.03–0.04) 
Tumors of Sellar Region 46,562 15.0 50 3.12 (3.09–3.15) 140 0.01 (0.01–0.01) 46,422 3.11 (3.08–3.14) 
 Tumors of the pituitary 43,882 14.1 51 2.94 (2.91–2.97) 133 0.01 (0.01–0.01) 43,749 2.93 (2.90–2.96) 
 Craniopharyngioma 2,680 0.9 41 0.18 (0.18–0.19) – – – 2,673 0.18 (0.18–0.19) 
Unclassified Tumors 16,898 5.4 65 1.12 (1.10–1.13) 6,442 0.42 (0.41–0.43) 10,456 0.70 (0.68–0.71) 
 Hemangioma 3,240 1.0 49 0.22 (0.21–0.23) 20 0.00 (0.00–0.00) 3,220 0.22 (0.21–0.22) 
 Neoplasm, unspecified 13,566 4.4 71 0.89 (0.88–0.91) 6,402 0.42 (0.41–0.43) 7,164 0.47 (0.46–0.49) 
 All other 92 0.0 61 0.01 (0.01–0.01) 20 0.00 (0.00–0.00) 72 0.01 (0.00–0.01) 
Total 311,202 100.0 59 20.59 (20.52–20.66) 109,695 7.28 (7.24–7.33) 201,507 13.31 (13.25–13.37) 

Rates are per 100,000 and are age–adjusted to the 2000 US standard population.

Refers to all brain tumors including histologies not presented in this table.

– Counts are not presented when fewer than 16 cases were reported for the specific histology category. The suppressed cases are included in the counts for totals.

Abbreviations: CBTRUS, Central Brain Tumor Registry of the United States; NPCR, CDC's National Program of Cancer Registries; SEER, NCI's Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results program; CI, confidence interval; NOS, not otherwise specified.

Incidence rates also varied by specific brain and CNS histology (Table 8). Incidence rates were highest for meningiomas (7.22 per 100,000), glioblastomas (3.19 per 100,000), tumors of the pituitary (2.94 per 100,000), and nerve sheath tumors (1.70 per 100,000). The incidence rate for glioma was 6.03 per 100,000, a major contributor to the magnitude of the neuroepithelial tissue rate (data not shown). Acoustic neuromas, included under tumors of cranial and spinal nerves, comprise the majority (65%; 1.10 per 100,000) of nerve sheath tumors (1.70 per 100,000) and account for 5% of all primary brain and CNS tumors (data not shown).

Incidence Rates by Behavior and Histology

Brain and CNS tumor incidence rates by behavior (malignant and non-malignant) are presented in Table 8. For those with malignant behavior, the incidence rate was highest for glioblastoma (3.19 per 100,000) followed by diffuse astrocytoma (0.58 per 100,000), and lymphoma (0.45 per 100,000. Meningioma (7.10 per 100,000), tumors of the pituitary (2.93 per 100,000), and nerve sheath (1.69 per 100,000) tumors were the non-malignant histologies with the highest incidence rates.

Median Age at Diagnosis

The median age at diagnosis for all primary brain and CNS tumors is 59 years (Table 8). The histology-specific median ages range from 8 to 71 years. Pilocytic astrocytoma, choroid plexus tumors, neuronal and mixed neuronal-glial tumors, tumors of the pineal region, embryonal tumors, and germ cell tumors and cysts are histologies with younger median age at diagnosis onset. Meningioma and glioblastoma are primarily diagnosed at older ages. Unclassified tumors have a median age of 65 years suggesting that younger individuals may receive more specific tumor identification and classification.

Incidence Rates by Gender and Histology

Incidence rates by histology and gender are presented in Table 9. Incidence rates for all primary brain and CNS tumors combined are higher among females (22.25 per 100,000 person–years) than males (18.80 per 100,000 person–years). The difference between these incidence rates is statistically significant. Incidence rates for tumors of the neuroepithelial tissue are 1.4 times greater in males as compared to females, while tumors of the meninges are 2.2 times greater in females as compared to males. Incidence rates for tumors of the neuroepithelial and tumors of the meninges were statistically significantly different between males and females. The incidence rate of gliomas is higher in males (7.16 per 100,000 person–years) than in females (5.06 per 100,000 person–years). Similar patterns were found for individual histologies with incidence rates higher in males, especially for germ cell tumors, most glial tumors, lymphomas, and embryonal tumors, or comparable between males and females, with the notable exception of meningiomas and tumors of the pituitary, which are more common in women. Incidence rate ratios (male: female) for selected histologies are shown in Figure 9.

Table 9.

Brain and Central Nervous System Tumor Average Annual Age–Adjusted Incidence Rates by Major Histology Groupings, Histology and Gender, CBTRUS Statistical Report: NPCR and SEER, 2005–2009

Histology Total
 
Male
 
Female
 
 Rate 95% CI Rate 95% CI Rate 95% CI 
Tumors of Neuroepithelial Tissue 6.60 (6.56–6.64) 7.77 (7.70–7.84) 5.59 (5.54–5.64) 
 Pilocytic astrocytoma 0.33 (0.32–0.34) 0.33 (0.32–0.34) 0.32 (0.31–0.34) 
 Diffuse astrocytoma 0.58 (0.57–0.60) 0.68 (0.66–0.70) 0.50 (0.48–0.52) 
 Anaplastic astrocytoma 0.36 (0.35–0.37) 0.43 (0.42–0.45) 0.30 (0.28–0.31) 
 Unique astrocytoma variants 0.07 (0.06–0.07) 0.07 (0.06–0.08) 0.06 (0.06–0.07) 
 Glioblastoma 3.19 (3.16–3.22) 3.98 (3.94–4.03) 2.53 (2.49–2.56) 
 Oligodendroglioma 0.27 (0.26–0.28) 0.30 (0.29–0.31) 0.24 (0.23–0.25) 
 Anaplastic oligodendroglioma 0.11 (0.11–0.12) 0.13 (0.12–0.14) 0.10 (0.09–0.11) 
 Oligoastrocytic tumors 0.21 (0.20–0.21) 0.24 (0.23–0.25) 0.18 (0.17–0.19) 
 Ependymal tumors 0.41 (0.40–0.42) 0.46 (0.45–0.48) 0.37 (0.35–0.38) 
 Glioma malignant, NOS 0.45 (0.44–0.46) 0.48 (0.46–0.49) 0.43 (0.41–0.44) 
 Choroid plexus tumors 0.05 (0.05–0.06) 0.05 (0.05–0.06) 0.05 (0.05–0.06) 
 Other neuroepithelial tumors 0.01 (0.01–0.01) 0.01 (0.00–0.01) 0.01 (0.01–0.01) 
 Neuronal and mixed neuronal–glial tumors 0.27 (0.26–0.28) 0.29 (0.28–0.30) 0.25 (0.24–0.26) 
 Tumors of the pineal region 0.04 (0.04–0.04) 0.03 (0.03–0.04) 0.05 (0.04–0.05) 
 Embryonal tumors 0.26 (0.25–0.27) 0.29 (0.28–0.31) 0.22 (0.21–0.24) 
Tumors of Cranial and Spinal Nerves 1.70 (1.68–1.73) 1.70 (1.67–1.73) 1.71 (1.69–1.74) 
 Nerve sheath tumors 1.70 (1.68–1.72) 1.70 (1.67–1.73) 1.71 (1.68–1.74) 
 Other tumors of cranial and spinal nerves 0.00 (0.00–0.00) – – – – 
Tumors of Meninges 7.49 (7.45–7.54) 4.58 (4.53–4.63) 10.00 (9.93–10.07) 
 Meningioma 7.22 (7.18–7.27) 4.28 (4.23–4.33) 9.76 (9.69–9.83) 
 Mesenchymal tumors 0.08 (0.08–0.09) 0.08 (0.08–0.09) 0.08 (0.07–0.09) 
 Primary melanocytic lesions 0.01 (0.01–0.01) 0.01 (0.01–0.01) 0.01 (0.00–0.01) 
 Other neoplasms related to the meninges 0.18 (0.17–0.19) 0.21 (0.20–0.22) 0.16 (0.15–0.17) 
Lymphomas and Hemopoietic Neoplasms 0.46 (0.45–0.47) 0.54 (0.52–0.55) 0.40 (0.38–0.41) 
 Lymphoma 0.45 (0.44–0.46) 0.52 (0.51–0.54) 0.39 (0.37–0.40) 
 Other hemopoietic neoplasms 0.01 (0.01–0.01) 0.01 (0.01–0.02) 0.01 (0.01–0.01) 
Germ Cell Tumors and Cysts 0.10 (0.09–0.10) 0.13 (0.12–0.14) 0.06 (0.06–0.07) 
 Germ cell tumors, cysts and heterotopias 0.10 (0.09–0.10) 0.13 (0.12–0.14) 0.06 (0.06–0.07) 
Tumors of Sellar Region 3.12 (3.09–3.15) 2.96 (2.92–3.00) 3.36 (3.32–3.41) 
 Tumors of the pituitary 2.94 (2.91–2.97) 2.78 (2.74–2.81) 3.18 (3.14–3.22) 
 Craniopharyngioma 0.18 (0.18–0.19) 0.18 (0.17–0.19) 0.18 (0.17–0.19) 
Unclassified Tumors 1.12 (1.10–1.13) 1.12 (1.10–1.15) 1.12 (1.10–1.14) 
 Hemangioma 0.22 (0.21–0.23) 0.20 (0.19–0.21) 0.23 (0.22–0.25) 
 Neoplasm, unspecified 0.89 (0.88–0.91) 0.92 (0.89–0.94) 0.88 (0.86–0.90) 
 All other 0.01 (0.01–0.01) 0.01 (0.01–0.01) 0.01 (0.00–0.01) 
Total 20.59 (20.52–20.66) 18.80 (18.69–18.90) 22.25 (22.15–22.35) 
Histology Total
 
Male
 
Female
 
 Rate 95% CI Rate 95% CI Rate 95% CI 
Tumors of Neuroepithelial Tissue 6.60 (6.56–6.64) 7.77 (7.70–7.84) 5.59 (5.54–5.64) 
 Pilocytic astrocytoma 0.33 (0.32–0.34) 0.33 (0.32–0.34) 0.32 (0.31–0.34) 
 Diffuse astrocytoma 0.58 (0.57–0.60) 0.68 (0.66–0.70) 0.50 (0.48–0.52) 
 Anaplastic astrocytoma 0.36 (0.35–0.37) 0.43 (0.42–0.45) 0.30 (0.28–0.31) 
 Unique astrocytoma variants 0.07 (0.06–0.07) 0.07 (0.06–0.08) 0.06 (0.06–0.07) 
 Glioblastoma 3.19 (3.16–3.22) 3.98 (3.94–4.03) 2.53 (2.49–2.56) 
 Oligodendroglioma 0.27 (0.26–0.28) 0.30 (0.29–0.31) 0.24 (0.23–0.25) 
 Anaplastic oligodendroglioma 0.11 (0.11–0.12) 0.13 (0.12–0.14) 0.10 (0.09–0.11) 
 Oligoastrocytic tumors 0.21 (0.20–0.21) 0.24 (0.23–0.25) 0.18 (0.17–0.19) 
 Ependymal tumors 0.41 (0.40–0.42) 0.46 (0.45–0.48) 0.37 (0.35–0.38) 
 Glioma malignant, NOS 0.45 (0.44–0.46) 0.48 (0.46–0.49) 0.43 (0.41–0.44) 
 Choroid plexus tumors 0.05 (0.05–0.06) 0.05 (0.05–0.06) 0.05 (0.05–0.06) 
 Other neuroepithelial tumors 0.01 (0.01–0.01) 0.01 (0.00–0.01) 0.01 (0.01–0.01) 
 Neuronal and mixed neuronal–glial tumors 0.27 (0.26–0.28) 0.29 (0.28–0.30) 0.25 (0.24–0.26) 
 Tumors of the pineal region 0.04 (0.04–0.04) 0.03 (0.03–0.04) 0.05 (0.04–0.05) 
 Embryonal tumors 0.26 (0.25–0.27) 0.29 (0.28–0.31) 0.22 (0.21–0.24) 
Tumors of Cranial and Spinal Nerves 1.70 (1.68–1.73) 1.70 (1.67–1.73) 1.71 (1.69–1.74) 
 Nerve sheath tumors 1.70 (1.68–1.72) 1.70 (1.67–1.73) 1.71 (1.68–1.74) 
 Other tumors of cranial and spinal nerves 0.00 (0.00–0.00) – – – – 
Tumors of Meninges 7.49 (7.45–7.54) 4.58 (4.53–4.63) 10.00 (9.93–10.07) 
 Meningioma 7.22 (7.18–7.27) 4.28 (4.23–4.33) 9.76 (9.69–9.83) 
 Mesenchymal tumors 0.08 (0.08–0.09) 0.08 (0.08–0.09) 0.08 (0.07–0.09) 
 Primary melanocytic lesions 0.01 (0.01–0.01) 0.01 (0.01–0.01) 0.01 (0.00–0.01) 
 Other neoplasms related to the meninges 0.18 (0.17–0.19) 0.21 (0.20–0.22) 0.16 (0.15–0.17) 
Lymphomas and Hemopoietic Neoplasms 0.46 (0.45–0.47) 0.54 (0.52–0.55) 0.40 (0.38–0.41) 
 Lymphoma 0.45 (0.44–0.46) 0.52 (0.51–0.54) 0.39 (0.37–0.40) 
 Other hemopoietic neoplasms 0.01 (0.01–0.01) 0.01 (0.01–0.02) 0.01 (0.01–0.01) 
Germ Cell Tumors and Cysts 0.10 (0.09–0.10) 0.13 (0.12–0.14) 0.06 (0.06–0.07) 
 Germ cell tumors, cysts and heterotopias 0.10 (0.09–0.10) 0.13 (0.12–0.14) 0.06 (0.06–0.07) 
Tumors of Sellar Region 3.12 (3.09–3.15) 2.96 (2.92–3.00) 3.36 (3.32–3.41) 
 Tumors of the pituitary 2.94 (2.91–2.97) 2.78 (2.74–2.81) 3.18 (3.14–3.22) 
 Craniopharyngioma 0.18 (0.18–0.19) 0.18 (0.17–0.19) 0.18 (0.17–0.19) 
Unclassified Tumors 1.12 (1.10–1.13) 1.12 (1.10–1.15) 1.12 (1.10–1.14) 
 Hemangioma 0.22 (0.21–0.23) 0.20 (0.19–0.21) 0.23 (0.22–0.25) 
 Neoplasm, unspecified 0.89 (0.88–0.91) 0.92 (0.89–0.94) 0.88 (0.86–0.90) 
 All other 0.01 (0.01–0.01) 0.01 (0.01–0.01) 0.01 (0.00–0.01) 
Total 20.59 (20.52–20.66) 18.80 (18.69–18.90) 22.25 (22.15–22.35) 

Rates are per 100,000 and are age–adjusted to the 2000 US standard population.

Refers to all brain tumors including histologies not presented in this table.

– Counts are not presented when fewer than 16 cases were reported for the specific histology category. Suppressed cases are included in the total count.

Abbreviations: CBTRUS, Central Brain Tumor Registry of the United States; NPCR, CDC's National Program of Cancer Registries; SEER, NCI's Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results program; CI, confidence interval; NOS, not otherwise specified.

Fig. 9.

Patterns by Gender for Selected Histologies.

Fig. 9.

Patterns by Gender for Selected Histologies.

Incidence Rates by Race and Histology

Incidence rates by histology and race are shown in Table 10. Incidence rates for all primary brain and CNS tumors combined are substantially and statistically significantly lower for race groups AIAN (13.15 per 100,000) and API (12.98 per 100,000) compared with whites (20.61 per 100,000) and blacks (20.12 per 100,000). Incidence rates for most histologies are statistically significantly higher for whites than black, AIAN, and API race groups. An exception is observed for meningioma, tumors of the pituitary, and craniopharyngioma where the rates for blacks significantly exceed those observed for white, AIAN, and API races. It should also be noted that the average annual incidence rate for tumors of the cranial and spinal nerves in the API group is statistically significantly higher than those rates observed for black or AIAN races.

Table 10.

Brain and Central Nervous System Tumor Average Annual Age–Adjusted Incidence Rates by Major Histology Groupings, Histology and Race, CBTRUS Statistical Report: NPCR and SEER, 2005–2009

Histology White
 
Black
 
AIAN
 
API
 
 Rate 95% CI Rate 95% CI Rate 95% CI Rate 95% CI 
Tumors of Neuroepithelial Tissue 7.07 (7.02–7.12) 3.80 (3.71–3.90) 3.56 (3.24–3.90) 2.71 (2.59–2.84) 
 Pilocytic astrocytoma 0.35 (0.34–0.36) 0.23 (0.21–0.25) 0.22 (0.15–0.31) 0.14 (0.12–0.18) 
 Diffuse astrocytoma 0.63 (0.61–0.64) 0.33 (0.31–0.36) 0.46 (0.36–0.60) 0.25 (0.21–0.29) 
 Anaplastic astrocytoma 0.39 (0.38–0.40) 0.17 (0.15–0.19) 0.21 (0.14–0.30) 0.16 (0.13–0.20) 
 Unique astrocytoma variants 0.07 (0.06–0.07) 0.06 (0.05–0.07) – – – – 
 Glioblastoma 3.44 (3.40–3.47) 1.67 (1.61–1.74) 1.50 (1.28–1.74) 1.07 (0.99–1.16) 
 Oligodendroglioma 0.30 (0.29–0.31) 0.13 (0.11–0.15) 0.13 (0.08–0.20) 0.12 (0.09–0.15) 
 Anaplastic oligodendroglioma 0.12 (0.12–0.13) 0.05 (0.04–0.06) – – 0.06 (0.04–0.08) 
 Oligoastrocytic tumors 0.23 (0.22–0.24) 0.09 (0.08–0.11) 0.13 (0.08–0.21) 0.11 (0.09–0.14) 
 Ependymal tumors 0.44 (0.43–0.45) 0.25 (0.23–0.28) 0.24 (0.17–0.33) 0.20 (0.17–0.24) 
 Glioma malignant, NOS 0.46 (0.45–0.48) 0.35 (0.32–0.38) 0.22 (0.15–0.31) 0.25 (0.21–0.29) 
 Choroid plexus tumors 0.06 (0.05–0.06) 0.03 (0.02–0.04) – – 0.03 (0.02–0.04) 
 Other neuroepithelial tumors 0.01 (0.01–0.01) – – – – – – 
 Neuronal and mixed neuronal–glial tumors 0.28 (0.27–0.29) 0.20 (0.18–0.22) 0.14 (0.09–0.21) 0.15 (0.12–0.18) 
 Tumors of the pineal region 0.04 (0.03–0.04) 0.05 (0.04–0.06) – – – – 
 Embryonal tumors 0.28 (0.27–0.29) 0.18 (0.16–0.20) 0.13 (0.08–0.20) 0.15 (0.12–0.18) 
Tumors of Cranial and Spinal Nerves 1.78 (1.76–1.81) 0.78 (0.74–0.83) 0.75 (0.61–0.92) 1.25 (1.16–1.33) 
 Nerve sheath tumors 1.78 (1.76–1.81) 0.78 (0.74–0.83) 0.75 (0.61–0.92) 1.24 (1.16–1.33) 
 Other tumors of cranial and spinal nerves – – – – – – – – 
Tumors of Meninges 7.28 (7.23–7.33) 8.75 (8.60–8.91) 5.05 (4.63–5.50) 5.61 (5.42–5.81) 
 Meningioma 7.00 (6.96–7.05) 8.55 (8.40–8.70) 4.86 (4.44–5.30) 5.41 (5.22–5.61) 
 Mesenchymal tumors 0.08 (0.08–0.09) 0.06 (0.05–0.08) – – 0.06 (0.04–0.08) 
 Primary melanocytic lesions 0.01 (0.01–0.01) – – – – – – 
 Other neoplasms related to the meninges 0.19 (0.18–0.19) 0.14 (0.12–0.16) 0.12 (0.07–0.19) 0.14 (0.11–0.17) 
Lymphomas and Hemopoietic Neoplasms 0.46 (0.44–0.47) 0.41 (0.38–0.45) 0.31 (0.22–0.43) 0.41 (0.36–0.47) 
 Lymphoma 0.44 (0.43–0.46) 0.40 (0.37–0.43) 0.29 (0.20–0.41) 0.40 (0.35–0.46) 
 Other hemopoietic neoplasms 0.01 (0.01–0.01) – – – – – – 
Germ Cell Tumors and Cysts 0.10 (0.09–0.11) 0.07 (0.06–0.08)   0.13 (0.11–0.16) 
 Germ cell tumors, cysts and heterotopias 0.10 (0.09–0.11) 0.07 (0.06–0.08) – – 0.13 (0.11–0.16) 
Tumors of Sellar Region 2.81 (2.78–2.84) 5.17 (5.06–5.28) 2.53 (2.27–2.82) 2.31 (2.19–2.43) 
 Tumors of the pituitary 2.64 (2.61–2.67) 4.90 (4.80–5.01) 2.39 (2.13–2.66) 2.17 (2.06–2.29) 
 Craniopharyngioma 0.17 (0.16–0.18) 0.26 (0.24–0.29) 0.14 (0.09–0.23) 0.14 (0.11–0.17) 
Unclassified Tumors 1.11 (1.09–1.13) 1.13 (1.08–1.19) 0.90 (0.73–1.10) 0.56 (0.50–0.63) 
 Hemangioma 0.23 (0.22–0.23) 0.15 (0.13–0.17) 0.11 (0.07–0.18) 0.16 (0.13–0.19) 
 Neoplasm, unspecified 0.88 (0.86–0.90) 0.98 (0.93–1.04) 0.76 (0.60–0.95) 0.40 (0.35–0.46) 
 All other 0.01 (0.01–0.01) – – – – – – 
Total 20.61 (20.53–20.69) 20.12 (19.90–20.35) 13.15 (12.50–13.82) 12.98 (12.70–13.27) 
Histology White
 
Black
 
AIAN
 
API
 
 Rate 95% CI Rate 95% CI Rate 95% CI Rate 95% CI 
Tumors of Neuroepithelial Tissue 7.07 (7.02–7.12) 3.80 (3.71–3.90) 3.56 (3.24–3.90) 2.71 (2.59–2.84) 
 Pilocytic astrocytoma 0.35 (0.34–0.36) 0.23 (0.21–0.25) 0.22 (0.15–0.31) 0.14 (0.12–0.18) 
 Diffuse astrocytoma 0.63 (0.61–0.64) 0.33 (0.31–0.36) 0.46 (0.36–0.60) 0.25 (0.21–0.29) 
 Anaplastic astrocytoma 0.39 (0.38–0.40) 0.17 (0.15–0.19) 0.21 (0.14–0.30) 0.16 (0.13–0.20) 
 Unique astrocytoma variants 0.07 (0.06–0.07) 0.06 (0.05–0.07) – – – – 
 Glioblastoma 3.44 (3.40–3.47) 1.67 (1.61–1.74) 1.50 (1.28–1.74) 1.07 (0.99–1.16) 
 Oligodendroglioma 0.30 (0.29–0.31) 0.13 (0.11–0.15) 0.13 (0.08–0.20) 0.12 (0.09–0.15) 
 Anaplastic oligodendroglioma 0.12 (0.12–0.13) 0.05 (0.04–0.06) – – 0.06 (0.04–0.08) 
 Oligoastrocytic tumors 0.23 (0.22–0.24) 0.09 (0.08–0.11) 0.13 (0.08–0.21) 0.11 (0.09–0.14) 
 Ependymal tumors 0.44 (0.43–0.45) 0.25 (0.23–0.28) 0.24 (0.17–0.33) 0.20 (0.17–0.24) 
 Glioma malignant, NOS 0.46 (0.45–0.48) 0.35 (0.32–0.38) 0.22 (0.15–0.31) 0.25 (0.21–0.29) 
 Choroid plexus tumors 0.06 (0.05–0.06) 0.03 (0.02–0.04) – – 0.03 (0.02–0.04) 
 Other neuroepithelial tumors 0.01 (0.01–0.01) – – – – – – 
 Neuronal and mixed neuronal–glial tumors 0.28 (0.27–0.29) 0.20 (0.18–0.22) 0.14 (0.09–0.21) 0.15 (0.12–0.18) 
 Tumors of the pineal region 0.04 (0.03–0.04) 0.05 (0.04–0.06) – – – – 
 Embryonal tumors 0.28 (0.27–0.29) 0.18 (0.16–0.20) 0.13 (0.08–0.20) 0.15 (0.12–0.18) 
Tumors of Cranial and Spinal Nerves 1.78 (1.76–1.81) 0.78 (0.74–0.83) 0.75 (0.61–0.92) 1.25 (1.16–1.33) 
 Nerve sheath tumors 1.78 (1.76–1.81) 0.78 (0.74–0.83) 0.75 (0.61–0.92) 1.24 (1.16–1.33) 
 Other tumors of cranial and spinal nerves – – – – – – – – 
Tumors of Meninges 7.28 (7.23–7.33) 8.75 (8.60–8.91) 5.05 (4.63–5.50) 5.61 (5.42–5.81) 
 Meningioma 7.00 (6.96–7.05) 8.55 (8.40–8.70) 4.86 (4.44–5.30) 5.41 (5.22–5.61) 
 Mesenchymal tumors 0.08 (0.08–0.09) 0.06 (0.05–0.08) – – 0.06 (0.04–0.08) 
 Primary melanocytic lesions 0.01 (0.01–0.01) – – – – – – 
 Other neoplasms related to the meninges 0.19 (0.18–0.19) 0.14 (0.12–0.16) 0.12 (0.07–0.19) 0.14 (0.11–0.17) 
Lymphomas and Hemopoietic Neoplasms 0.46 (0.44–0.47) 0.41 (0.38–0.45) 0.31 (0.22–0.43) 0.41 (0.36–0.47) 
 Lymphoma 0.44 (0.43–0.46) 0.40 (0.37–0.43) 0.29 (0.20–0.41) 0.40 (0.35–0.46) 
 Other hemopoietic neoplasms 0.01 (0.01–0.01) – – – – – – 
Germ Cell Tumors and Cysts 0.10 (0.09–0.11) 0.07 (0.06–0.08)   0.13 (0.11–0.16) 
 Germ cell tumors, cysts and heterotopias 0.10 (0.09–0.11) 0.07 (0.06–0.08) – – 0.13 (0.11–0.16) 
Tumors of Sellar Region 2.81 (2.78–2.84) 5.17 (5.06–5.28) 2.53 (2.27–2.82) 2.31 (2.19–2.43) 
 Tumors of the pituitary 2.64 (2.61–2.67) 4.90 (4.80–5.01) 2.39 (2.13–2.66) 2.17 (2.06–2.29) 
 Craniopharyngioma 0.17 (0.16–0.18) 0.26 (0.24–0.29) 0.14 (0.09–0.23) 0.14 (0.11–0.17) 
Unclassified Tumors 1.11 (1.09–1.13) 1.13 (1.08–1.19) 0.90 (0.73–1.10) 0.56 (0.50–0.63) 
 Hemangioma 0.23 (0.22–0.23) 0.15 (0.13–0.17) 0.11 (0.07–0.18) 0.16 (0.13–0.19) 
 Neoplasm, unspecified 0.88 (0.86–0.90) 0.98 (0.93–1.04) 0.76 (0.60–0.95) 0.40 (0.35–0.46) 
 All other 0.01 (0.01–0.01) – – – – – – 
Total 20.61 (20.53–20.69) 20.12 (19.90–20.35) 13.15 (12.50–13.82) 12.98 (12.70–13.27) 

Rates are per 100,000 and are age–adjusted to the 2000 US standard population.

Refers to all brain tumors including histologies not presented in this table.

– Counts and rates are not presented when fewer than 16 cases were reported for the specific histology category. The suppressed cases are included in the counts and rates for totals.

Abbreviations: CBTRUS, Central Brain Tumor Registry of the United States; NPCR, CDC's National Program of Cancer Registries; SEER, NCI's Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results program; CI, confidence interval; NOS, not otherwise specified; AIAN, American Indian/Alaskan Native; API, Asian Pacific Islander.

Incidence rate ratios (white: black) for selected histologies are shown in Figure 10. Incidence rates for anaplastic astrocytoma, glioblastoma, oligodendroglioma, oligoastrocytic tumors, and nerve sheath tumors are two or more times greater in whites than in blacks. Incidence rates for pilocytic astrocytoma, ependymal tumors, embryonal tumors, lymphoma and germ cell tumors also are significantly higher among whites than blacks. In contrast, incidence rates for meningioma and tumors of the pituitary are statistically significantly higher among blacks than whites.

Fig. 10.

Patterns by Race for Selected Histologies.

Fig. 10.

Patterns by Race for Selected Histologies.

Incidence Rates by Hispanic Ethnicity and Histology

Incidence rates by Hispanic ethnicity and histology are shown in Table 11. The overall incidence rate for primary brain and CNS tumors among Hispanics is 19.36 per 100,000 and among non–Hispanics is 20.81 per 100,000. The difference between these two incidence rates is statistically significant, with rates among non-Hispanics exceeding those observed for Hispanics overall and for most histologies. Only the incidence rate for tumors of the pituitary is statistically significantly higher in Hispanics than non-Hispanics.

Table 11.

Brain and Central Nervous System Tumor Average Annual Age-Adjusted Incidence Rates† By Major Histology Groupings, Histology, and Hispanic Ethnicity‡, CBTRUS Statistical Report: NPCR and SEER, 2005–2009

Histology Hispanic
 
Non-Hispanic
 
 Rate 95% CI Rate 95% CI 
Tumors of Neuroepithelial Tissue 5.08 (4.96-5.19) 6.81 (6.77-6.86) 
 Pilocytic astrocytoma 0.23 (0.21-0.25) 0.35 (0.34-0.36) 
 Diffuse astrocytoma 0.43 (0.39-0.46) 0.61 (0.59-0.62) 
 Anaplastic astrocytoma 0.26 (0.24-0.29) 0.37 (0.36-0.38) 
 Unique astrocytoma variants 0.05 (0.05-0.07) 0.07 (0.06-0.07) 
 Glioblastoma 2.40 (2.31-2.49) 3.26 (3.23-3.29) 
 Oligodendroglioma 0.21 (0.19-0.24) 0.28 (0.27-0.29) 
 Anaplastic oligodendroglioma 0.09 (0.07-0.10) 0.12 (0.11-0.12) 
 Oligoastrocytic tumors 0.15 (0.14-0.17) 0.22 (0.21-0.22) 
 Ependymal tumors 0.34 (0.31-0.37) 0.43 (0.42-0.44) 
 Glioma malignant, NOS 0.37 (0.34-0.40) 0.47 (0.45-0.48) 
 Choroid plexus tumors 0.05 (0.04-0.06) 0.05 (0.05-0.06) 
 Other neuroepithelial tumors – – 0.01 (0.01-0.01) 
 Neuronal and mixed neuronal-glial tumors 0.19 (0.17-0.21) 0.28 (0.28-0.29) 
 Tumors of the pineal region 0.03 (0.03-0.04) 0.04 (0.04-0.04) 
 Embryonal tumors 0.27 (0.25-0.29) 0.26 (0.25-0.27) 
Tumors of Cranial and Spinal Nerves 1.26 (1.20-1.32) 1.77 (1.74-1.79) 
 Nerve sheath tumors 1.26 (1.20-1.32) 1.76 (1.74-1.79) 
 Other tumors of cranial and spinal nerves – – – – 
Tumors of Meninges 7.40 (7.24-7.55) 7.53 (7.48-7.57) 
 Meningioma 7.14 (6.99-7.30) 7.26 (7.21-7.30) 
 Mesenchymal tumors 0.07 (0.05-0.08) 0.08 (0.08-0.09) 
 Primary melanocytic lesions – – 0.01 (0.01-0.01) 
 Other neoplasms related to the meninges 0.18 (0.16-0.21) 0.18 (0.17-0.19) 
Lymphomas and Hemopoietic Neoplasms 0.49 (0.45-0.53) 0.45 (0.44-0.47) 
 Lymphoma 0.48 (0.44-0.52) 0.44 (0.43-0.45) 
 Other hemopoietic neoplasms 0.01 (0.01-0.02) 0.01 (0.01-0.01) 
Germ Cell Tumors and Cysts 0.11 (0.10-0.13) 0.10 (0.09-0.10) 
 Germ cell tumors, cysts and heterotopias 0.11 (0.10-0.13) 0.10 (0.09-0.10) 
Tumors of Sellar Region 3.82 (3.72-3.92) 3.04 (3.01-3.07) 
 Tumors of the pituitary 3.63 (3.53-3.73) 2.86 (2.83-2.89) 
 Craniopharyngioma 0.19 (0.17-0.21) 0.18 (0.17-0.19) 
Unclassified Tumors 1.21 (1.15-1.27) 1.11 (1.09-1.12) 
 Hemangioma 0.20 (0.18-0.22) 0.22 (0.21-0.23) 
 Neoplasm, unspecified 1.00 (0.95-1.06) 0.88 (0.87-0.90) 
 All other – – 0.01 (0.01-0.01) 
Total§ 19.36 (19.13-19.60) 20.81 (20.73-20.88) 
Histology Hispanic
 
Non-Hispanic
 
 Rate 95% CI Rate 95% CI 
Tumors of Neuroepithelial Tissue 5.08 (4.96-5.19) 6.81 (6.77-6.86) 
 Pilocytic astrocytoma 0.23 (0.21-0.25) 0.35 (0.34-0.36) 
 Diffuse astrocytoma 0.43 (0.39-0.46) 0.61 (0.59-0.62) 
 Anaplastic astrocytoma 0.26 (0.24-0.29) 0.37 (0.36-0.38) 
 Unique astrocytoma variants 0.05 (0.05-0.07) 0.07 (0.06-0.07) 
 Glioblastoma 2.40 (2.31-2.49) 3.26 (3.23-3.29) 
 Oligodendroglioma 0.21 (0.19-0.24) 0.28 (0.27-0.29) 
 Anaplastic oligodendroglioma 0.09 (0.07-0.10) 0.12 (0.11-0.12) 
 Oligoastrocytic tumors 0.15 (0.14-0.17) 0.22 (0.21-0.22) 
 Ependymal tumors 0.34 (0.31-0.37) 0.43 (0.42-0.44) 
 Glioma malignant, NOS 0.37 (0.34-0.40) 0.47 (0.45-0.48) 
 Choroid plexus tumors 0.05 (0.04-0.06) 0.05 (0.05-0.06) 
 Other neuroepithelial tumors – – 0.01 (0.01-0.01) 
 Neuronal and mixed neuronal-glial tumors 0.19 (0.17-0.21) 0.28 (0.28-0.29) 
 Tumors of the pineal region 0.03 (0.03-0.04) 0.04 (0.04-0.04) 
 Embryonal tumors 0.27 (0.25-0.29) 0.26 (0.25-0.27) 
Tumors of Cranial and Spinal Nerves 1.26 (1.20-1.32) 1.77 (1.74-1.79) 
 Nerve sheath tumors 1.26 (1.20-1.32) 1.76 (1.74-1.79) 
 Other tumors of cranial and spinal nerves – – – – 
Tumors of Meninges 7.40 (7.24-7.55) 7.53 (7.48-7.57) 
 Meningioma 7.14 (6.99-7.30) 7.26 (7.21-7.30) 
 Mesenchymal tumors 0.07 (0.05-0.08) 0.08 (0.08-0.09) 
 Primary melanocytic lesions – – 0.01 (0.01-0.01) 
 Other neoplasms related to the meninges 0.18 (0.16-0.21) 0.18 (0.17-0.19) 
Lymphomas and Hemopoietic Neoplasms 0.49 (0.45-0.53) 0.45 (0.44-0.47) 
 Lymphoma 0.48 (0.44-0.52) 0.44 (0.43-0.45) 
 Other hemopoietic neoplasms 0.01 (0.01-0.02) 0.01 (0.01-0.01) 
Germ Cell Tumors and Cysts 0.11 (0.10-0.13) 0.10 (0.09-0.10) 
 Germ cell tumors, cysts and heterotopias 0.11 (0.10-0.13) 0.10 (0.09-0.10) 
Tumors of Sellar Region 3.82 (3.72-3.92) 3.04 (3.01-3.07) 
 Tumors of the pituitary 3.63 (3.53-3.73) 2.86 (2.83-2.89) 
 Craniopharyngioma 0.19 (0.17-0.21) 0.18 (0.17-0.19) 
Unclassified Tumors 1.21 (1.15-1.27) 1.11 (1.09-1.12) 
 Hemangioma 0.20 (0.18-0.22) 0.22 (0.21-0.23) 
 Neoplasm, unspecified 1.00 (0.95-1.06) 0.88 (0.87-0.90) 
 All other – – 0.01 (0.01-0.01) 
Total§ 19.36 (19.13-19.60) 20.81 (20.73-20.88) 

Rates are per 100,000 and age-adjusted to the 2000 US standard population.

Hispanic ethnicity is not mutually exclusive of race; Classified using the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries Hispanic Identification Algorithm, version 2 (NHIA v2).

§ Refers to all brain tumors including histologies not presented in this table.

- Counts and rates are not presented when fewer than 16 cases were reported for the specific histology category. The suppressed cases are included in the counts and rates for totals.

Abbreviations: CBTRUS, Central Brain Tumor Registry of the United States; NPCR, CDC's National Program of Cancer Registries; SEER, NCI's Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results program; CI, confidence interval; NOS, not otherwise specified.

Incidence Rates by Age and Histology

The age–specific incidence rates by histology are presented in Table 12. The incidence for all brain and CNS tumors is highest among the 85+ year olds (75.27 per 100,000) and lowest among children ages 0-19 years (5.13 per 100,000). However, the distribution patterns of histologies within age groups differ substantially as is apparent in Table 12. For example, the incidence rates of pilocytic astrocytoma, germ cell tumors and embryonal tumors are higher in the younger age groups and decrease with advancing age. This is in contrast to the incidence rate of meningioma, which increases progressively with age. Age–specific incidence rates for selected histologies are graphically displayed in Figure 11. Figure 12 shows the most common and second most common brain and CNS tumor histologies by age at occurrence.

Table 12.

Brain and Central Nervous System Tumor Average Annual Age-Adjusted and Age-Specific Incidence Rates by Major Histology Groupings, Histology and Age at Diagnosis, CBTRUS Statistical Report: NPCR and SEER, 2005–2009

Histology   Age at Diagnosis
 
      Age at Diagnosis
 
      
 0-14
 
0-19
 
20-34
 
35-44
 
45-54
 
55-64
 
65-74
 
75-84
 
85 +
 
 Rate 95% CI Rate 95% CI Rate 95% CI Rate 95% CI Rate 95% CI Rate 95% CI Rate 95% CI Rate 95% CI Rate 95% CI 
Tumors of Neuroepithelial Tissue 3.77 (3.70-3.84) 3.51 (3.45-3.57) 3.26 (3.20-3.33) 4.49 (4.40-4.59) 6.98 (6.87-7.10) 11.92 (11.75-12.09) 17.57 (17.30-17.84) 19.37 (19.03-19.71) 12.14 (11.72-12.57) 
 Pilocytic astrocytoma 0.87 (0.84-0.91) 0.80 (0.78-0.83) 0.24 (0.23-0.26) 0.12 (0.10-0.13) 0.09 (0.08-0.10) 0.08 (0.07-0.10) 0.07 (0.06-0.09) 0.07 (0.05-0.09) – – 
 Diffuse astrocytoma 0.27 (0.25-0.29) 0.27 (0.25-0.28) 0.49 (0.46-0.51) 0.64 (0.61-0.67) 0.64 (0.61-0.68) 0.84 (0.80-0.89) 1.14 (1.07-1.21) 1.28 (1.19-1.37) 0.71 (0.61-0.82) 
 Anaplastic astrocytoma 0.08 (0.07-0.09) 0.08 (0.07-0.09) 0.26 (0.24-0.28) 0.35 (0.33-0.38) 0.43 (0.41-0.46) 0.67 (0.63-0.71) 0.92 (0.86-0.98) 0.96 (0.88-1.04) 0.40 (0.33-0.48) 
 Unique astrocytoma variants 0.10 (0.09-0.11) 0.11 (0.10-0.12) 0.06 (0.05-0.07) 0.04 (0.03-0.05) 0.04 (0.03-0.05) 0.04 (0.03-0.05) 0.04 (0.03-0.06) 0.06 (0.05-0.09) – – 
 Glioblastoma 0.13 (0.12-0.15) 0.14 (0.13-0.15) 0.39 (0.37-0.41) 1.21 (1.16-1.25) 3.66 (3.58-3.74) 8.16 (8.02-8.30) 13.21 (12.98-13.45) 14.64 (14.34-14.94) 8.96 (8.59-9.33) 
 Oligodendroglioma 0.04 (0.04-0.05) 0.06 (0.05-0.07) 0.32 (0.30-0.34) 0.49 (0.46-0.52) 0.42 (0.39-0.45) 0.33 (0.30-0.36) 0.25 (0.22-0.28) 0.18 (0.15-0.22) 0.07 (0.05-0.12) 
 Anaplastic oligodendroglioma 0.01 (0.01-0.01) 0.01 (0.01-0.02) 0.09 (0.08-0.10) 0.17 (0.15-0.19) 0.18 (0.17-0.20) 0.22 (0.20-0.25) 0.19 (0.17-0.22) 0.14 (0.11-0.17) – – 
 Oligoastrocytic tumors 0.03 (0.02-0.04) 0.03 (0.03-0.04) 0.28 (0.26-0.30) 0.35 (0.32-0.37) 0.28 (0.26-0.31) 0.26 (0.24-0.29) 0.23 (0.20-0.26) 0.16 (0.13-0.19) – – 
 Ependymal tumors 0.28 (0.26-0.30) 0.27 (0.26-0.29) 0.36 (0.33-0.38) 0.49 (0.46-0.52) 0.58 (0.55-0.62) 0.59 (0.55-0.62) 0.55 (0.50-0.59) 0.37 (0.32-0.42) 0.11 (0.07-0.16) 
 Glioma malignant, NOS 0.70 (0.67-0.73) 0.58 (0.56-0.61) 0.23 (0.22-0.25) 0.24 (0.22-0.26) 0.28 (0.25-0.30) 0.39 (0.36-0.42) 0.68 (0.63-0.73) 1.22 (1.14-1.31) 1.55 (1.40-1.71) 
 Choroid plexus tumors 0.11 (0.10-0.12) 0.10 (0.09-0.11) 0.04 (0.03-0.05) 0.04 (0.03-0.05) 0.03 (0.03-0.04) 0.04 (0.03-0.05) 0.03 (0.02-0.04) 0.04 (0.03-0.06) – – 
 Other neuroepithelial tumors 0.01 (0.01-0.01) 0.01 (0.01-0.01) 0.01 (0.00-0.01) – – 0.01 (0.01-0.01) – – – – – – – – 
 Neuronal and mixed neuronal-glial tumors 0.33 (0.31-0.35) 0.36 (0.34-0.38) 0.29 (0.27-0.30) 0.23 (0.21-0.25) 0.21 (0.19-0.23) 0.22 (0.19-0.24) 0.19 (0.16-0.22) 0.18 (0.15-0.22) 0.08 (0.05-0.12) 
 Tumors of the pineal region 0.04 (0.03-0.05) 0.04 (0.04-0.05) 0.04 (0.04-0.05) 0.04 (0.03-0.05) 0.05 (0.04-0.06) 0.04 (0.03-0.05) 0.04 (0.02-0.05) – – – – 
 Embryonal tumors 0.78 (0.75-0.81) 0.65 (0.62-0.67) 0.18 (0.17-0.20) 0.10 (0.09-0.12) 0.08 (0.07-0.09) 0.05 (0.04-0.07) 0.04 (0.03-0.06) 0.05 (0.03-0.07) – – 
Tumors of Cranial and Spinal Nerves 0.24 (0.23-0.26) 0.27 (0.26-0.29) 0.80 (0.76-0.83) 1.75 (1.69-1.81) 2.90 (2.83-2.97) 3.90 (3.81-4.00) 4.21 (4.08-4.34) 3.26 (3.12-3.40) 1.71 (1.55-1.87) 
 Nerve sheath tumors 0.24 (0.23-0.26) 0.27 (0.26-0.29) 0.79 (0.76-0.83) 1.75 (1.69-1.81) 2.90 (2.83-2.97) 3.90 (3.81-4.00) 4.20 (4.07-4.34) 3.26 (3.12-3.40) 1.70 (1.55-1.87) 
 Other tumors of cranial and spinal nerves – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 
Tumors of Meninges 0.15 (0.14-0.17) 0.21 (0.20-0.23) 1.51 (1.47-1.56) 4.64 (4.55-4.74) 8.79 (8.66-8.92) 14.47 (14.28-14.66) 24.74 (24.42-25.06) 35.47 (35.01-35.93) 45.11 (44.29-45.94) 
 Meningioma 0.09 (0.08-0.10) 0.14 (0.12-0.15) 1.27 (1.23-1.31) 4.31 (4.22-4.40) 8.41 (8.29-8.53) 14.02 (13.83-14.20) 24.26 (23.95-24.58) 35.06 (34.60-35.52) 44.90 (44.08-45.73) 
 Mesenchymal tumors 0.04 (0.03-0.05) 0.04 (0.03-0.04) 0.06 (0.06-0.07) 0.10 (0.08-0.11) 0.10 (0.09-0.11) 0.14 (0.12-0.15) 0.14 (0.12-0.17) 0.12 (0.09-0.15) 0.08 (0.05-0.13) 
 Primary melanocytic lesions – – 0.01 (0.00-0.01) – – – – 0.01 (0.01-0.02) 0.01 (0.01-0.02) 0.02 (0.01-0.03) – – – – 
 Other neoplasms related to the meninges 0.02 (0.01-0.02) 0.03 (0.03-0.04) 0.17 (0.16-0.19) 0.23 (0.21-0.25) 0.27 (0.25-0.29) 0.31 (0.28-0.34) 0.32 (0.29-0.36) 0.27 (0.23-0.32) 0.13 (0.09-0.18) 
Lymphomas and Hemopoietic Neoplasms 0.02 (0.01-0.02) 0.02 (0.02-0.03) 0.12 (0.11-0.14) 0.28 (0.26-0.30) 0.48 (0.45-0.51) 0.92 (0.88-0.97) 1.86 (1.77-1.95) 2.23 (2.11-2.35) 1.06 (0.94-1.20) 
 Lymphoma 0.01 (0.01-0.02) 0.02 (0.01-0.02) 0.12 (0.11-0.13) 0.27 (0.25-0.29) 0.47 (0.44-0.50) 0.90 (0.85-0.95) 1.83 (1.74-1.92) 2.21 (2.09-2.33) 1.05 (0.93-1.18) 
 Other hemopoietic neoplasms 0.01 (0.00-0.01) 0.01 (0.01-0.01) 0.01 (0.00-0.01) 0.01 (0.01-0.02) 0.01 (0.01-0.02) 0.02 (0.02-0.03) 0.03 (0.02-0.04) – – – – 
Germ Cell Tumors and Cysts 0.18 (0.16-0.19) 0.20 (0.19-0.22) 0.11 (0.10-0.12) 0.05 (0.04-0.06) 0.03 (0.02-0.04) 0.03 (0.02-0.03) 0.03 (0.02-0.05) 0.03 (0.02-0.04)   
 Germ cell tumors, cysts and heterotopias 0.18 (0.16-0.19) 0.20 (0.19-0.22) 0.11 (0.10-0.12) 0.05 (0.04-0.06) 0.03 (0.02-0.04) 0.03 (0.02-0.03) 0.03 (0.02-0.05) 0.03 (0.02-0.04) – – 
Tumors of Sellar Region 0.39 (0.37-0.41) 0.66 (0.63-0.68) 2.68 (2.62-2.74) 3.65 (3.56-3.73) 4.17 (4.08-4.25) 5.04 (4.93-5.15) 6.78 (6.61-6.95) 6.36 (6.16-6.56) 4.14 (3.90-4.40) 
 Tumors of the pituitary 0.18 (0.17-0.20) 0.47 (0.45-0.49) 2.56 (2.50-2.62) 3.48 (3.40-3.56) 3.96 (3.88-4.05) 4.80 (4.69-4.91) 6.53 (6.37-6.70) 6.17 (5.98-6.37) 4.07 (3.82-4.32) 
 Craniopharyngioma 0.21 (0.19-0.22) 0.19 (0.18-0.21) 0.13 (0.11-0.14) 0.17 (0.15-0.19) 0.21 (0.19-0.23) 0.24 (0.22-0.26) 0.25 (0.22-0.28) 0.18 (0.15-0.22) 0.08 (0.05-0.12) 
Unclassified Tumors 0.22 (0.20-0.24) 0.25 (0.24-0.27) 0.50 (0.47-0.52) 0.72 (0.69-0.76) 0.96 (0.92-1.00) 1.44 (1.38-1.50) 2.54 (2.44-2.64) 5.16 (4.99-5.34) 11.09 (10.69-11.51) 
 Hemangioma 0.05 (0.05-0.06) 0.07 (0.06-0.08) 0.18 (0.16-0.19) 0.26 (0.24-0.28) 0.31 (0.29-0.34) 0.35 (0.32-0.38) 0.39 (0.36-0.44) 0.36 (0.31-0.41) 0.25 (0.20-0.32) 
 Neoplasm, unspecified 0.16 (0.15-0.18) 0.18 (0.17-0.19) 0.32 (0.30-0.34) 0.46 (0.43-0.49) 0.64 (0.61-0.68) 1.07 (1.02-1.12) 2.13 (2.04-2.22) 4.78 (4.61-4.95) 10.81 (10.41-11.22) 
 All other – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 
Total 4.97 (4.89-5.05) 5.13 (5.06-5.20) 8.98 (8.88-9.09) 15.58 (15.41-15.75) 24.31 (24.10-24.52) 37.72 (37.41-38.02) 57.72 (57.24-58.21) 71.86 (71.21-72.52) 75.27 (74.21-76.34) 
Histology   Age at Diagnosis
 
      Age at Diagnosis
 
      
 0-14
 
0-19
 
20-34
 
35-44
 
45-54
 
55-64
 
65-74
 
75-84
 
85 +
 
 Rate 95% CI Rate 95% CI Rate 95% CI Rate 95% CI Rate 95% CI Rate 95% CI Rate 95% CI Rate 95% CI Rate 95% CI 
Tumors of Neuroepithelial Tissue 3.77 (3.70-3.84) 3.51 (3.45-3.57) 3.26 (3.20-3.33) 4.49 (4.40-4.59) 6.98 (6.87-7.10) 11.92 (11.75-12.09) 17.57 (17.30-17.84) 19.37 (19.03-19.71) 12.14 (11.72-12.57) 
 Pilocytic astrocytoma 0.87 (0.84-0.91) 0.80 (0.78-0.83) 0.24 (0.23-0.26) 0.12 (0.10-0.13) 0.09 (0.08-0.10) 0.08 (0.07-0.10) 0.07 (0.06-0.09) 0.07 (0.05-0.09) – – 
 Diffuse astrocytoma 0.27 (0.25-0.29) 0.27 (0.25-0.28) 0.49 (0.46-0.51) 0.64 (0.61-0.67) 0.64 (0.61-0.68) 0.84 (0.80-0.89) 1.14 (1.07-1.21) 1.28 (1.19-1.37) 0.71 (0.61-0.82) 
 Anaplastic astrocytoma 0.08 (0.07-0.09) 0.08 (0.07-0.09) 0.26 (0.24-0.28) 0.35 (0.33-0.38) 0.43 (0.41-0.46) 0.67 (0.63-0.71) 0.92 (0.86-0.98) 0.96 (0.88-1.04) 0.40 (0.33-0.48) 
 Unique astrocytoma variants 0.10 (0.09-0.11) 0.11 (0.10-0.12) 0.06 (0.05-0.07) 0.04 (0.03-0.05) 0.04 (0.03-0.05) 0.04 (0.03-0.05) 0.04 (0.03-0.06) 0.06 (0.05-0.09) – – 
 Glioblastoma 0.13 (0.12-0.15) 0.14 (0.13-0.15) 0.39 (0.37-0.41) 1.21 (1.16-1.25) 3.66 (3.58-3.74) 8.16 (8.02-8.30) 13.21 (12.98-13.45) 14.64 (14.34-14.94) 8.96 (8.59-9.33) 
 Oligodendroglioma 0.04 (0.04-0.05) 0.06 (0.05-0.07) 0.32 (0.30-0.34) 0.49 (0.46-0.52) 0.42 (0.39-0.45) 0.33 (0.30-0.36) 0.25 (0.22-0.28) 0.18 (0.15-0.22) 0.07 (0.05-0.12) 
 Anaplastic oligodendroglioma 0.01 (0.01-0.01) 0.01 (0.01-0.02) 0.09 (0.08-0.10) 0.17 (0.15-0.19) 0.18 (0.17-0.20) 0.22 (0.20-0.25) 0.19 (0.17-0.22) 0.14 (0.11-0.17) – – 
 Oligoastrocytic tumors 0.03 (0.02-0.04) 0.03 (0.03-0.04) 0.28 (0.26-0.30) 0.35 (0.32-0.37) 0.28 (0.26-0.31) 0.26 (0.24-0.29) 0.23 (0.20-0.26) 0.16 (0.13-0.19) – – 
 Ependymal tumors 0.28 (0.26-0.30) 0.27 (0.26-0.29) 0.36 (0.33-0.38) 0.49 (0.46-0.52) 0.58 (0.55-0.62) 0.59 (0.55-0.62) 0.55 (0.50-0.59) 0.37 (0.32-0.42) 0.11 (0.07-0.16) 
 Glioma malignant, NOS 0.70 (0.67-0.73) 0.58 (0.56-0.61) 0.23 (0.22-0.25) 0.24 (0.22-0.26) 0.28 (0.25-0.30) 0.39 (0.36-0.42) 0.68 (0.63-0.73) 1.22 (1.14-1.31) 1.55 (1.40-1.71) 
 Choroid plexus tumors 0.11 (0.10-0.12) 0.10 (0.09-0.11) 0.04 (0.03-0.05) 0.04 (0.03-0.05) 0.03 (0.03-0.04) 0.04 (0.03-0.05) 0.03 (0.02-0.04) 0.04 (0.03-0.06) – – 
 Other neuroepithelial tumors 0.01 (0.01-0.01) 0.01 (0.01-0.01) 0.01 (0.00-0.01) – – 0.01 (0.01-0.01) – – – – – – – – 
 Neuronal and mixed neuronal-glial tumors 0.33 (0.31-0.35) 0.36 (0.34-0.38) 0.29 (0.27-0.30) 0.23 (0.21-0.25) 0.21 (0.19-0.23) 0.22 (0.19-0.24) 0.19 (0.16-0.22) 0.18 (0.15-0.22) 0.08 (0.05-0.12) 
 Tumors of the pineal region 0.04 (0.03-0.05) 0.04 (0.04-0.05) 0.04 (0.04-0.05) 0.04 (0.03-0.05) 0.05 (0.04-0.06) 0.04 (0.03-0.05) 0.04 (0.02-0.05) – – – – 
 Embryonal tumors 0.78 (0.75-0.81) 0.65 (0.62-0.67) 0.18 (0.17-0.20) 0.10 (0.09-0.12) 0.08 (0.07-0.09) 0.05 (0.04-0.07) 0.04 (0.03-0.06) 0.05 (0.03-0.07) – – 
Tumors of Cranial and Spinal Nerves 0.24 (0.23-0.26) 0.27 (0.26-0.29) 0.80 (0.76-0.83) 1.75 (1.69-1.81) 2.90 (2.83-2.97) 3.90 (3.81-4.00) 4.21 (4.08-4.34) 3.26 (3.12-3.40) 1.71 (1.55-1.87) 
 Nerve sheath tumors 0.24 (0.23-0.26) 0.27 (0.26-0.29) 0.79 (0.76-0.83) 1.75 (1.69-1.81) 2.90 (2.83-2.97) 3.90 (3.81-4.00) 4.20 (4.07-4.34) 3.26 (3.12-3.40) 1.70 (1.55-1.87) 
 Other tumors of cranial and spinal nerves – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 
Tumors of Meninges 0.15 (0.14-0.17) 0.21 (0.20-0.23) 1.51 (1.47-1.56) 4.64 (4.55-4.74) 8.79 (8.66-8.92) 14.47 (14.28-14.66) 24.74 (24.42-25.06) 35.47 (35.01-35.93) 45.11 (44.29-45.94) 
 Meningioma 0.09 (0.08-0.10) 0.14 (0.12-0.15) 1.27 (1.23-1.31) 4.31 (4.22-4.40) 8.41 (8.29-8.53) 14.02 (13.83-14.20) 24.26 (23.95-24.58) 35.06 (34.60-35.52) 44.90 (44.08-45.73) 
 Mesenchymal tumors 0.04 (0.03-0.05) 0.04 (0.03-0.04) 0.06 (0.06-0.07) 0.10 (0.08-0.11) 0.10 (0.09-0.11) 0.14 (0.12-0.15) 0.14 (0.12-0.17) 0.12 (0.09-0.15) 0.08 (0.05-0.13) 
 Primary melanocytic lesions – – 0.01 (0.00-0.01) – – – – 0.01 (0.01-0.02) 0.01 (0.01-0.02) 0.02 (0.01-0.03) – – – – 
 Other neoplasms related to the meninges 0.02 (0.01-0.02) 0.03 (0.03-0.04) 0.17 (0.16-0.19) 0.23 (0.21-0.25) 0.27 (0.25-0.29) 0.31 (0.28-0.34) 0.32 (0.29-0.36) 0.27 (0.23-0.32) 0.13 (0.09-0.18) 
Lymphomas and Hemopoietic Neoplasms 0.02 (0.01-0.02) 0.02 (0.02-0.03) 0.12 (0.11-0.14) 0.28 (0.26-0.30) 0.48 (0.45-0.51) 0.92 (0.88-0.97) 1.86 (1.77-1.95) 2.23 (2.11-2.35) 1.06 (0.94-1.20) 
 Lymphoma 0.01 (0.01-0.02) 0.02 (0.01-0.02) 0.12 (0.11-0.13) 0.27 (0.25-0.29) 0.47 (0.44-0.50) 0.90 (0.85-0.95) 1.83 (1.74-1.92) 2.21 (2.09-2.33) 1.05 (0.93-1.18) 
 Other hemopoietic neoplasms 0.01 (0.00-0.01) 0.01 (0.01-0.01) 0.01 (0.00-0.01) 0.01 (0.01-0.02) 0.01 (0.01-0.02) 0.02 (0.02-0.03) 0.03 (0.02-0.04) – – – – 
Germ Cell Tumors and Cysts 0.18 (0.16-0.19) 0.20 (0.19-0.22) 0.11 (0.10-0.12) 0.05 (0.04-0.06) 0.03 (0.02-0.04) 0.03 (0.02-0.03) 0.03 (0.02-0.05) 0.03 (0.02-0.04)   
 Germ cell tumors, cysts and heterotopias 0.18 (0.16-0.19) 0.20 (0.19-0.22) 0.11 (0.10-0.12) 0.05 (0.04-0.06) 0.03 (0.02-0.04) 0.03 (0.02-0.03) 0.03 (0.02-0.05) 0.03 (0.02-0.04) – – 
Tumors of Sellar Region 0.39 (0.37-0.41) 0.66 (0.63-0.68) 2.68 (2.62-2.74) 3.65 (3.56-3.73) 4.17 (4.08-4.25) 5.04 (4.93-5.15) 6.78 (6.61-6.95) 6.36 (6.16-6.56) 4.14 (3.90-4.40) 
 Tumors of the pituitary 0.18 (0.17-0.20) 0.47 (0.45-0.49) 2.56 (2.50-2.62) 3.48 (3.40-3.56) 3.96 (3.88-4.05) 4.80 (4.69-4.91) 6.53 (6.37-6.70) 6.17 (5.98-6.37) 4.07 (3.82-4.32) 
 Craniopharyngioma 0.21 (0.19-0.22) 0.19 (0.18-0.21) 0.13 (0.11-0.14) 0.17 (0.15-0.19) 0.21 (0.19-0.23) 0.24 (0.22-0.26) 0.25 (0.22-0.28) 0.18 (0.15-0.22) 0.08 (0.05-0.12) 
Unclassified Tumors 0.22 (0.20-0.24) 0.25 (0.24-0.27) 0.50 (0.47-0.52) 0.72 (0.69-0.76) 0.96 (0.92-1.00) 1.44 (1.38-1.50) 2.54 (2.44-2.64) 5.16 (4.99-5.34) 11.09 (10.69-11.51) 
 Hemangioma 0.05 (0.05-0.06) 0.07 (0.06-0.08) 0.18 (0.16-0.19) 0.26 (0.24-0.28) 0.31 (0.29-0.34) 0.35 (0.32-0.38) 0.39 (0.36-0.44) 0.36 (0.31-0.41) 0.25 (0.20-0.32) 
 Neoplasm, unspecified 0.16 (0.15-0.18) 0.18 (0.17-0.19) 0.32 (0.30-0.34) 0.46 (0.43-0.49) 0.64 (0.61-0.68) 1.07 (1.02-1.12) 2.13 (2.04-2.22) 4.78 (4.61-4.95) 10.81 (10.41-11.22) 
 All other – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 
Total 4.97 (4.89-5.05) 5.13 (5.06-5.20) 8.98 (8.88-9.09) 15.58 (15.41-15.75) 24.31 (24.10-24.52) 37.72 (37.41-38.02) 57.72 (57.24-58.21) 71.86 (71.21-72.52) 75.27 (74.21-76.34) 

Rates are per 100,000 and age-adjusted to the 2000 US. standard population.

Refers to all brain tumors including histologies not presented in this table.

- Counts and rates are not presented when fewer than 16 cases were reported for the specific histology category. The suppressed cases are included in the counts and rates for totals.

Abbreviations: CBTRUS, Central Brain Tumor Registry of the United States; NPCR, CDC's National Program of Cancer Registries; SEER, NCI's Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results program; CI, confidence interval; NOS, not otherwise specified.

Fig. 11.

Age-Specific Incidence Rates of Primary Brain and CNS Tumors by Selected Histologies.

Fig. 11.

Age-Specific Incidence Rates of Primary Brain and CNS Tumors by Selected Histologies.

Fig. 12.

Most Common Primary Brain and CNS Tumors by Age.

Fig. 12.

Most Common Primary Brain and CNS Tumors by Age.

Childhood Primary Brain and CNS Tumors: Incidence by Site, Histology, Gender, and Age

Childhood Brain Tumors

Brain and CNS tumors are the second most common malignancy among children; leukemias as a group are the most common.21,22 However, brain and CNS tumors are the most common form of solid tumors in children.21 About 7% of the reported brain and CNS tumors during 2005–2009 occurred in children ages 0-19 years.

Distribution of Tumors by Site and Histology

The distribution of brain and CNS tumors for children ages 0-19 years by site is shown in Figure 13. The largest percentage of childhood tumors (17%) are located within the frontal, temporal, parietal and occipital lobes of the brain. Cerebrum, ventricle, cerebellum, and brain stem tumors account for 6%, 6%, 16%, and 10% of all childhood tumors, respectively. The listing, Other Brain, account for 14% and tumors of the meninges represent 3% of all childhood tumors. The cranial nerves and the spinal cord and cauda equina account for 6% and 5%, respectively. Tumors located in the pituitary and pineal glands together account for about 16% of all childhood brain and CNS tumors.

Fig. 13.

Distribution of Childhood (Ages 0-19 years) Primary Brain and CNS Tumors by Site (N = 20,709).

Fig. 13.

Distribution of Childhood (Ages 0-19 years) Primary Brain and CNS Tumors by Site (N = 20,709).

Figure 14 presents the most common brain and CNS histologies in children ages 0–14 years and adolescents ages 15-19 years. For children ages 0-14 years, pilocytic astrocytomas, embryonal tumors, and malignant glioma, NOS, account for 18%, 15%, and 14%, respectively. The most common histologies in adolescents ages 15–19 years include tumors of the pituitary (23%) and pilocytic astrocytoma (11%) (Figure 14). The broad category glioma accounts for 53% of tumors in children ages 0-14 years and 37% in adolescents ages 15–19 years.

Fig. 14.

Distribution of Childhood Primary Brain and CNS Tumors by Histology.

Fig. 14.

Distribution of Childhood Primary Brain and CNS Tumors by Histology.

Childhood Incidence Rates by Histology and Gender

The incidence rates of the most common childhood tumors by gender are shown in Table 13. The overall incidence rate for childhood brain and CNS tumors (ages 0–19 years) is 5.13 per 100,000. Among major histology groupings, incidence rates were highest for tumors of the neuroepithelial tissue (3.51 per 100,000). Pilocytic astrocytoma (0.80 per 100,000), embryonal tumors (0.65 per 100,000), and glioma malignant, NOS (0.58 per 100,000) have the highest rates among individual histologies. Germ cell tumors are more than twice as common in males compared to females. Conversely, the incidence rate of tumors of the pituitary for females is more than two and one-half times the rate observed for males. Differences in incidence rates between males and females for ependymal tumors, embryonal tumors, germ cell tumors, and tumors of the pituitary are statistically significant. Due to small numbers for some tumors caution when interpreting and comparing incidence rates is required.

Table 13.

Selected Childhood (Ages 0–19) Brain and Central Nervous System Tumor Average Annual Age–Adjusted Incidence Rates by Major Histology Groupings, Histology and Gender, CBTRUS Statistical Report: NPCR and SEER, 2005–2009

Histology Total
 
Male
 
Female
 
 Rate 95% CI Rate 95% CI Rate 95% CI 
Tumors of Neuroepithelial Tissue 3.51 (3.45–3.57) 3.70 (3.62–3.78) 3.31 (3.23–3.40) 
 Pilocytic astrocytoma 0.80 (0.78–0.83) 0.81 (0.77–0.85) 0.79 (0.75–0.83) 
 Diffuse astrocytoma 0.27 (0.25–0.28) 0.28 (0.26–0.30) 0.26 (0.23–0.28) 
 Anaplastic astrocytoma 0.08 (0.07–0.09) 0.09 (0.08–0.11) 0.07 (0.06–0.08) 
 Unique astrocytoma variants 0.11 (0.10–0.12) 0.11 (0.10–0.12) 0.11 (0.09–0.12) 
 Glioblastoma 0.14 (0.13–0.15) 0.16 (0.14–0.18) 0.12 (0.11–0.14) 
 Oligodendroglioma 0.06 (0.05–0.07) 0.06 (0.05–0.08) 0.05 (0.04–0.06) 
 Anaplastic oligodendroglioma 0.01 (0.01–0.02) 0.01 (0.01–0.02) 0.01 (0.01–0.02) 
 Oligoastrocytic tumors 0.03 (0.03–0.04) 0.03 (0.02–0.04) 0.04 (0.03–0.05) 
 Ependymal tumors 0.27 (0.26–0.29) 0.31 (0.29–0.33) 0.24 (0.22–0.26) 
 Glioma malignant, NOS 0.58 (0.56–0.61) 0.56 (0.53–0.59) 0.61 (0.58–0.65) 
 Choroid plexus tumors 0.10 (0.09–0.11) 0.10 (0.09–0.12) 0.09 (0.07–0.10) 
 Other neuroepithelial tumors 0.01 (0.01–0.01) – – 0.01 (0.01–0.02) 
 Neuronal and mixed neuronal–glial tumors 0.36 (0.34–0.38) 0.39 (0.36–0.42) 0.33 (0.31–0.36) 
 Tumors of the pineal region 0.04 (0.04–0.05) 0.04 (0.03–0.05) 0.04 (0.03–0.05) 
 Embryonal tumors 0.65 (0.62–0.67) 0.74 (0.70–0.78) 0.55 (0.52–0.58) 
Tumors of Cranial and Spinal Nerves 0.27 (0.26–0.29) 0.27 (0.25–0.29) 0.28 (0.25–0.30) 
 Nerve sheath tumors 0.27 (0.26–0.29) 0.27 (0.25–0.29) 0.28 (0.25–0.30) 
 Other tumors of cranial and spinal nerves – – – – – – 
Tumors of Meninges 0.21 (0.20–0.23) 0.20 (0.18–0.22) 0.23 (0.21–0.25) 
 Meningioma 0.14 (0.12–0.15) 0.13 (0.11–0.14) 0.14 (0.13–0.16) 
 Mesenchymal tumors 0.04 (0.03–0.04) 0.03 (0.02–0.04) 0.05 (0.04–0.06) 
 Primary melanocytic lesions 0.01 (0.00–0.01) 0.01 (0.00–0.01) 0.01 (0.00–0.01) 
 Other neoplasms related to the meninges 0.03 (0.03–0.04) 0.04 (0.03–0.05) 0.03 (0.03–0.04) 
Lymphomas and Hemopoietic Neoplasms 0.02 (0.02–0.03) 0.03 (0.02–0.04) 0.02 (0.01–0.02) 
 Lymphoma 0.02 (0.01–0.02) 0.02 (0.01–0.03) 0.01 (0.01–0.02) 
 Other hemopoietic neoplasms 0.01 (0.01–0.01) 0.01 (0.01–0.01) 0.01 (0.00–0.01) 
Germ Cell Tumors and Cysts 0.20 (0.19–0.22) 0.28 (0.26–0.31) 0.12 (0.11–0.14) 
 Germ cell tumors, cysts and heterotopias 0.20 (0.19–0.22) 0.28 (0.26–0.31) 0.12 (0.11–0.14) 
Tumors of Sellar Region 0.66 (0.63–0.68) 0.45 (0.42–0.48) 0.87 (0.83–0.92) 
 Tumors of the pituitary 0.47 (0.45–0.49) 0.26 (0.24–0.28) 0.68 (0.64–0.72) 
 Craniopharyngioma 0.19 (0.18–0.21) 0.19 (0.17–0.21) 0.19 (0.18–0.21) 
Unclassified Tumors 0.25 (0.24–0.27) 0.26 (0.24–0.29) 0.25 (0.22–0.27) 
 Hemangioma 0.07 (0.06–0.08) 0.08 (0.07–0.09) 0.07 (0.06–0.08) 
 Neoplasm, unspecified 0.18 (0.17–0.19) 0.18 (0.17–0.20) 0.18 (0.16–0.20) 
 All other – – – – – – 
Total 5.13 (5.06–5.20) 5.19 (5.09–5.29) 5.08 (4.98–5.18) 
Histology Total
 
Male
 
Female
 
 Rate 95% CI Rate 95% CI Rate 95% CI 
Tumors of Neuroepithelial Tissue 3.51 (3.45–3.57) 3.70 (3.62–3.78) 3.31 (3.23–3.40) 
 Pilocytic astrocytoma 0.80 (0.78–0.83) 0.81 (0.77–0.85) 0.79 (0.75–0.83) 
 Diffuse astrocytoma 0.27 (0.25–0.28) 0.28 (0.26–0.30) 0.26 (0.23–0.28) 
 Anaplastic astrocytoma 0.08 (0.07–0.09) 0.09 (0.08–0.11) 0.07 (0.06–0.08) 
 Unique astrocytoma variants 0.11 (0.10–0.12) 0.11 (0.10–0.12) 0.11 (0.09–0.12) 
 Glioblastoma 0.14 (0.13–0.15) 0.16 (0.14–0.18) 0.12 (0.11–0.14) 
 Oligodendroglioma 0.06 (0.05–0.07) 0.06 (0.05–0.08) 0.05 (0.04–0.06) 
 Anaplastic oligodendroglioma 0.01 (0.01–0.02) 0.01 (0.01–0.02) 0.01 (0.01–0.02) 
 Oligoastrocytic tumors 0.03 (0.03–0.04) 0.03 (0.02–0.04) 0.04 (0.03–0.05) 
 Ependymal tumors 0.27 (0.26–0.29) 0.31 (0.29–0.33) 0.24 (0.22–0.26) 
 Glioma malignant, NOS 0.58 (0.56–0.61) 0.56 (0.53–0.59) 0.61 (0.58–0.65) 
 Choroid plexus tumors 0.10 (0.09–0.11) 0.10 (0.09–0.12) 0.09 (0.07–0.10) 
 Other neuroepithelial tumors 0.01 (0.01–0.01) – – 0.01 (0.01–0.02) 
 Neuronal and mixed neuronal–glial tumors 0.36 (0.34–0.38) 0.39 (0.36–0.42) 0.33 (0.31–0.36) 
 Tumors of the pineal region 0.04 (0.04–0.05) 0.04 (0.03–0.05) 0.04 (0.03–0.05) 
 Embryonal tumors 0.65 (0.62–0.67) 0.74 (0.70–0.78) 0.55 (0.52–0.58) 
Tumors of Cranial and Spinal Nerves 0.27 (0.26–0.29) 0.27 (0.25–0.29) 0.28 (0.25–0.30) 
 Nerve sheath tumors 0.27 (0.26–0.29) 0.27 (0.25–0.29) 0.28 (0.25–0.30) 
 Other tumors of cranial and spinal nerves – – – – – – 
Tumors of Meninges 0.21 (0.20–0.23) 0.20 (0.18–0.22) 0.23 (0.21–0.25) 
 Meningioma 0.14 (0.12–0.15) 0.13 (0.11–0.14) 0.14 (0.13–0.16) 
 Mesenchymal tumors 0.04 (0.03–0.04) 0.03 (0.02–0.04) 0.05 (0.04–0.06) 
 Primary melanocytic lesions 0.01 (0.00–0.01) 0.01 (0.00–0.01) 0.01 (0.00–0.01) 
 Other neoplasms related to the meninges 0.03 (0.03–0.04) 0.04 (0.03–0.05) 0.03 (0.03–0.04) 
Lymphomas and Hemopoietic Neoplasms 0.02 (0.02–0.03) 0.03 (0.02–0.04) 0.02 (0.01–0.02) 
 Lymphoma 0.02 (0.01–0.02) 0.02 (0.01–0.03) 0.01 (0.01–0.02) 
 Other hemopoietic neoplasms 0.01 (0.01–0.01) 0.01 (0.01–0.01) 0.01 (0.00–0.01) 
Germ Cell Tumors and Cysts 0.20 (0.19–0.22) 0.28 (0.26–0.31) 0.12 (0.11–0.14) 
 Germ cell tumors, cysts and heterotopias 0.20 (0.19–0.22) 0.28 (0.26–0.31) 0.12 (0.11–0.14) 
Tumors of Sellar Region 0.66 (0.63–0.68) 0.45 (0.42–0.48) 0.87 (0.83–0.92) 
 Tumors of the pituitary 0.47 (0.45–0.49) 0.26 (0.24–0.28) 0.68 (0.64–0.72) 
 Craniopharyngioma 0.19 (0.18–0.21) 0.19 (0.17–0.21) 0.19 (0.18–0.21) 
Unclassified Tumors 0.25 (0.24–0.27) 0.26 (0.24–0.29) 0.25 (0.22–0.27) 
 Hemangioma 0.07 (0.06–0.08) 0.08 (0.07–0.09) 0.07 (0.06–0.08) 
 Neoplasm, unspecified 0.18 (0.17–0.19) 0.18 (0.17–0.20) 0.18 (0.16–0.20) 
 All other – – – – – – 
Total 5.13 (5.06–5.20) 5.19 (5.09–5.29) 5.08 (4.98–5.18) 

Rates are per 100,000 and are age–adjusted to the 2000 US standard population.

Refers to all brain tumors including histologies not presented in this table.

– Counts and rates are not presented when fewer than 16 cases were reported for the specific histology category. Suppressed cases are included in the total counts and rates.

Abbreviations: CBTRUS, Central Brain Tumor Registry of the United States; NPCR, CDC's National Program of Cancer Registries; SEER, NCI's Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results program; CI, confidence interval; NOS, not otherwise specified.

Childhood Incidence Rates by Histology and Race

Table 14 shows incidence rates by histology and race for children ages 0-19 years. Incidence rates were highest among whites (5.31 per 100,000) compared with black (3.96 per 100,000), AIAN (3.40 per 100,000) or API (3.07 per 100,000) race groups. The observed overall incidence rate differences between whites and each of the three other race groups are statistically significant. Total brain and CNS tumor incidence rates between black and AIAN races are not significantly different. However, the total average annual incidence rate for the API race group is statistically significantly lower than the rate observed for black children ages 0-19 years. Children ages 0-19 years of API races have statistically significantly higher rates of germ cell tumors and cysts than either white or black races. Conversely, API incidence rate for tumors of the sellar region is statistically significantly lower than those observed for white, black, or AIAN race groups.

Table 14.

Childhood (Ages 0–19) Brain and Central Nervous System Tumor Average Annual Age–Adjusted Incidence Rates by Major Histology Groupings and Race, CBTRUS Statistical Report: NPCR and SEER, 2005–2009

 White
 
Black
 
AIAN
 
API
 
 Rate 95% CI Rate 95% CI Rate 95% CI Rate 95% CI 
Tumors of Neuroepithelial Tissue 3.67 (3.60–3.74) 2.69 (2.56–2.82) 1.96 (1.62–2.36) 1.96 (1.77–2.16) 
 Pilocytic astrocytoma 0.85 (0.82–0.89) 0.58 (0.52–0.64) – – 0.37 (0.29–0.46) 
 Diffuse astrocytoma 0.28 (0.26–0.30) 0.21 (0.18–0.25) – – 0.16 (0.11–0.22) 
 Anaplastic astrocytoma 0.08 (0.07–0.09) 0.06 (0.05–0.09) – – – – 
 Unique astrocytoma variants 0.11 (0.09–0.12) 0.12 (0.09–0.15) – – – – 
 Glioblastoma 0.14 (0.12–0.15) 0.16 (0.13–0.19) – – 0.12 (0.08–0.18) 
 Oligodendroglioma 0.06 (0.05–0.07) 0.06 (0.04–0.08) – – – – 
 Anaplastic oligodendroglioma 0.01 (0.01–0.02) – – – – – – 
 Oligoastrocytic tumors 0.04 (0.03–0.05) – – – – – – 
 Ependymal tumors 0.29 (0.27–0.31) 0.20 (0.16–0.23) 0.27 (0.15–0.43) 0.24 (0.17–0.31) 
 Glioma malignant, NOS 0.60 (0.58–0.63) 0.43 (0.38–0.49) – – 0.37 (0.29–0.46) 
 Choroid plexus tumors 0.11 (0.10–0.12) 0.04 (0.03–0.06) – – – – 
 Other neuroepithelial tumors 0.01 (0.01–0.01) – – – – – – 
 Neuronal and mixed neuronal–glial tumors 0.39 (0.36–0.41) 0.25 (0.22–0.30) – – 0.14 (0.09–0.20) 
 Tumors of the pineal region 0.03 (0.03–0.04) 0.08 (0.06–0.11) – – – – 
 Embryonal tumors 0.69 (0.66–0.72) 0.46 (0.41–0.51) – – 0.40 (0.32–0.50) 
Tumors of Cranial and Spinal Nerves 0.28 (0.26–0.30) 0.21 (0.18–0.25) 0.20 (0.10–0.34) 0.14 (0.09–0.20) 
 Nerve sheath tumors 0.28 (0.26–0.30) 0.21 (0.18–0.25) – – 0.14 (0.09–0.20) 
 Other tumors of cranial and spinal nerves – – – – – – – – 
Tumors of Meninges 0.22 (0.20–0.24) 0.16 (0.13–0.20)   0.12 (0.08–0.18) 
 Meningioma 0.14 (0.12–0.15) 0.11 (0.09–0.14) – – 0.09 (0.05–0.14) 
 Mesenchymal tumors 0.04 (0.03–0.05) – – – – – – 
 Primary melanocytic lesions 0.01 (0.00–0.01) – – – – – – 
 Other neoplasms related to the meninges 0.04 (0.03–0.04) 0.03 (0.02–0.04) – – – – 
Lymphomas and Hemopoietic Neoplasms 0.02 (0.02–0.03)       
 Lymphoma 0.01 (0.01–0.02) – – – – – – 
 Other hemopoietic neoplasms 0.01 (0.01–0.01) – – – – – – 
Germ Cell Tumors and Cysts 0.21 (0.19–0.22) 0.14 (0.11–0.17)   0.33 (0.26–0.43) 
 Germ cell tumors, cysts and heterotopias 0.21 (0.19–0.22) 0.14 (0.11–0.17) – – 0.33 (0.26–0.43) 
Tumors of Sellar Region 0.65 (0.62–0.67) 0.58 (0.52–0.64) 0.77 (0.56–1.03) 0.38 (0.30–0.48) 
 Tumors of the pituitary 0.46 (0.43–0.48) 0.40 (0.35–0.45) 0.60 (0.42–0.83) 0.28 (0.21–0.37) 
 Craniopharyngioma 0.19 (0.17–0.21) 0.18 (0.15–0.22) – – 0.10 (0.06–0.15) 
Unclassified Tumors 0.27 (0.25–0.28) 0.17 (0.14–0.20)   0.11 (0.07–0.17) 
 Hemangioma 0.08 (0.07–0.09) 0.04 (0.02–0.05) – – – – 
 Neoplasm, unspecified 0.19 (0.17–0.20) 0.13 (0.10–0.16) – – – – 
 All other – – – – – – – – 
Total 5.31 (5.23–5.39) 3.96 (3.81–4.12) 3.40 (2.95–3.91) 3.07 (2.83–3.32) 
 White
 
Black
 
AIAN
 
API
 
 Rate 95% CI Rate 95% CI Rate 95% CI Rate 95% CI 
Tumors of Neuroepithelial Tissue 3.67 (3.60–3.74) 2.69 (2.56–2.82) 1.96 (1.62–2.36) 1.96 (1.77–2.16) 
 Pilocytic astrocytoma 0.85 (0.82–0.89) 0.58 (0.52–0.64) – – 0.37 (0.29–0.46) 
 Diffuse astrocytoma 0.28 (0.26–0.30) 0.21 (0.18–0.25) – – 0.16 (0.11–0.22) 
 Anaplastic astrocytoma 0.08 (0.07–0.09) 0.06 (0.05–0.09) – – – – 
 Unique astrocytoma variants 0.11 (0.09–0.12) 0.12 (0.09–0.15) – – – – 
 Glioblastoma 0.14 (0.12–0.15) 0.16 (0.13–0.19) – – 0.12 (0.08–0.18) 
 Oligodendroglioma 0.06 (0.05–0.07) 0.06 (0.04–0.08) – – – – 
 Anaplastic oligodendroglioma 0.01 (0.01–0.02) – – – – – – 
 Oligoastrocytic tumors 0.04 (0.03–0.05) – – – – – – 
 Ependymal tumors 0.29 (0.27–0.31) 0.20 (0.16–0.23) 0.27 (0.15–0.43) 0.24 (0.17–0.31) 
 Glioma malignant, NOS 0.60 (0.58–0.63) 0.43 (0.38–0.49) – – 0.37 (0.29–0.46) 
 Choroid plexus tumors 0.11 (0.10–0.12) 0.04 (0.03–0.06) – – – – 
 Other neuroepithelial tumors 0.01 (0.01–0.01) – – – – – – 
 Neuronal and mixed neuronal–glial tumors 0.39 (0.36–0.41) 0.25 (0.22–0.30) – – 0.14 (0.09–0.20) 
 Tumors of the pineal region 0.03 (0.03–0.04) 0.08 (0.06–0.11) – – – – 
 Embryonal tumors 0.69 (0.66–0.72) 0.46 (0.41–0.51) – – 0.40 (0.32–0.50) 
Tumors of Cranial and Spinal Nerves 0.28 (0.26–0.30) 0.21 (0.18–0.25) 0.20 (0.10–0.34) 0.14 (0.09–0.20) 
 Nerve sheath tumors 0.28 (0.26–0.30) 0.21 (0.18–0.25) – – 0.14 (0.09–0.20) 
 Other tumors of cranial and spinal nerves – – – – – – – – 
Tumors of Meninges 0.22 (0.20–0.24) 0.16 (0.13–0.20)   0.12 (0.08–0.18) 
 Meningioma 0.14 (0.12–0.15) 0.11 (0.09–0.14) – – 0.09 (0.05–0.14) 
 Mesenchymal tumors 0.04 (0.03–0.05) – – – – – – 
 Primary melanocytic lesions 0.01 (0.00–0.01) – – – – – – 
 Other neoplasms related to the meninges 0.04 (0.03–0.04) 0.03 (0.02–0.04) – – – – 
Lymphomas and Hemopoietic Neoplasms 0.02 (0.02–0.03)       
 Lymphoma 0.01 (0.01–0.02) – – – – – – 
 Other hemopoietic neoplasms 0.01 (0.01–0.01) – – – – – – 
Germ Cell Tumors and Cysts 0.21 (0.19–0.22) 0.14 (0.11–0.17)   0.33 (0.26–0.43) 
 Germ cell tumors, cysts and heterotopias 0.21 (0.19–0.22) 0.14 (0.11–0.17) – – 0.33 (0.26–0.43) 
Tumors of Sellar Region 0.65 (0.62–0.67) 0.58 (0.52–0.64) 0.77 (0.56–1.03) 0.38 (0.30–0.48) 
 Tumors of the pituitary 0.46 (0.43–0.48) 0.40 (0.35–0.45) 0.60 (0.42–0.83) 0.28 (0.21–0.37) 
 Craniopharyngioma 0.19 (0.17–0.21) 0.18 (0.15–0.22) – – 0.10 (0.06–0.15) 
Unclassified Tumors 0.27 (0.25–0.28) 0.17 (0.14–0.20)   0.11 (0.07–0.17) 
 Hemangioma 0.08 (0.07–0.09) 0.04 (0.02–0.05) – – – – 
 Neoplasm, unspecified 0.19 (0.17–0.20) 0.13 (0.10–0.16) – – – – 
 All other – – – – – – – – 
Total 5.31 (5.23–5.39) 3.96 (3.81–4.12) 3.40 (2.95–3.91) 3.07 (2.83–3.32) 

Rates are per 100,000 and are age–adjusted to the 2000 US standard population.

Refers to all brain tumors including histologies not presented in this table.

– Counts and rates are not presented when fewer than 16 cases were reported for the specific histology category. Suppressed cases are included in the total counts and rates.

Abbreviations: CBTRUS, Central Brain Tumor Registry of the United States; NPCR, CDC's National Program of Cancer Registries; SEER, NCI's Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results program; CI, confidence interval; NOS, not otherwise specified; AIAN, American Indian/Alaskan Native; API, Asian Pacific Islander.

Childhood Incidence rates by Histology and Hispanic Ethnicity

Incidence rates for children ages 0-19 years by Hispanic ethnicity are shown in Table 15. The non-Hispanic rate (5.30 per 100,000) is statistically significantly higher than the observed rate for Hispanics (4.55 per 100,000). This difference is apparent for incidence rates of tumors of neuroepithelial tissue and tumors of cranial and spinal nerves. Conversely, incidence rates for tumors of the pituitary are statistically significantly higher among Hispanic children ages 0-19 years than their non-Hispanic counterparts.

Table 15.

Selected Childhood (Ages 0-19) Brain and Central Nervous System Tumor Average Annual Age-Adjusted Incidence Rates By Major Histology Groupings, Histology, and Hispanic Ethnicity, CBTRUS Statistical Report: NPCR and SEER, 2005–2009

Histology Hispanic
 
Non-Hispanic
 
 Rate 95% CI Rate 95% CI 
Tumors of Neuroepithelial Tissue 2.80 (2.69-2.91) 3.71 (3.64-3.77) 
 Pilocytic astrocytoma 0.58 (0.53-0.64) 0.86 (0.83-0.90) 
 Diffuse astrocytoma 0.21 (0.18-0.24) 0.28 (0.27-0.30) 
 Anaplastic astrocytoma 0.07 (0.06-0.10) 0.08 (0.07-0.09) 
 Unique astrocytoma variants 0.09 (0.07-0.11) 0.11 (0.10-0.12) 
 Glioblastoma 0.13 (0.10-0.15) 0.14 (0.13-0.16) 
 Oligodendroglioma 0.04 (0.03-0.06) 0.06 (0.05-0.07) 
 Anaplastic oligodendroglioma – – 0.01 (0.01-0.02) 
 Oligoastrocytic tumors 0.02 (0.01-0.03) 0.04 (0.03-0.04) 
 Ependymal tumors 0.26 (0.23-0.30) 0.28 (0.26-0.30) 
 Glioma malignant, NOS 0.44 (0.40-0.49) 0.62 (0.60-0.65) 
 Choroid plexus tumors 0.09 (0.07-0.11) 0.10 (0.09-0.11) 
 Other neuroepithelial tumors – – 0.01 (0.01-0.01) 
 Neuronal and mixed neuronal-glial tumors 0.25 (0.21-0.28) 0.39 (0.37-0.42) 
 Tumors of the pineal region 0.04 (0.03-0.05) 0.04 (0.04-0.05) 
 Embryonal tumors 0.57 (0.52-0.62) 0.67 (0.64-0.70) 
Tumors of Cranial and Spinal Nerves 0.23 (0.20-0.26) 0.28 (0.27-0.30) 
 Nerve sheath tumors 0.23 (0.20-0.26) 0.28 (0.27-0.30) 
 Other tumors of cranial and spinal nerves – – – – 
Tumors of Meninges 0.18 (0.15-0.21) 0.22 (0.20-0.24) 
 Meningioma 0.09 (0.07-0.11) 0.15 (0.13-0.16) 
 Mesenchymal tumors 0.03 (0.02-0.05) 0.04 (0.03-0.05) 
 Primary melanocytic lesions – – – – 
 Other neoplasms related to the meninges 0.05 (0.04-0.07) 0.03 (0.03-0.04) 
Lymphomas and Hemopoietic Neoplasms 0.03 (0.02-0.05) 0.02 (0.02-0.03) 
 Lymphoma 0.02 (0.01-0.04) 0.01 (0.01-0.02) 
 Other hemopoietic neoplasms 0.01 (0.00-0.02) 0.01 (0.00-0.01) 
Germ Cell Tumors and Cysts 0.23 (0.20-0.26) 0.20 (0.18-0.22) 
 Germ cell tumors, cysts and heterotopias 0.23 (0.20-0.26) 0.20 (0.18-0.22) 
Tumors of Sellar Region 0.79 (0.73-0.85) 0.63 (0.60-0.66) 
 Tumors of the pituitary 0.58 (0.52-0.63) 0.44 (0.42-0.46) 
 Craniopharyngioma 0.21 (0.18-0.25) 0.19 (0.17-0.20) 
Unclassified Tumors 0.29 (0.26-0.33) 0.24 (0.23-0.26) 
 Hemangioma 0.08 (0.07-0.11) 0.07 (0.06-0.08) 
 Neoplasm, unspecified 0.21 (0.18-0.24) 0.17 (0.16-0.19) 
 All other – – – – 
Total§ 4.55 (4.40-4.69) 5.30 (5.22-5.38) 
Histology Hispanic
 
Non-Hispanic
 
 Rate 95% CI Rate 95% CI 
Tumors of Neuroepithelial Tissue 2.80 (2.69-2.91) 3.71 (3.64-3.77) 
 Pilocytic astrocytoma 0.58 (0.53-0.64) 0.86 (0.83-0.90) 
 Diffuse astrocytoma 0.21 (0.18-0.24) 0.28 (0.27-0.30) 
 Anaplastic astrocytoma 0.07 (0.06-0.10) 0.08 (0.07-0.09) 
 Unique astrocytoma variants 0.09 (0.07-0.11) 0.11 (0.10-0.12) 
 Glioblastoma 0.13 (0.10-0.15) 0.14 (0.13-0.16) 
 Oligodendroglioma 0.04 (0.03-0.06) 0.06 (0.05-0.07) 
 Anaplastic oligodendroglioma – – 0.01 (0.01-0.02) 
 Oligoastrocytic tumors 0.02 (0.01-0.03) 0.04 (0.03-0.04) 
 Ependymal tumors 0.26 (0.23-0.30) 0.28 (0.26-0.30) 
 Glioma malignant, NOS 0.44 (0.40-0.49) 0.62 (0.60-0.65) 
 Choroid plexus tumors 0.09 (0.07-0.11) 0.10 (0.09-0.11) 
 Other neuroepithelial tumors – – 0.01 (0.01-0.01) 
 Neuronal and mixed neuronal-glial tumors 0.25 (0.21-0.28) 0.39 (0.37-0.42) 
 Tumors of the pineal region 0.04 (0.03-0.05) 0.04 (0.04-0.05) 
 Embryonal tumors 0.57 (0.52-0.62) 0.67 (0.64-0.70) 
Tumors of Cranial and Spinal Nerves 0.23 (0.20-0.26) 0.28 (0.27-0.30) 
 Nerve sheath tumors 0.23 (0.20-0.26) 0.28 (0.27-0.30) 
 Other tumors of cranial and spinal nerves – – – – 
Tumors of Meninges 0.18 (0.15-0.21) 0.22 (0.20-0.24) 
 Meningioma 0.09 (0.07-0.11) 0.15 (0.13-0.16) 
 Mesenchymal tumors 0.03 (0.02-0.05) 0.04 (0.03-0.05) 
 Primary melanocytic lesions – – – – 
 Other neoplasms related to the meninges 0.05 (0.04-0.07) 0.03 (0.03-0.04) 
Lymphomas and Hemopoietic Neoplasms 0.03 (0.02-0.05) 0.02 (0.02-0.03) 
 Lymphoma 0.02 (0.01-0.04) 0.01 (0.01-0.02) 
 Other hemopoietic neoplasms 0.01 (0.00-0.02) 0.01 (0.00-0.01) 
Germ Cell Tumors and Cysts 0.23 (0.20-0.26) 0.20 (0.18-0.22) 
 Germ cell tumors, cysts and heterotopias 0.23 (0.20-0.26) 0.20 (0.18-0.22) 
Tumors of Sellar Region 0.79 (0.73-0.85) 0.63 (0.60-0.66) 
 Tumors of the pituitary 0.58 (0.52-0.63) 0.44 (0.42-0.46) 
 Craniopharyngioma 0.21 (0.18-0.25) 0.19 (0.17-0.20) 
Unclassified Tumors 0.29 (0.26-0.33) 0.24 (0.23-0.26) 
 Hemangioma 0.08 (0.07-0.11) 0.07 (0.06-0.08) 
 Neoplasm, unspecified 0.21 (0.18-0.24) 0.17 (0.16-0.19) 
 All other – – – – 
Total§ 4.55 (4.40-4.69) 5.30 (5.22-5.38) 

Rates are per 100,000 and are age-adjusted to the 2000 US standard population.

Hispanic ethnicity is not mutually exclusive of race; Classified using the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries Hispanic Identification Algorithm, version 2 (NHIA v2).

§ Refers to all brain tumors including histologies not presented in this table.

- Counts and rates are not presented when fewer than 16 cases were reported for the specific histology category. The suppressed cases are included in the counts and rates for totals.

Abbreviations: CBTRUS, Central Brain Tumor Registry of the United States; NPCR, CDC's National Program of Cancer Registries; SEER, NCI's Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results program; CI, confidence interval; NOS, not otherwise specified.

Childhood Incidence Rates by Age and Histology

The detailed age–specific incidence rates by histology for children age groups 0-4 years, 5-9 years, 10-14 years, 15-19 years, 0-19 years, and 0-14 years are shown in Table 16. The overall incidence rates for age groups 0-4 years and 15-19 years statistically significantly exceeded those observed in age groups 5-9 years and 10-14 years. It should also be noted that individual histology distributions vary substantially within these childhood age groups. The incidence rates of pilocytic astrocytoma, malignant glioma NOS, ependymal tumors, choroid plexus tumors and embryonal tumors decrease with increasing age groups.

Table 16.

Selected Childhood Brain and Central Nervous System Tumor, Average Annual Age-Adjusted and Age-Specific Incidence Rates by Major Histology Groupings, Histology and Age at Diagnosis, CBTRUS Statistical Report: NPCR and SEER, 2005–2009

 Age At Diagnosis
 
Age at Diagnosis
 
 0-4
 
5-9
 
10-14
 
15-19
 
0-19
 
0-14
 
 Rate 95% CI Rate 95% CI Rate 95% CI Rate 95% CI Rate 95% CI Rate 95% CI 
Tumors of Neuroepithelial Tissue 4.50 (4.37-4.63) 3.68 (3.56-3.81) 3.17 (3.06-3.28) 2.74 (2.64-2.84) 3.51 (3.45-3.57) 3.77 (3.70-3.84) 
 Pilocytic astrocytoma 0.87 (0.82-0.93) 0.89 (0.83-0.95) 0.86 (0.80-0.92) 0.59 (0.55-0.64) 0.80 (0.78-0.83) 0.87 (0.84-0.91) 
 Diffuse astrocytoma 0.33 (0.29-0.37) 0.22 (0.19-0.25) 0.26 (0.23-0.30) 0.26 (0.23-0.29) 0.27 (0.25-0.28) 0.27 (0.25-0.29) 
 Anaplastic astrocytoma 0.05 (0.04-0.07) 0.08 (0.07-0.10) 0.09 (0.07-0.11) 0.09 (0.08-0.11) 0.08 (0.07-0.09) 0.08 (0.07-0.09) 
 Unique astrocytoma variants 0.06 (0.05-0.08) 0.10 (0.08-0.12) 0.14 (0.11-0.16) 0.13 (0.11-0.16) 0.11 (0.10-0.12) 0.10 (0.09-0.11) 
 Glioblastoma 0.09 (0.07-0.11) 0.14 (0.12-0.17) 0.16 (0.14-0.19) 0.17 (0.14-0.19) 0.14 (0.13-0.15) 0.13 (0.12-0.15) 
 Oligodendroglioma 0.03 (0.02-0.04) 0.04 (0.03-0.05) 0.06 (0.04-0.08) 0.11 (0.09-0.13) 0.06 (0.05-0.07) 0.04 (0.04-0.05) 
 Anaplastic oligodendroglioma – – – – – – 0.02 (0.02-0.04) 0.01 (0.01-0.02) 0.01 (0.01-0.01) 
 Oligoastrocytic tumors 0.03 (0.02-0.04) 0.03 (0.02-0.04) 0.03 (0.02-0.05) 0.05 (0.04-0.07) 0.03 (0.03-0.04) 0.03 (0.02-0.04) 
 Ependymal tumors 0.40 (0.36-0.44) 0.23 (0.20-0.26) 0.21 (0.19-0.24) 0.26 (0.23-0.30) 0.27 (0.26-0.29) 0.28 (0.26-0.30) 
 Glioma malignant, NOS 0.86 (0.81-0.92) 0.81 (0.75-0.87) 0.43 (0.39-0.47) 0.24 (0.22-0.28) 0.58 (0.56-0.61) 0.70 (0.67-0.73) 
 Choroid plexus tumors 0.26 (0.23-0.29) 0.04 (0.03-0.06) 0.04 (0.03-0.05) 0.05 (0.04-0.06) 0.10 (0.09-0.11) 0.11 (0.10-0.12) 
 Other neuroepithelial tumors – – – – – – – – 0.01 (0.01-0.01) 0.01 (0.01-0.01) 
 Neuronal and mixed neuronal-glial tumors 0.24 (0.21-0.28) 0.30 (0.27-0.34) 0.43 (0.39-0.48) 0.46 (0.42-0.51) 0.36 (0.34-0.38) 0.33 (0.31-0.35) 
 Tumors of the pineal region 0.05 (0.04-0.07) 0.04 (0.03-0.05) 0.03 (0.02-0.05) 0.04 (0.03-0.05) 0.04 (0.04-0.05) 0.04 (0.03-0.05) 
 Embryonal tumors 1.21 (1.15-1.28) 0.76 (0.70-0.81) 0.39 (0.35-0.43) 0.25 (0.22-0.28) 0.65 (0.62-0.67) 0.78 (0.75-0.81) 
Tumors of Cranial and Spinal Nerves 0.27 (0.24-0.30) 0.21 (0.18-0.24) 0.26 (0.22-0.29) 0.35 (0.32-0.39) 0.27 (0.26-0.29) 0.24 (0.23-0.26) 
 Nerve sheath tumors 0.27 (0.24-0.30) 0.21 (0.18-0.24) 0.26 (0.22-0.29) 0.35 (0.32-0.39) 0.27 (0.26-0.29) 0.24 (0.23-0.26) 
 Other tumors of cranial and spinal nerves – – – – – – – – – – – – 
Tumors of Meninges 0.14 (0.12-0.16) 0.10 (0.08-0.12) 0.21 (0.18-0.24) 0.39 (0.36-0.43) 0.21 (0.20-0.23) 0.15 (0.14-0.17) 
 Meningioma 0.07 (0.05-0.09) 0.06 (0.05-0.08) 0.14 (0.12-0.17) 0.26 (0.23-0.30) 0.14 (0.12-0.15) 0.09 (0.08-0.10) 
 Mesenchymal tumors 0.06 (0.04-0.07) 0.03 (0.02-0.04) 0.03 (0.02-0.04) 0.03 (0.02-0.05) 0.04 (0.03-0.04) 0.04 (0.03-0.05) 
 Primary melanocytic lesions – – – – – – – – 0.01 (0.00-0.01) – – 
 Other neoplasms related to the meninges – – – – 0.03 (0.02-0.05) 0.09 (0.07-0.11) 0.03 (0.03-0.04) 0.02 (0.01-0.02) 
Lymphomas and Hemopoietic Neoplasms   0.02 (0.01-0.03) 0.02 (0.01-0.03) 0.03 (0.02-0.05) 0.02 (0.02-0.03) 0.02 (0.01-0.02) 
 Lymphoma – – – – – – 0.02 (0.02-0.04) 0.02 (0.01-0.02) 0.01 (0.01-0.02) 
 Other hemopoietic neoplasms – – – – – – – – 0.01 (0.01-0.01) 0.01 (0.00-0.01) 
Germ Cell Tumors and Cysts 0.13 (0.11-0.15) 0.14 (0.11-0.16) 0.27 (0.23-0.30) 0.29 (0.26-0.32) 0.20 (0.19-0.22) 0.18 (0.16-0.19) 
 Germ cell tumors, cysts and heterotopias 0.13 (0.11-0.15) 0.14 (0.11-0.16) 0.27 (0.23-0.30) 0.29 (0.26-0.32) 0.20 (0.19-0.22) 0.18 (0.16-0.19) 
Tumors of Sellar Region 0.17 (0.15-0.20) 0.37 (0.33-0.41) 0.61 (0.57-0.67) 1.46 (1.39-1.53) 0.66 (0.63-0.68) 0.39 (0.37-0.41) 
 Tumors of the pituitary 0.03 (0.02-0.05) 0.11 (0.09-0.13) 0.40 (0.36-0.44) 1.31 (1.24-1.38) 0.47 (0.45-0.49) 0.18 (0.17-0.20) 
 Craniopharyngioma 0.14 (0.12-0.16) 0.26 (0.23-0.29) 0.22 (0.19-0.25) 0.15 (0.13-0.18) 0.19 (0.18-0.21) 0.21 (0.19-0.22) 
Unclassified Tumors 0.22 (0.19-0.25) 0.18 (0.15-0.21) 0.26 (0.22-0.29) 0.36 (0.33-0.40) 0.25 (0.24-0.27) 0.22 (0.20-0.24) 
 Hemangioma 0.05 (0.04-0.06) 0.04 (0.03-0.05) 0.08 (0.06-0.09) 0.13 (0.11-0.15) 0.07 (0.06-0.08) 0.05 (0.05-0.06) 
 Neoplasm, unspecified 0.17 (0.15-0.20) 0.14 (0.12-0.17) 0.18 (0.15-0.21) 0.23 (0.20-0.26) 0.18 (0.17-0.19) 0.16 (0.15-0.18) 
 All other – – – – – – – – – – – – 
Total§ 5.43 (5.29-5.58) 4.70 (4.56-4.84) 4.79 (4.65-4.93) 5.63 (5.49-5.77) 5.13 (5.06-5.20) 4.97 (4.89-5.05) 
 Age At Diagnosis
 
Age at Diagnosis
 
 0-4
 
5-9
 
10-14
 
15-19
 
0-19
 
0-14
 
 Rate 95% CI Rate 95% CI Rate 95% CI Rate 95% CI Rate 95% CI Rate 95% CI 
Tumors of Neuroepithelial Tissue 4.50 (4.37-4.63) 3.68 (3.56-3.81) 3.17 (3.06-3.28) 2.74 (2.64-2.84) 3.51 (3.45-3.57) 3.77 (3.70-3.84) 
 Pilocytic astrocytoma 0.87 (0.82-0.93) 0.89 (0.83-0.95) 0.86 (0.80-0.92) 0.59 (0.55-0.64) 0.80 (0.78-0.83) 0.87 (0.84-0.91) 
 Diffuse astrocytoma 0.33 (0.29-0.37) 0.22 (0.19-0.25) 0.26 (0.23-0.30) 0.26 (0.23-0.29) 0.27 (0.25-0.28) 0.27 (0.25-0.29) 
 Anaplastic astrocytoma 0.05 (0.04-0.07) 0.08 (0.07-0.10) 0.09 (0.07-0.11) 0.09 (0.08-0.11) 0.08 (0.07-0.09) 0.08 (0.07-0.09) 
 Unique astrocytoma variants 0.06 (0.05-0.08) 0.10 (0.08-0.12) 0.14 (0.11-0.16) 0.13 (0.11-0.16) 0.11 (0.10-0.12) 0.10 (0.09-0.11) 
 Glioblastoma 0.09 (0.07-0.11) 0.14 (0.12-0.17) 0.16 (0.14-0.19) 0.17 (0.14-0.19) 0.14 (0.13-0.15) 0.13 (0.12-0.15) 
 Oligodendroglioma 0.03 (0.02-0.04) 0.04 (0.03-0.05) 0.06 (0.04-0.08) 0.11 (0.09-0.13) 0.06 (0.05-0.07) 0.04 (0.04-0.05) 
 Anaplastic oligodendroglioma – – – – – – 0.02 (0.02-0.04) 0.01 (0.01-0.02) 0.01 (0.01-0.01) 
 Oligoastrocytic tumors 0.03 (0.02-0.04) 0.03 (0.02-0.04) 0.03 (0.02-0.05) 0.05 (0.04-0.07) 0.03 (0.03-0.04) 0.03 (0.02-0.04) 
 Ependymal tumors 0.40 (0.36-0.44) 0.23 (0.20-0.26) 0.21 (0.19-0.24) 0.26 (0.23-0.30) 0.27 (0.26-0.29) 0.28 (0.26-0.30) 
 Glioma malignant, NOS 0.86 (0.81-0.92) 0.81 (0.75-0.87) 0.43 (0.39-0.47) 0.24 (0.22-0.28) 0.58 (0.56-0.61) 0.70 (0.67-0.73) 
 Choroid plexus tumors 0.26 (0.23-0.29) 0.04 (0.03-0.06) 0.04 (0.03-0.05) 0.05 (0.04-0.06) 0.10 (0.09-0.11) 0.11 (0.10-0.12) 
 Other neuroepithelial tumors – – – – – – – – 0.01 (0.01-0.01) 0.01 (0.01-0.01) 
 Neuronal and mixed neuronal-glial tumors 0.24 (0.21-0.28) 0.30 (0.27-0.34) 0.43 (0.39-0.48) 0.46 (0.42-0.51) 0.36 (0.34-0.38) 0.33 (0.31-0.35) 
 Tumors of the pineal region 0.05 (0.04-0.07) 0.04 (0.03-0.05) 0.03 (0.02-0.05) 0.04 (0.03-0.05) 0.04 (0.04-0.05) 0.04 (0.03-0.05) 
 Embryonal tumors 1.21 (1.15-1.28) 0.76 (0.70-0.81) 0.39 (0.35-0.43) 0.25 (0.22-0.28) 0.65 (0.62-0.67) 0.78 (0.75-0.81) 
Tumors of Cranial and Spinal Nerves 0.27 (0.24-0.30) 0.21 (0.18-0.24) 0.26 (0.22-0.29) 0.35 (0.32-0.39) 0.27 (0.26-0.29) 0.24 (0.23-0.26) 
 Nerve sheath tumors 0.27 (0.24-0.30) 0.21 (0.18-0.24) 0.26 (0.22-0.29) 0.35 (0.32-0.39) 0.27 (0.26-0.29) 0.24 (0.23-0.26) 
 Other tumors of cranial and spinal nerves – – – – – – – – – – – – 
Tumors of Meninges 0.14 (0.12-0.16) 0.10 (0.08-0.12) 0.21 (0.18-0.24) 0.39 (0.36-0.43) 0.21 (0.20-0.23) 0.15 (0.14-0.17) 
 Meningioma 0.07 (0.05-0.09) 0.06 (0.05-0.08) 0.14 (0.12-0.17) 0.26 (0.23-0.30) 0.14 (0.12-0.15) 0.09 (0.08-0.10) 
 Mesenchymal tumors 0.06 (0.04-0.07) 0.03 (0.02-0.04) 0.03 (0.02-0.04) 0.03 (0.02-0.05) 0.04 (0.03-0.04) 0.04 (0.03-0.05) 
 Primary melanocytic lesions – – – – – – – – 0.01 (0.00-0.01) – – 
 Other neoplasms related to the meninges – – – – 0.03 (0.02-0.05) 0.09 (0.07-0.11) 0.03 (0.03-0.04) 0.02 (0.01-0.02) 
Lymphomas and Hemopoietic Neoplasms   0.02 (0.01-0.03) 0.02 (0.01-0.03) 0.03 (0.02-0.05) 0.02 (0.02-0.03) 0.02 (0.01-0.02) 
 Lymphoma – – – – – – 0.02 (0.02-0.04) 0.02 (0.01-0.02) 0.01 (0.01-0.02) 
 Other hemopoietic neoplasms – – – – – – – – 0.01 (0.01-0.01) 0.01 (0.00-0.01) 
Germ Cell Tumors and Cysts 0.13 (0.11-0.15) 0.14 (0.11-0.16) 0.27 (0.23-0.30) 0.29 (0.26-0.32) 0.20 (0.19-0.22) 0.18 (0.16-0.19) 
 Germ cell tumors, cysts and heterotopias 0.13 (0.11-0.15) 0.14 (0.11-0.16) 0.27 (0.23-0.30) 0.29 (0.26-0.32) 0.20 (0.19-0.22) 0.18 (0.16-0.19) 
Tumors of Sellar Region 0.17 (0.15-0.20) 0.37 (0.33-0.41) 0.61 (0.57-0.67) 1.46 (1.39-1.53) 0.66 (0.63-0.68) 0.39 (0.37-0.41) 
 Tumors of the pituitary 0.03 (0.02-0.05) 0.11 (0.09-0.13) 0.40 (0.36-0.44) 1.31 (1.24-1.38) 0.47 (0.45-0.49) 0.18 (0.17-0.20) 
 Craniopharyngioma 0.14 (0.12-0.16) 0.26 (0.23-0.29) 0.22 (0.19-0.25) 0.15 (0.13-0.18) 0.19 (0.18-0.21) 0.21 (0.19-0.22) 
Unclassified Tumors 0.22 (0.19-0.25) 0.18 (0.15-0.21) 0.26 (0.22-0.29) 0.36 (0.33-0.40) 0.25 (0.24-0.27) 0.22 (0.20-0.24) 
 Hemangioma 0.05 (0.04-0.06) 0.04 (0.03-0.05) 0.08 (0.06-0.09) 0.13 (0.11-0.15) 0.07 (0.06-0.08) 0.05 (0.05-0.06) 
 Neoplasm, unspecified 0.17 (0.15-0.20) 0.14 (0.12-0.17) 0.18 (0.15-0.21) 0.23 (0.20-0.26) 0.18 (0.17-0.19) 0.16 (0.15-0.18) 
 All other – – – – – – – – – – – – 
Total§ 5.43 (5.29-5.58) 4.70 (4.56-4.84) 4.79 (4.65-4.93) 5.63 (5.49-5.77) 5.13 (5.06-5.20) 4.97 (4.89-5.05) 

Rates are per 100,000 and are age-adjusted to the 2000 US standard population.

§ Refers to all brain tumors including histologies not presented in this table.

- Counts and rates are not presented when fewer than 16 cases were reported for the specific histology category. The suppressed cases are included in the counts and rates for totals.

Abbreviations: CBTRUS, Central Brain Tumor Registry of the United States; NPCR, CDC's National Program of Cancer Registries; SEER, NCI's Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results program; CI, confidence interval; NOS, not otherwise specified.

Age–specific incidence rates for selected histologies are graphically shown in Figure 15. The U-shaped overall incidence rate pattern across the four age group categories is apparent on the graph. Sharp declines in incidence rates between age groups for the broad gliomas and embryonal tumor histology groups are evident. The incidence decline rate for pilocytic astrocytoma is substantial from the 10-14 years to the 15-19 years age group. In contrast, ependymal tumor incidence rates are highest in the 0-4 years age group then decline and remain relatively stable across the 5-9 years, 10-14 years, and 15-19 years age groups.

Fig. 15.

Age-Specific Incidence of Childhood Brain and CNS Tumors by Selected Histologies.

Fig. 15.

Age-Specific Incidence of Childhood Brain and CNS Tumors by Selected Histologies.

Childhood Incidence Rates by Histology Defined by ICCC

Table 17 presents the CBTRUS childhood brain and CNS tumor data used for this report according to the International Classification of Childhood Cancer (ICCC) grouping system for pediatric cancers.23 As shown, the Table 17 age group category total 0-19 age group count and age-specific and adjusted rates are equivalent to those presented throughout this report. However, the histology grouping scheme differences are apparent and reflect different approaches to the description of childhood brain and CNS tumors.

Table 17.

Age-Adjusted and Age-Specific Incidence Rates for Childhood Brain and Central Nervous System Tumors: Malignant and Non-Malignant by International Classification of Childhood Cancer (ICCC), CBTRUS Statistical Report: NPCR and SEER, 2005–2009

ICCC Category 0-19 years
 
0-14 years
 
< 1 year
 
1-4 years
 
5-9 years
 
10-14 years
 
15-19 years
 
 Count Rate 95% CI Rate 95% CI Rate 95% CI Rate 95% CI Rate 95% CI Rate 95% CI Rate 95% CI 
II Lymphomas and reticuloendothelial neoplasms 69 0.02 (0.01-0.02) 0.01 (0.01-0.02) – – – – 0.02 (0.01-0.03) 0.02 (0.01-0.03) 0.03 (0.02-0.04) 
III CNS and misc intracranial and intraspinal neoplasms 17,654 4.38 (4.31-4.44) 4.32 (4.25-4.40) 4.53 (4.24-4.83) 4.82 (4.67-4.97) 4.21 (4.08-4.34) 4.03 (3.91-4.16) 4.53 (4.41-4.67) 
III(a) Ependymomas and choroid plexus tumor 1,506 0.37 (0.35-0.39) 0.39 (0.37-0.41) 0.93 (0.80-1.07) 0.59 (0.54-0.64) 0.27 (0.24-0.31) 0.25 (0.22-0.29) 0.31 (0.28-0.35) 
III(b) Astrocytomas 6,277 1.56 (1.52-1.60) 1.66 (1.61-1.70) 1.25 (1.10-1.41) 1.92 (1.83-2.02) 1.61 (1.53-1.69) 1.58 (1.50-1.66) 1.27 (1.21-1.34) 
III(c) Intracranial and intraspinal embryonal tumors 2,408 0.60 (0.57-0.62) 0.72 (0.69-0.75) 1.19 (1.04-1.35) 1.04 (0.97-1.11) 0.73 (0.67-0.78) 0.37 (0.34-0.41) 0.23 (0.21-0.27) 
III(d) Other gliomas 2,135 0.53 (0.51-0.56) 0.58 (0.55-0.61) 0.26 (0.20-0.34) 0.61 (0.56-0.67) 0.70 (0.65-0.76) 0.49 (0.44-0.53) 0.40 (0.37-0.44) 
III(e) Other specified intracranial and intraspinal neoplasms 4,602 1.14 (1.11-1.17) 0.82 (0.79-0.86) 0.61 (0.51-0.73) 0.51 (0.47-0.57) 0.76 (0.70-0.81) 1.17 (1.10-1.24) 2.08 (2.00-2.17) 
III(f) Unspecified intracranial and intraspinal neoplasms 726 0.18 (0.17-0.19) 0.16 (0.15-0.18) 0.29 (0.22-0.38) 0.14 (0.12-0.17) 0.14 (0.12-0.16) 0.18 (0.15-0.21) 0.23 (0.20-0.26) 
IV Neuroblastoma and other peripheral nervous cell tumors 206 0.05 (0.04-0.06) 0.06 (0.05-0.07) 0.28 (0.21-0.37) 0.09 (0.07-0.11) 0.03 (0.02-0.04) 0.02 (0.02-0.04) 0.03 (0.02-0.04) 
IX Soft tissue and other extraosseous sarcomas 1,667 0.41 (0.39-0.43) 0.35 (0.33-0.37) 0.56 (0.46-0.67) 0.33 (0.29-0.37) 0.28 (0.25-0.32) 0.39 (0.35-0.43) 0.60 (0.55-0.65) 
X(a) Intracranial & intraspinal germ cell tumors 823 0.20 (0.19-0.22) 0.18 (0.16-0.19) 0.38 (0.30-0.48) 0.06 (0.05-0.08) 0.14 (0.11-0.16) 0.27 (0.23-0.30) 0.29 (0.26-0.32) 
All other categories 290 0.07 (0.06-0.08) 0.04 (0.04-0.05) – – 0.04 (0.02-0.05) 0.03 (0.02-0.05) 0.06 (0.05-0.08) 0.15 (0.13-0.18) 
Total§ 20,709 5.13 (5.06-5.20) 4.97 (4.89-5.05) 5.82 (5.49-6.16) 5.33 (5.18-5.50) 4.70 (4.56-4.84) 4.79 (4.65-4.93) 5.63 (5.49-5.77) 
ICCC Category 0-19 years
 
0-14 years
 
< 1 year
 
1-4 years
 
5-9 years
 
10-14 years
 
15-19 years
 
 Count Rate 95% CI Rate 95% CI Rate 95% CI Rate 95% CI Rate 95% CI Rate 95% CI Rate 95% CI 
II Lymphomas and reticuloendothelial neoplasms 69 0.02 (0.01-0.02) 0.01 (0.01-0.02) – – – – 0.02 (0.01-0.03) 0.02 (0.01-0.03) 0.03 (0.02-0.04) 
III CNS and misc intracranial and intraspinal neoplasms 17,654 4.38 (4.31-4.44) 4.32 (4.25-4.40) 4.53 (4.24-4.83) 4.82 (4.67-4.97) 4.21 (4.08-4.34) 4.03 (3.91-4.16) 4.53 (4.41-4.67) 
III(a) Ependymomas and choroid plexus tumor 1,506 0.37 (0.35-0.39) 0.39 (0.37-0.41) 0.93 (0.80-1.07) 0.59 (0.54-0.64) 0.27 (0.24-0.31) 0.25 (0.22-0.29) 0.31 (0.28-0.35) 
III(b) Astrocytomas 6,277 1.56 (1.52-1.60) 1.66 (1.61-1.70) 1.25 (1.10-1.41) 1.92 (1.83-2.02) 1.61 (1.53-1.69) 1.58 (1.50-1.66) 1.27 (1.21-1.34) 
III(c) Intracranial and intraspinal embryonal tumors 2,408 0.60 (0.57-0.62) 0.72 (0.69-0.75) 1.19 (1.04-1.35) 1.04 (0.97-1.11) 0.73 (0.67-0.78) 0.37 (0.34-0.41) 0.23 (0.21-0.27) 
III(d) Other gliomas 2,135 0.53 (0.51-0.56) 0.58 (0.55-0.61) 0.26 (0.20-0.34) 0.61 (0.56-0.67) 0.70 (0.65-0.76) 0.49 (0.44-0.53) 0.40 (0.37-0.44) 
III(e) Other specified intracranial and intraspinal neoplasms 4,602 1.14 (1.11-1.17) 0.82 (0.79-0.86) 0.61 (0.51-0.73) 0.51 (0.47-0.57) 0.76 (0.70-0.81) 1.17 (1.10-1.24) 2.08 (2.00-2.17) 
III(f) Unspecified intracranial and intraspinal neoplasms 726 0.18 (0.17-0.19) 0.16 (0.15-0.18) 0.29 (0.22-0.38) 0.14 (0.12-0.17) 0.14 (0.12-0.16) 0.18 (0.15-0.21) 0.23 (0.20-0.26) 
IV Neuroblastoma and other peripheral nervous cell tumors 206 0.05 (0.04-0.06) 0.06 (0.05-0.07) 0.28 (0.21-0.37) 0.09 (0.07-0.11) 0.03 (0.02-0.04) 0.02 (0.02-0.04) 0.03 (0.02-0.04) 
IX Soft tissue and other extraosseous sarcomas 1,667 0.41 (0.39-0.43) 0.35 (0.33-0.37) 0.56 (0.46-0.67) 0.33 (0.29-0.37) 0.28 (0.25-0.32) 0.39 (0.35-0.43) 0.60 (0.55-0.65) 
X(a) Intracranial & intraspinal germ cell tumors 823 0.20 (0.19-0.22) 0.18 (0.16-0.19) 0.38 (0.30-0.48) 0.06 (0.05-0.08) 0.14 (0.11-0.16) 0.27 (0.23-0.30) 0.29 (0.26-0.32) 
All other categories 290 0.07 (0.06-0.08) 0.04 (0.04-0.05) – – 0.04 (0.02-0.05) 0.03 (0.02-0.05) 0.06 (0.05-0.08) 0.15 (0.13-0.18) 
Total§ 20,709 5.13 (5.06-5.20) 4.97 (4.89-5.05) 5.82 (5.49-6.16) 5.33 (5.18-5.50) 4.70 (4.56-4.84) 4.79 (4.65-4.93) 5.63 (5.49-5.77) 

Rates are per 100,000 and are age adjusted to the 2000 U.S. standard population.

§ Refers to all brain tumors including histologies not presented in this table.

- Counts and rates are not presented when fewer than 16 cases were reported for the specific ICCC category. The suppressed cases are included in the counts and rates for totals.

Abbreviations: ICCC, International Classification of Childhood Cancer; CBTRUS, Central Brain Tumor Registry of the United States; NPCR, CDC's National Program of Cancer Registries; SEER, NCI's Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results program; CI, confidence interval.

Mortality Rates, Expected Incidence, and Survival

Estimated Mortality Rates from Brain and CNS Malignant Tumors by State and Gender

Table 18 shows average annual age-adjusted mortality rates from primary malignant brain and CNS tumors in the United States during 2005–2009 by state and gender. The aggregate total rate is 4.28 deaths per 100,000. However, there is considerable variation by individual state, which ranges from a low of 2.30 deaths per 100,000 to a high of 5.53 deaths per 100,000. Males have statistically significantly higher mortality rates from brain and CNS tumors than females in the U.S.

Table 18.

Average Annual Age–Adjusted Mortality Rates for Malignant Brain and Central Nervous System Cancer Overall and by State and Gender, United States, 2005–2009

State Total
 
Males
 
Females
 
 Rate 95% CI Rate 95% CI Rate 95% CI 
Alabama 1,148 4.58 (4.31–4.85) 626 5.55 (5.12–6.01) 522 3.76 (3.45–4.11) 
Alaska 111 4.20 (3.39–5.14) 65 4.96 (3.67–6.52) 46 3.56 (2.55–4.81) 
Arizona 1,336 4.11 (3.90–4.34) 743 4.87 (4.52–5.23) 593 3.46 (3.19–3.76) 
Arkansas 775 4.95 (4.60–5.31) 417 5.90 (5.34–6.50) 358 4.15 (3.73–4.62) 
California 7,457 4.31 (4.21–4.41) 4,225 5.32 (5.16–5.49) 3,232 3.46 (3.34–3.58) 
Colorado 1,016 4.40 (4.13–4.68) 586 5.45 (5.00–5.92) 430 3.51 (3.18–3.86) 
Connecticut 809 4.22 (3.93–4.52) 436 5.07 (4.60–5.58) 373 3.52 (3.16–3.90) 
Delaware 212 4.54 (3.95–5.20) 119 5.75 (4.75–6.89) 93 3.60 (2.90–4.43) 
Washington DC 101 3.47 (2.82–4.23) 57 4.44 (3.33–5.78) 44 2.67 (1.93–3.60) 
Florida 4,385 3.95 (3.83–4.07) 2,455 4.81 (4.62–5.01) 1,930 3.19 (3.05–3.34) 
Georgia 1,671 3.87 (3.68–4.06) 913 4.67 (4.36–5.00) 758 3.22 (2.99–3.46) 
Hawaii 171 2.39 (2.04–2.78) 98 2.92 (2.36–3.57) 73 1.95 (1.52–2.47) 
Idaho 379 5.14 (4.63–5.69) 202 5.63 (4.87–6.48) 177 4.62 (3.96–5.36) 
Illinois 2,523 3.89 (3.74–4.05) 1,387 4.74 (4.49–5.00) 1,136 3.19 (3.01–3.39) 
Indiana 1,526 4.62 (4.39–4.86) 819 5.46 (5.08–5.85) 707 3.93 (3.64–4.23) 
Iowa 918 5.53 (5.17–5.90) 526 6.95 (6.36–7.57) 392 4.33 (3.90–4.80) 
Kansas 735 5.07 (4.70–5.45) 422 6.39 (5.79–7.03) 313 3.93 (3.50–4.40) 
Kentucky 1,021 4.49 (4.21–4.77) 565 5.46 (5.01–5.94) 456 3.66 (3.33–4.02) 
Louisiana 1,007 4.53 (4.25–4.82) 565 5.63 (5.17–6.13) 442 3.61 (3.28–3.96) 
Maine 403 5.12 (4.63–5.66) 233 6.47 (5.65–7.38) 170 4.00 (3.41–4.67) 
Maryland 1,094 3.78 (3.56–4.02) 590 4.57 (4.20–4.97) 504 3.15 (2.88–3.44) 
Massachusetts 1,517 4.25 (4.03–4.47) 847 5.38 (5.02–5.76) 670 3.35 (3.10–3.62) 
Michigan 2,602 4.86 (4.67–5.05) 1,458 5.99 (5.68–6.31) 1,144 3.95 (3.72–4.19) 
Minnesota 1,165 4.33 (4.09–4.59) 644 5.18 (4.78–5.60) 521 3.60 (3.30–3.93) 
Mississippi 693 4.67 (4.32–5.03) 362 5.50 (4.93–6.10) 331 3.99 (3.57–4.45) 
Missouri 1,468 4.58 (4.35–4.82) 793 5.45 (5.07–5.84) 675 3.86 (3.57–4.17) 
Montana 248 4.53 (3.97–5.14) 147 5.53 (4.66–6.52) 101 3.63 (2.94–4.43) 
Nebraska 475 5.13 (4.67–5.61) 256 6.01 (5.29–6.80) 219 4.30 (3.74–4.93) 
Nevada 517 4.10 (3.75–4.48) 318 5.21 (4.64–5.84) 199 3.09 (2.67–3.55) 
New Hampshire 338 4.76 (4.26–5.30) 202 6.11 (5.28–7.03) 136 3.62 (3.03–4.30) 
New Jersey 1,720 3.69 (3.51–3.87) 970 4.65 (4.36–4.96) 750 2.90 (2.70–3.12) 
New Mexico 375 3.66 (3.30–4.05) 216 4.48 (3.89–5.13) 159 2.95 (2.50–3.45) 
New York 3,861 3.70 (3.58–3.82) 2,193 4.74 (4.54–4.95) 1,668 2.87 (2.74–3.02) 
North Carolina 1,893 4.05 (3.87–4.24) 1,044 5.01 (4.71–5.33) 849 3.28 (3.06–3.51) 
North Dakota 174 5.02 (4.29–5.83) 89 5.63 (4.51–6.95) 85 4.42 (3.51–5.50) 
Ohio 2,794 4.44 (4.27–4.61) 1,527 5.36 (5.09–5.64) 1,267 3.66 (3.46–3.88) 
Oklahoma 897 4.68 (4.38–5.00) 491 5.60 (5.11–6.13) 406 3.85 (3.47–4.25) 
Oregon 1,056 5.19 (4.88–5.52) 624 6.56 (6.05–7.10) 432 4.05 (3.67–4.46) 
Pennsylvania 3,008 4.10 (3.95–4.25) 1,623 4.95 (4.71–5.20) 1,385 3.41 (3.23–3.60) 
Rhode Island 252 4.24 (3.73–4.80) 139 5.24 (4.39–6.20) 113 3.43 (2.81–4.15) 
South Carolina 1,027 4.33 (4.07–4.61) 571 5.42 (4.97–5.89) 456 3.47 (3.16–3.81) 
South Dakota 210 4.93 (4.28–5.66) 113 5.66 (4.65–6.82) 97 4.32 (3.48–5.30) 
Tennessee 1,644 4.99 (4.75–5.24) 897 6.03 (5.64–6.45) 747 4.14 (3.85–4.45) 
Texas 4,490 4.18 (4.06–4.31) 2,409 4.89 (4.70–5.10) 2,081 3.60 (3.45–3.76) 
Utah 480 4.46 (4.07–4.89) 276 5.32 (4.70–6.01) 204 3.65 (3.16–4.19) 
Vermont 158 4.47 (3.79–5.25) 82 4.93 (3.90–6.16) 76 3.99 (3.13–5.03) 
Virginia 1,517 3.87 (3.68–4.08) 854 4.87 (4.54–5.22) 663 3.07 (2.84–3.31) 
Washington 1,707 5.12 (4.88–5.38) 1,010 6.48 (6.08–6.90) 697 3.94 (3.65–4.25) 
West Virginia 498 4.57 (4.18–5.00) 266 5.31 (4.68–6.00) 232 3.99 (3.48–4.55) 
Wisconsin 1,469 4.90 (4.65–5.16) 838 6.06 (5.65–6.49) 631 3.91 (3.60–4.23) 
Wyoming 121 4.40 (3.64–5.28) 66 4.94 (3.79–6.32) 55 3.91 (2.93–5.11) 
United States 67,172 4.28 (4.25–4.31) 37,374 5.23 (5.18–5.29) 29,798 3.48 (3.44–3.52) 
State Total
 
Males
 
Females
 
 Rate 95% CI Rate 95% CI Rate 95% CI 
Alabama 1,148 4.58 (4.31–4.85) 626 5.55 (5.12–6.01) 522 3.76 (3.45–4.11) 
Alaska 111 4.20 (3.39–5.14) 65 4.96 (3.67–6.52) 46 3.56 (2.55–4.81) 
Arizona 1,336 4.11 (3.90–4.34) 743 4.87 (4.52–5.23) 593 3.46 (3.19–3.76) 
Arkansas 775 4.95 (4.60–5.31) 417 5.90 (5.34–6.50) 358 4.15 (3.73–4.62) 
California 7,457 4.31 (4.21–4.41) 4,225 5.32 (5.16–5.49) 3,232 3.46 (3.34–3.58) 
Colorado 1,016 4.40 (4.13–4.68) 586 5.45 (5.00–5.92) 430 3.51 (3.18–3.86) 
Connecticut 809 4.22 (3.93–4.52) 436 5.07 (4.60–5.58) 373 3.52 (3.16–3.90) 
Delaware 212 4.54 (3.95–5.20) 119 5.75 (4.75–6.89) 93 3.60 (2.90–4.43) 
Washington DC 101 3.47 (2.82–4.23) 57 4.44 (3.33–5.78) 44 2.67 (1.93–3.60) 
Florida 4,385 3.95 (3.83–4.07) 2,455 4.81 (4.62–5.01) 1,930 3.19 (3.05–3.34) 
Georgia 1,671 3.87 (3.68–4.06) 913 4.67 (4.36–5.00) 758 3.22 (2.99–3.46) 
Hawaii 171 2.39 (2.04–2.78) 98 2.92 (2.36–3.57) 73 1.95 (1.52–2.47) 
Idaho 379 5.14 (4.63–5.69) 202 5.63 (4.87–6.48) 177 4.62 (3.96–5.36) 
Illinois 2,523 3.89 (3.74–4.05) 1,387 4.74 (4.49–5.00) 1,136 3.19 (3.01–3.39) 
Indiana 1,526 4.62 (4.39–4.86) 819 5.46 (5.08–5.85) 707 3.93 (3.64–4.23) 
Iowa 918 5.53 (5.17–5.90) 526 6.95 (6.36–7.57) 392 4.33 (3.90–4.80) 
Kansas 735 5.07 (4.70–5.45) 422 6.39 (5.79–7.03) 313 3.93 (3.50–4.40) 
Kentucky 1,021 4.49 (4.21–4.77) 565 5.46 (5.01–5.94) 456 3.66 (3.33–4.02) 
Louisiana 1,007 4.53 (4.25–4.82) 565 5.63 (5.17–6.13) 442 3.61 (3.28–3.96) 
Maine 403 5.12 (4.63–5.66) 233 6.47 (5.65–7.38) 170 4.00 (3.41–4.67) 
Maryland 1,094 3.78 (3.56–4.02) 590 4.57 (4.20–4.97) 504 3.15 (2.88–3.44) 
Massachusetts 1,517 4.25 (4.03–4.47) 847 5.38 (5.02–5.76) 670 3.35 (3.10–3.62) 
Michigan 2,602 4.86 (4.67–5.05) 1,458 5.99 (5.68–6.31) 1,144 3.95 (3.72–4.19) 
Minnesota 1,165 4.33 (4.09–4.59) 644 5.18 (4.78–5.60) 521 3.60 (3.30–3.93) 
Mississippi 693 4.67 (4.32–5.03) 362 5.50 (4.93–6.10) 331 3.99 (3.57–4.45) 
Missouri 1,468 4.58 (4.35–4.82) 793 5.45 (5.07–5.84) 675 3.86 (3.57–4.17) 
Montana 248 4.53 (3.97–5.14) 147 5.53 (4.66–6.52) 101 3.63 (2.94–4.43) 
Nebraska 475 5.13 (4.67–5.61) 256 6.01 (5.29–6.80) 219 4.30 (3.74–4.93) 
Nevada 517 4.10 (3.75–4.48) 318 5.21 (4.64–5.84) 199 3.09 (2.67–3.55) 
New Hampshire 338 4.76 (4.26–5.30) 202 6.11 (5.28–7.03) 136 3.62 (3.03–4.30) 
New Jersey 1,720 3.69 (3.51–3.87) 970 4.65 (4.36–4.96) 750 2.90 (2.70–3.12) 
New Mexico 375 3.66 (3.30–4.05) 216 4.48 (3.89–5.13) 159 2.95 (2.50–3.45) 
New York 3,861 3.70 (3.58–3.82) 2,193 4.74 (4.54–4.95) 1,668 2.87 (2.74–3.02) 
North Carolina 1,893 4.05 (3.87–4.24) 1,044 5.01 (4.71–5.33) 849 3.28 (3.06–3.51) 
North Dakota 174 5.02 (4.29–5.83) 89 5.63 (4.51–6.95) 85 4.42 (3.51–5.50) 
Ohio 2,794 4.44 (4.27–4.61) 1,527 5.36 (5.09–5.64) 1,267 3.66 (3.46–3.88) 
Oklahoma 897 4.68 (4.38–5.00) 491 5.60 (5.11–6.13) 406 3.85 (3.47–4.25) 
Oregon 1,056 5.19 (4.88–5.52) 624 6.56 (6.05–7.10) 432 4.05 (3.67–4.46) 
Pennsylvania 3,008 4.10 (3.95–4.25) 1,623 4.95 (4.71–5.20) 1,385 3.41 (3.23–3.60) 
Rhode Island 252 4.24 (3.73–4.80) 139 5.24 (4.39–6.20) 113 3.43 (2.81–4.15) 
South Carolina 1,027 4.33 (4.07–4.61) 571 5.42 (4.97–5.89) 456 3.47 (3.16–3.81) 
South Dakota 210 4.93 (4.28–5.66) 113 5.66 (4.65–6.82) 97 4.32 (3.48–5.30) 
Tennessee 1,644 4.99 (4.75–5.24) 897 6.03 (5.64–6.45) 747 4.14 (3.85–4.45) 
Texas 4,490 4.18 (4.06–4.31) 2,409 4.89 (4.70–5.10) 2,081 3.60 (3.45–3.76) 
Utah 480 4.46 (4.07–4.89) 276 5.32 (4.70–6.01) 204 3.65 (3.16–4.19) 
Vermont 158 4.47 (3.79–5.25) 82 4.93 (3.90–6.16) 76 3.99 (3.13–5.03) 
Virginia 1,517 3.87 (3.68–4.08) 854 4.87 (4.54–5.22) 663 3.07 (2.84–3.31) 
Washington 1,707 5.12 (4.88–5.38) 1,010 6.48 (6.08–6.90) 697 3.94 (3.65–4.25) 
West Virginia 498 4.57 (4.18–5.00) 266 5.31 (4.68–6.00) 232 3.99 (3.48–4.55) 
Wisconsin 1,469 4.90 (4.65–5.16) 838 6.06 (5.65–6.49) 631 3.91 (3.60–4.23) 
Wyoming 121 4.40 (3.64–5.28) 66 4.94 (3.79–6.32) 55 3.91 (2.93–5.11) 
United States 67,172 4.28 (4.25–4.31) 37,374 5.23 (5.18–5.29) 29,798 3.48 (3.44–3.52) 

Rates are per 100,000 and are age–adjusted to the 2000 US standard population.

Estimated by CBTRUS using Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program (www.seer.cancer.gov) SEER*Stat Database: Mortality – All COD, Aggregated With State, Total U.S. (1969–2009) <Katrina/Rita Population Adjustment>, National Cancer Institute, DCCPS, Surveillance Research Program, Surveillance Systems Branch, released April 2012. Underlying mortality data provided by NCHS (www.cdc.gov/nchs). Database: Mortality – All COD, Aggregated With State, Total U.S. (1969–2009) <Katrina/Rita Population Adjustment>

Abbreviations: SEER, Survival, Epidemiology and End Results; NCHS, National Center for Health Statistics; CI, confidence interval.

Estimated Numbers of Expected Cases of All Primary Brain and CNS Tumors by State

The estimated numbers of cases of all primary brain and CNS tumors for 2012 and 2013 by state are shown in Table 19. The estimated numbers of cases of malignant and non–malignant tumors by state were calculated using the CBTRUS age–specific incidence rates (2005–2009) for 18 age groups, race (white, black, and other), and gender and applying them to the 2012 and 2013 population projections for each state and the District of Columbia. The total number of new cases of primary brain and CNS tumors for all 50 states and the District of Columbia in 2012 is estimated to be 68,530 with 24,170 being malignant and 44,360 being non-malignant. For 2013, the estimates are 69,720 primary brain and CNS cases of which 24,560 and 45,160 would be expected to be malignant and non-malignant, respectively.

Table 19.

Brain and Central Nervous System Tumors, Estimated Number of Cases and by Behavior by State, 2012, 2013

STATE 2012 Estimated New Cases
 
2013 Estimated New Cases
 
 Total Malignant Non-Malignant Total Malignant Non-Malignant 
Alabama 1,070 360 710 1,090 370 720 
Alaska 130 50 90 140 50 90 
Arizona 1,530 560 970 1,590 580 1,010 
Arkansas 670 240 430 680 240 440 
California 7,560 2,670 4,890 7,700 2,710 4,980 
Colorado 1,090 400 690 1,120 410 710 
Connecticut 810 290 520 820 290 530 
Delaware 210 70 140 220 80 140 
District of Columbia 130 – 90 130 – 90 
Florida 4,780 1,680 3,100 4,890 1,710 3,180 
Georgia 2,090 700 1,380 2,150 720 1,420 
Hawaii 260 80 180 260 80 180 
Idaho 350 130 220 360 130 220 
Illinois 2,770 970 1,800 2,800 980 1,820 
Indiana 1,430 520 910 1,450 520 930 
Iowa 700 260 440 710 260 450 
Kansas 620 230 390 630 230 400 
Kentucky 990 360 630 1,000 360 640 
Louisiana 940 320 630 950 320 630 
Maine 340 120 210 340 130 220 
Maryland 1,260 410 850 1,280 420 860 
Massachusetts 1,510 540 970 1,520 540 980 
Michigan 2,280 800 1,480 2,310 810 1,490 
Minnesota 1,180 430 750 1,200 440 760 
Mississippi 640 210 430 640 210 430 
Missouri 1,370 490 880 1,390 500 900 
Montana 240 90 150 240 90 150 
Nebraska 400 150 250 400 150 260 
Nevada 600 220 390 630 230 400 
New Hampshire 320 120 200 330 120 210 
New Jersey 1,950 680 1,280 1,970 680 1,290 
New Mexico 450 160 290 460 170 290 
New York 4,380 1,500 2,890 4,430 1,510 2,920 
North Carolina 2,130 730 1,400 2,190 750 1,430 
North Dakota 150 50 90 150 50 90 
Ohio 2,660 940 1,710 2,690 950 1,730 
Oklahoma 800 290 520 810 290 520 
Oregon 900 330 570 920 340 590 
Pennsylvania 3,020 1,070 1,950 3,050 1,080 1,970 
Rhode Island 250 90 160 250 90 160 
South Carolina 1,070 360 710 1,100 370 730 
South Dakota 190 70 120 190 70 120 
Tennessee 1,450 510 940 1,480 520 960 
Texas 5,070 1,830 3,240 5,200 1,880 3,330 
Utah 540 210 330 550 210 340 
Vermont 150 60 100 160 60 100 
Virginia 1,750 600 1,150 1,780 610 1,170 
Washington 1,490 540 950 1,530 560 980 
West Virginia 440 160 280 450 160 280 
Wisconsin 1,300 470 830 1,320 480 840 
Wyoming 120 50 80 120 50 80 
United States 68,530 24,170 44,360 69,720 24,560 45,160 
STATE 2012 Estimated New Cases
 
2013 Estimated New Cases
 
 Total Malignant Non-Malignant Total Malignant Non-Malignant 
Alabama 1,070 360 710 1,090 370 720 
Alaska 130 50 90 140 50 90 
Arizona 1,530 560 970 1,590 580 1,010 
Arkansas 670 240 430 680 240 440 
California 7,560 2,670 4,890 7,700 2,710 4,980 
Colorado 1,090 400 690 1,120 410 710 
Connecticut 810 290 520 820 290 530 
Delaware 210 70 140 220 80 140 
District of Columbia 130 – 90 130 – 90 
Florida 4,780 1,680 3,100 4,890 1,710 3,180 
Georgia 2,090 700 1,380 2,150 720 1,420 
Hawaii 260 80 180 260 80 180 
Idaho 350 130 220 360 130 220 
Illinois 2,770 970 1,800 2,800 980 1,820 
Indiana 1,430 520 910 1,450 520 930 
Iowa 700 260 440 710 260 450 
Kansas 620 230 390 630 230 400 
Kentucky 990 360 630 1,000 360 640 
Louisiana 940 320 630 950 320 630 
Maine 340 120 210 340 130 220 
Maryland 1,260 410 850 1,280 420 860 
Massachusetts 1,510 540 970 1,520 540 980 
Michigan 2,280 800 1,480 2,310 810 1,490 
Minnesota 1,180 430 750 1,200 440 760 
Mississippi 640 210 430 640 210 430 
Missouri 1,370 490 880 1,390 500 900 
Montana 240 90 150 240 90 150 
Nebraska 400 150 250 400 150 260 
Nevada 600 220 390 630 230 400 
New Hampshire 320 120 200 330 120 210 
New Jersey 1,950 680 1,280 1,970 680 1,290 
New Mexico 450 160 290 460 170 290 
New York 4,380 1,500 2,890 4,430 1,510 2,920 
North Carolina 2,130 730 1,400 2,190 750 1,430 
North Dakota 150 50 90 150 50 90 
Ohio 2,660 940 1,710 2,690 950 1,730 
Oklahoma 800 290 520 810 290 520 
Oregon 900 330 570 920 340 590 
Pennsylvania 3,020 1,070 1,950 3,050 1,080 1,970 
Rhode Island 250 90 160 250 90 160 
South Carolina 1,070 360 710 1,100 370 730 
South Dakota 190 70 120 190 70 120 
Tennessee 1,450 510 940 1,480 520 960 
Texas 5,070 1,830 3,240 5,200 1,880 3,330 
Utah 540 210 330 550 210 340 
Vermont 150 60 100 160 60 100 
Virginia 1,750 600 1,150 1,780 610 1,170 
Washington 1,490 540 950 1,530 560 980 
West Virginia 440 160 280 450 160 280 
Wisconsin 1,300 470 830 1,320 480 840 
Wyoming 120 50 80 120 50 80 
United States 68,530 24,170 44,360 69,720 24,560 45,160 

Source: Estimation based on CBTRUS NPCR and SEER 2005–2009 data.

Rounded to the nearest 10.

- Estimated number is less than 50.

Relative Survival Rates for Malignant Brain and CNS Tumors by Tumor Location (Site)

Relative survival estimates by brain and CNS tumor location (site) are presented in Table 20. Individuals diagnosed from 1995 through 2009 with tumors located in the cerebrum, the frontal, temporal, parietal and occipital lobes of the brain, other brain, and other nervous system have poor short- and long-term survival rates. In contrast, those with tumor locations in the cerebellum, spinal cord and cauda equina, cranial nerves, pituitary and pineal glands and nasal cavity are observed to have better survival outcomes with ten–year survival rates ranging from 60% to as high as more than 90% (cranial nerves).

Table 20.

One-, Two-, Five-, and Ten-Year Relative Survival Rates for Malignant Brain and Central Nervous System Tumors by Site, SEER 18 Registries, 1995-2009§

   1-Yr
 
2-Yr
 
5-Yr
 
10-Yr
 
ICD-O-3 CODE SITE 95% CI 95% CI 95% CI 95% CI 
C71.1 Frontal lobe of the brain 13,584 60.1 (59.3-61.0) 45.4 (44.5-46.3) 34.4 (33.5-35.3) 26.1 (25.1-27.2) 
C71.2 Temporal lobe of the brain 9,759 55.0 (54.0-56.0) 33.9 (32.9-34.9) 22.3 (21.4-23.3) 17.1 (16.0-18.2) 
C71.3 Parietal lobe of the brain 6,655 47.5 (46.3-48.8) 28.7 (27.6-29.9) 18.8 (17.7-19.9) 12.9 (11.7-14.2) 
C71.4 Occipital lobe of the brain 1,657 50.0 (47.5-52.5) 30.6 (28.3-33.0) 20.9 (18.7-23.2) 16.8 (14.3-19.4) 
C71.0 Cerebrum 2,979 48.2 (46.4-50.1) 34.0 (32.2-35.8) 25.8 (24.1-27.6) 22.5 (20.6-24.4) 
C71.5 Ventricle 1,069 75.4 (72.6-77.9) 67.6 (64.6-70.5) 61.9 (58.6-65.0) 57.1 (53.2-60.8) 
C71.6 Cerebellum 3,380 84.6 (83.3-85.8) 78.4 (76.9-79.8) 70.8 (69.0-72.5) 65.9 (63.8-67.9) 
C71.7 Brain stem 2,706 69.3 (67.5-71.1) 56.3 (54.3-58.2) 47.8 (45.7-49.9) 42.7 (40.3-45.1) 
C71.8-C71.9 Other brain 13,529 42.4 (41.5-43.2) 29.8 (29.0-30.6) 21.2 (20.4-21.9) 16.5 (15.7-17.4) 
C72.0-C72.1 Spinal cord and cauda equina 2,025 89.0 (87.5-90.4) 84.6 (82.8-86.2) 79.6 (77.4-81.6) 75.4 (72.3-78.2) 
C72.2-C72.5 Cranial nerves 609 95.8 (93.8-97.2) 94.3 (91.9-96.0) 91.4 (88.4-93.6) 90.7 (87.2-93.4) 
C72.8-C72.9 Other nervous system 581 60.0 (55.8-64.0) 50.1 (45.7-54.4) 42.5 (37.8-47.1) 36.7 (31.0-42.5) 
C70.0-C70.9 Meninges (cerebral and spinal) 1,164 82.0 (79.5-84.2) 74.9 (72.0-77.6) 64.2 (60.7-67.5) 55.3 (50.5-59.9) 
C75.1-C75.2 Pituitary and craniopharyngeal duct 242 84.1 (78.5-88.3) 80.6 (74.5-85.4) 71.5 (64.3-77.5) 62.9 (53.8-70.7) 
C75.3 Pineal 615 87.8 (84.8-90.2) 80.4 (76.8-83.5) 73.3 (69.1-77.0) 67.1 (61.5-72.0) 
C30.0 (9522-9523) Olfactory tumors of the nasal cavity 430 90.2 (86.7-92.8) 82.7 (78.4-86.3) 75.3 (70.0-79.8) 60.8 (53.4-67.4) 
All Codes All Sites 60,984 57.5 (57.1-57.9) 43.2 (42.8-43.6) 33.8 (33.3-34.2) 28.0 (27.5-28.5) 
   1-Yr
 
2-Yr
 
5-Yr
 
10-Yr
 
ICD-O-3 CODE SITE 95% CI 95% CI 95% CI 95% CI 
C71.1 Frontal lobe of the brain 13,584 60.1 (59.3-61.0) 45.4 (44.5-46.3) 34.4 (33.5-35.3) 26.1 (25.1-27.2) 
C71.2 Temporal lobe of the brain 9,759 55.0 (54.0-56.0) 33.9 (32.9-34.9) 22.3 (21.4-23.3) 17.1 (16.0-18.2) 
C71.3 Parietal lobe of the brain 6,655 47.5 (46.3-48.8) 28.7 (27.6-29.9) 18.8 (17.7-19.9) 12.9 (11.7-14.2) 
C71.4 Occipital lobe of the brain 1,657 50.0 (47.5-52.5) 30.6 (28.3-33.0) 20.9 (18.7-23.2) 16.8 (14.3-19.4) 
C71.0 Cerebrum 2,979 48.2 (46.4-50.1) 34.0 (32.2-35.8) 25.8 (24.1-27.6) 22.5 (20.6-24.4) 
C71.5 Ventricle 1,069 75.4 (72.6-77.9) 67.6 (64.6-70.5) 61.9 (58.6-65.0) 57.1 (53.2-60.8) 
C71.6 Cerebellum 3,380 84.6 (83.3-85.8) 78.4 (76.9-79.8) 70.8 (69.0-72.5) 65.9 (63.8-67.9) 
C71.7 Brain stem 2,706 69.3 (67.5-71.1) 56.3 (54.3-58.2) 47.8 (45.7-49.9) 42.7 (40.3-45.1) 
C71.8-C71.9 Other brain 13,529 42.4 (41.5-43.2) 29.8 (29.0-30.6) 21.2 (20.4-21.9) 16.5 (15.7-17.4) 
C72.0-C72.1 Spinal cord and cauda equina 2,025 89.0 (87.5-90.4) 84.6 (82.8-86.2) 79.6 (77.4-81.6) 75.4 (72.3-78.2) 
C72.2-C72.5 Cranial nerves 609 95.8 (93.8-97.2) 94.3 (91.9-96.0) 91.4 (88.4-93.6) 90.7 (87.2-93.4) 
C72.8-C72.9 Other nervous system 581 60.0 (55.8-64.0) 50.1 (45.7-54.4) 42.5 (37.8-47.1) 36.7 (31.0-42.5) 
C70.0-C70.9 Meninges (cerebral and spinal) 1,164 82.0 (79.5-84.2) 74.9 (72.0-77.6) 64.2 (60.7-67.5) 55.3 (50.5-59.9) 
C75.1-C75.2 Pituitary and craniopharyngeal duct 242 84.1 (78.5-88.3) 80.6 (74.5-85.4) 71.5 (64.3-77.5) 62.9 (53.8-70.7) 
C75.3 Pineal 615 87.8 (84.8-90.2) 80.4 (76.8-83.5) 73.3 (69.1-77.0) 67.1 (61.5-72.0) 
C30.0 (9522-9523) Olfactory tumors of the nasal cavity 430 90.2 (86.7-92.8) 82.7 (78.4-86.3) 75.3 (70.0-79.8) 60.8 (53.4-67.4) 
All Codes All Sites 60,984 57.5 (57.1-57.9) 43.2 (42.8-43.6) 33.8 (33.3-34.2) 28.0 (27.5-28.5) 

The cohort analysis of survival rates was utilized for calculating the survival estimates presented in this table. Long-term cohort-based survival estimates reflect the survival experience of individuals diagnosed over the time period, and they may not necessarily reflect the long-term survival outlook of newly diagnosed cases.

The sites referred to in this table are based on the categories and site codes defined in the SEER Site/Histology Validation List.

§ Estimated by CBTRUS using Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program (www.seer.cancer.gov) SEER*Stat Database: Incidence - SEER 18 Regs Research Data + Hurricane Katrina Impacted Louisiana Cases, Nov 2011 Sub (1973-2009 varying) - Linked To County Attributes - Total U.S., 1969-2010 Counties, National Cancer Institute, DCCPS, Surveillance Research Program, Cancer Statistics Branch, released April 2012, based on the November 2011 submission.

Abbreviation: SEER, Survival, Epidemiology and End Results; CI, confidence interval.

Survival Rates for Malignant Brain and CNS Tumors by Histology and Age

Survival estimates for malignant brain tumors by histology and age at diagnosis are presented in Tables 21 and 22. The one– through ten–year relative survival rates by histology are shown in Table 21. The estimated five– and ten–year relative survival rates for malignant brain and CNS tumors are 33.8% and 28.0%, respectively. However, there is a large variation in survival estimates depending upon tumor histologies (Table 21). For example, five–year survival rates are 94% for pilocytic astrocytomas but are less than 5% for glioblastomas. Survival generally decreases with older age at diagnosis (Table 22). Children and young adults generally have better survival outcomes for most histologies.

Table 21.

One-, Two-, Three-, Four-, Five-, and Ten-Year Relative Survival Rates for Selected Malignant Brain and Central Nervous System Tumors by Histology, SEER 18 Registries, 1995-2009§

  1-Yr
 
2-Yr
 
3-Yr
 
4-Yr
 
5-Yr
 
10-Yr
 
Histology 95% CI 95% CI 95% CI 95% CI 95% CI 95% CI 
Pilocytic astrocytoma 2,967 97.8 (97.2-98.3) 96.6 (95.9-97.3) 95.6 (94.7-96.4) 94.8 (93.8-95.6) 94.1 (93.1-95.1) 91.4 (89.8-92.8) 
Diffuse astrocytoma 5,430 71.6 (70.3-72.8) 60.7 (59.4-62.1) 54.5 (53.1-56.0) 50.1 (48.6-51.5) 47.1 (45.6-48.6) 36.0 (34.2-37.8) 
Anaplastic astrocytoma 3,173 60.1 (58.3-61.8) 41.5 (39.6-43.3) 33.3 (31.5-35.1) 29.1 (27.4-30.9) 25.9 (24.2-27.7) 17.6 (15.7-19.5) 
Glioblastoma 25,628 35.7 (35.1-36.3) 13.6 (13.2-14.1) 7.8 (7.4-8.1) 5.7 (5.4-6.1) 4.7 (4.4-5.0) 2.3 (2.0-2.7) 
Oligodendroglioma 2,978 94.2 (93.2-95.0) 89.9 (88.7-91.0) 85.7 (84.3-87.0) 82.1 (80.5-83.6) 79.1 (77.3-80.7) 63.2 (60.5-65.7) 
Anaplastic oligodendroglioma 1,165 81.0 (78.6-83.3) 66.9 (64.0-69.7) 59.8 (56.7-62.8) 54.3 (51.1-57.4) 49.4 (46.1-52.6) 34.2 (29.8-38.5) 
Ependymal tumors 2,264 93.7 (92.6-94.7) 89.4 (87.9-90.7) 86.2 (84.5-87.7) 83.9 (82.0-85.6) 82.5 (80.5-84.3) 77.6 (74.9-80.1) 
Oligoastrocytic tumors 1,639 87.9 (86.2-89.5) 76.6 (74.4-78.8) 70.2 (67.7-72.5) 64.5 (61.8-67.1) 60.2 (57.3-63.0) 47.2 (43.5-50.9) 
Glioma malignant, NOS 3,644 61.9 (60.2-63.5) 50.4 (48.7-52.1) 47.0 (45.2-48.7) 44.7 (42. 9-46.4) 43.3 (41.5-45.1) 38.3 (36.2-40.4) 
Neuronal and mixed neuronal-glial tumors 523 90.6 (87.5-93.0) 82.6 (78.7-85.9) 79.1 (74.9-82.8) 75.4 (70.8-79.4) 74.6 (69.8-78.7) 60.1 (53.1-66.3) 
Embryonal tumors 2,464 82.2 (80.6-83.7) 72.0 (70.1-73.8) 67.1 (65.0-69.0) 63.8 (61.7-65.8) 61.2 (59.0-63.3) 54.2 (51.7-56.6) 
Lymphoma 4,142 47.8 (46.2-49.3) 38.7 (37.1-40.3) 34.0 (32.5-35.6) 30.9 (29.3-32.4) 28.4 (26.8-30.0) 21.1 (19.2-23.1) 
Total: All Brain and Other Nervous System 60,984 57.5 (57.1-57.9) 43.2 (42.8-43.6) 38.2 (37.8-38.6) 35.5 (35.1-35.9) 33.8 (33.3-34.2) 28.0 (27.5-28.5) 
  1-Yr
 
2-Yr
 
3-Yr
 
4-Yr
 
5-Yr
 
10-Yr
 
Histology 95% CI 95% CI 95% CI 95% CI 95% CI 95% CI 
Pilocytic astrocytoma 2,967 97.8 (97.2-98.3) 96.6 (95.9-97.3) 95.6 (94.7-96.4) 94.8 (93.8-95.6) 94.1 (93.1-95.1) 91.4 (89.8-92.8) 
Diffuse astrocytoma 5,430 71.6 (70.3-72.8) 60.7 (59.4-62.1) 54.5 (53.1-56.0) 50.1 (48.6-51.5) 47.1 (45.6-48.6) 36.0 (34.2-37.8) 
Anaplastic astrocytoma 3,173 60.1 (58.3-61.8) 41.5 (39.6-43.3) 33.3 (31.5-35.1) 29.1 (27.4-30.9) 25.9 (24.2-27.7) 17.6 (15.7-19.5) 
Glioblastoma 25,628 35.7 (35.1-36.3) 13.6 (13.2-14.1) 7.8 (7.4-8.1) 5.7 (5.4-6.1) 4.7 (4.4-5.0) 2.3 (2.0-2.7) 
Oligodendroglioma 2,978 94.2 (93.2-95.0) 89.9 (88.7-91.0) 85.7 (84.3-87.0) 82.1 (80.5-83.6) 79.1 (77.3-80.7) 63.2 (60.5-65.7) 
Anaplastic oligodendroglioma 1,165 81.0 (78.6-83.3) 66.9 (64.0-69.7) 59.8 (56.7-62.8) 54.3 (51.1-57.4) 49.4 (46.1-52.6) 34.2 (29.8-38.5) 
Ependymal tumors 2,264 93.7 (92.6-94.7) 89.4 (87.9-90.7) 86.2 (84.5-87.7) 83.9 (82.0-85.6) 82.5 (80.5-84.3) 77.6 (74.9-80.1) 
Oligoastrocytic tumors 1,639 87.9 (86.2-89.5) 76.6 (74.4-78.8) 70.2 (67.7-72.5) 64.5 (61.8-67.1) 60.2 (57.3-63.0) 47.2 (43.5-50.9) 
Glioma malignant, NOS 3,644 61.9 (60.2-63.5) 50.4 (48.7-52.1) 47.0 (45.2-48.7) 44.7 (42. 9-46.4) 43.3 (41.5-45.1) 38.3 (36.2-40.4) 
Neuronal and mixed neuronal-glial tumors 523 90.6 (87.5-93.0) 82.6 (78.7-85.9) 79.1 (74.9-82.8) 75.4 (70.8-79.4) 74.6 (69.8-78.7) 60.1 (53.1-66.3) 
Embryonal tumors 2,464 82.2 (80.6-83.7) 72.0 (70.1-73.8) 67.1 (65.0-69.0) 63.8 (61.7-65.8) 61.2 (59.0-63.3) 54.2 (51.7-56.6) 
Lymphoma 4,142 47.8 (46.2-49.3) 38.7 (37.1-40.3) 34.0 (32.5-35.6) 30.9 (29.3-32.4) 28.4 (26.8-30.0) 21.1 (19.2-23.1) 
Total: All Brain and Other Nervous System 60,984 57.5 (57.1-57.9) 43.2 (42.8-43.6) 38.2 (37.8-38.6) 35.5 (35.1-35.9) 33.8 (33.3-34.2) 28.0 (27.5-28.5) 

The cohort analysis of survival rates was utilized for calculating the survival estimates presented in this table. Long-term cohort-based survival estimates reflect the survival experience of individuals diagnosed over the time period, and they may not necessarily reflect the long-term survival outlook of newly diagnosed cases.

Rates are an estimate of the percentage of patients alive at one, two, three, four, five, and ten year, respectively.

§ Estimated by CBTRUS using Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program (www.seer.cancer.gov) SEER*Stat Database: Incidence - SEER 18 Regs Research Data + Hurricane Katrina Impacted Louisiana Cases, Nov 2011 Sub (1973-2009 varying) - Linked To County Attributes - Total U.S., 1969-2010 Counties, National Cancer Institute, DCCPS, Surveillance Research Program, Cancer Statistics Branch, released April 2012, based on the November 2011 submission.

Includes histologies not listed in this table.

Abbreviation: SEER, Survival, Epidemiology and End Results; CI, confidence interval; NOS, not otherwise specified.

Table 22.

One-, Two-, Five-, and Ten-Year Relative Survival Rates†‡ for Selected Malignant Brain and Central Nervous System Tumor Histologys by Age Groups, SEER 18 Registries, 1995-2009§

Histology Age Group  1-Yr
 
2-Yr
 
5-Yr
 
10-Yr
 
  95% CI 95% CI 95% CI 95% CI 
Pilocytic astrocytoma 0-14 yr 1,782 98.6 (97.9-99.1) 98.3 (97.6-98.9) 97.1 (96.1-97.9) 95.8 (94.2-96.9) 
 0-19 yr 2,145 98.4 (97.8-98.9) 98.2 (97.4-98.7) 96.8 (95.8-97.5) 95.6 (94.2-96.7) 
 20-44 yr 619 96.6 (94.8-97.8) 94.8 (92.6-96.3) 89.8 (86.7-92.2) 84.9 (80.3-88.4) 
 45-54 yr 113 93.7 (86.7-97.1) 86.0 (77.3-91.5) 77.2 (66.6-84.8) 70.8 (57.2-80.8) 
 55-64 yr 53 96.6 (84.0-99.0) 88.6 (73.7-95.3) 86.6 (71.1-94.1) 64.6 (40.3-81.0) 
 65-74 yr – – – – – – – – – 
 75+ yr – – – – – – – – – 
Diffuse astrocytoma 0-14 yr 641 91.7 (89.3-93.7) 87.5 (84.5-89.9) 83.0 (79.6-86.0) 81.2 (77.1-84.6) 
 0-19 yr 801 92.6 (90.5-94.3) 87.8 (85.3-90.0) 83.2 (80.1-85.8) 80.7 (77.1-83.8) 
 20-44 yr 1,941 92.6 (91.3-93.7) 84.5 (82.7-86.1) 64.7 (62.2-67.1) 44.8 (41.4-48.1) 
 45-54 yr 859 73.1 (69.9-76.0) 58.7 (55.1-62.1) 42.2 (38.4-45.9) 30.2 (25.5-35.1) 
 55-64 yr 731 53.4 (49.6-57.1) 33.2 (29.5-36.8) 20.2 (16.9-23.7) 11.3 (7.9-15.4) 
 65-74 yr 582 36.3 (32.2-40.4) 22.7 (19.1-26.5) 12.6 (9.5-16.2) 6.6 (3.2-11.7) 
 75+ yr 516 20.5 (16.9-24.3) 10.4 (7.7-13.6) 4.4 (2.3-7.4) – – 
Anaplastic astrocytoma 0-14 yr 176 58.2 (50.4-65.3) 40.0 (32.5-47.4) 29.8 (22.9-37.1) 25.0 (18.1-32.3) 
 0-19 yr 240 64.3 (57.8-70.1) 42.1 (35.6-48.5) 31.2 (25.1-37.6) 26.2 (19.9-32.9) 
 20-44 yr 1,030 86.9 (84.6-88.9) 71.6 (68.5-74.4) 48.8 (45.2-52.3) 33.6 (29.4-37.9) 
 45-54 yr 558 69.8 (65.7-73.5) 47.2 (42.8-51.6) 28.0 (23.9-32.3) 15.6 (11.2-20.7) 
 55-64 yr 544 50.0 (45.6-54.3) 24.8 (21.0-28.8) 10.2 (7.3-13.7) 6.7 (3.8-10.7) 
 65-74 yr 448 30.9 (26.5-35.3) 12.7 (9.6-16.2) 4.2 (2.2-7.1) – – 
 75+ yr 353 15.2 (11.5-19.5) 4.8 (2.7-8.0) – – – – 
Glioblastoma 0-14 yr 222 50.1 (43.1-56.7) 28.5 (22.2-35.1) 21.3 (15.6-27.7) 13.7 (8.3-20.5) 
 0-19 yr 322 57.1 (51.3-62.5) 31.7 (26.3-37.3) 18.2 (13.6-23.3) 11.9 (7.5-17.3) 
 20-44 yr 2,543 67.1 (65.1-68.9) 35.4 (33.5-37.4) 16.6 (15.0-18.3) 9.8 (8.1-11.6) 
 45-54 yr 4,559 53.7 (52.2-55.2) 20.6 (19.4-21.9) 5.8 (5.0-6.7) 2.9 (2.0-3.9) 
 55-64 yr 6,584 41.6 (40.4-42.8) 14.2 (13.3-15.1) 3.9 (3.4-4.6) 0.9 (0.4-1.9) 
 65-74 yr 6,279 24.0 (22.9-25.1) 6.9 (6.2-7.6) 1.6 (1.2-2.1) 0.5 (0.2-1.2) 
 75+ yr 5,341 9.7 (8.8-10.5) 2.6 (2.1-3.1) 0.8 (0.5-1.2) – – 
Oligodendroglioma 0-14 yr 136 97.0 (92.2-98.9) 96.2 (91.1-98.4) 93.6 (87.5-96.8) 90.4 (81.5-95.1) 
 0-19 yr 232 97.4 (94.3-98.9) 95.6 (91.8-97.6) 92.5 (87.9-95.4) 90.0 (84.0-93.9) 
 20-44 yr 1,548 98.2 (97.3-98.8) 95.7 (94.5-96.7) 85.2 (83.0-87.1) 67.8 (64.2-71.1) 
 45-54 yr 648 94.4 (92.2-96.0) 89.4 (86.5-91.7) 77.8 (73.8-81.3) 58.8 (52.4-64.7) 
 55-64 yr 330 87.5 (83.1-90.8) 78.3 (73.0-82.8) 64.3 (57.6-70.2) 47.2 (38.2-55.7) 
 65-74 yr 139 77.1 (68.7-83.5) 69.1 (59.9-76.6) 47.1 (36.7-56.8) 34.2 (19.5-49.4) 
 75+ yr 81 61.3 (48.9-71.5) 45.7 (33.0-57.5) 36.6 (22.0-51.4) – – 
Anaplastic oligodendroglioma 0-14 yr – – – – – – – – – 
 0-19 yr – – – – – – – – – 
 20-44 yr 465 93.6 (90.9-95.5) 82.2 (78.2-85.5) 65.2 (60.1-69.8) 45.3 (38.0-52.3) 
 45-54 yr 281 83.5 (78.4-87.4) 70.1 (64.0-75.3) 53.8 (46.9-60.1) 40.1 (32.2-47.9) 
 55-64 yr 225 74.8 (68.3-80.2) 58.3 (51.0-65.0) 37.5 (30.0-45.0) 22.6 (13.3-33.3) 
 65-74 yr 116 52.6 (42.7-61.5) 33.9 (24.9-43.2) 15.0 (8.4-23.5) – – 
 75+ yr – – – – – – – – – 
Ependymal tumors 0-14 yr 540 93.2 (90.7-95.1) 85.6 (82.2-88.5) 71.2 (66.7-75.3) 62.5 (56.8-67.6) 
 0-19 yr 645 93.7 (91.5-95.4) 86.7 (83.6-89.2) 73.8 (69.7-77.4) 64.4 (59.2-69.2) 
 20-44 yr 736 96.1 (94.3-97.3) 94.9 (93.0-96.4) 91.3 (88.6-93.4) 88.2 (84.4-91.1) 
 45-54 yr 404 94.3 (91.3-96.2) 90.6 (87.0-93.3) 84.3 (79.4-88.1) 82.7 (77.4-86.9) 
 55-64 yr 280 92.2 (88.0-95.0) 87.8 (82.7-91.5) 83.8 (77.2-88.6) 83.7 (76.2-89.0) 
 65-74 yr 132 89.6 (82.0-94.1) 79.5 (70.0-86.3) 75.1 (64.6-82.9) 66.4 (50.4-78.3) 
 75+ yr 67 77.3 (64.2-86.1) 72.2 (57.0-82.7) 65.3 (47.7-78.2) 30.2 (9.0-55.1) 
Oligoastrocytic tumors 0-14 yr 69 93.8 (84.2-97.7) 84.5 (72.0-91.7) 79.9 (66.3-88.5) 72.3 (54.8-84.0) 
 0-19 yr 114 92.7 (85.8-96.3) 85.2 (76.6-90.9) 82.8 (73.6-89.0) 76.2 (63.7-84.9) 
 20-44 yr 892 96.2 (94.6-97.3) 89.1 (86.7-91.1) 70.3 (66.5-73.8) 55.3 (50.1-60.2) 
 45-54 yr 322 88.2 (83.9-91.3) 75.0 (69.4-79.6) 58.3 (51.6-64.4) 41.2 (31.3-50.7) 
 55-64 yr 173 71.4 (63.6-77.8) 47.4 (39.0-55.2) 28.3 (20.4-36.8) 21.8 (13.1-31.9) 
 65-74 yr 94 63.3 (52.2-72.5) 36.7 (26.4-47.0) 23.6 (14.5-34.0) – – 
 75+ yr – – – – – – – – – 
Glioma malignant, NOS 0-14 yr 1,191 75.1 (72.5-77.6) 61.6 (58.6-64.4) 57.6 (54.5-60.5) 56.3 (53.1-59.3) 
 0-19 yr 1,319 76.6 (74.1-78.8) 63.5 (60.6-66.1) 59.0 (56.1-61.8) 57.5 (54.5-60.5) 
 20-44 yr 700 87.6 (84.9-89.9) 77.8 (74.3-80.9) 64.6 (60.3-68.5) 50.0 (44.4-55.3) 
 45-54 yr 371 71.4 (66.4-75.8) 56.9 (51.4-62.0) 46.1 (40.3-51.8) 39.1 (32.0-46.1) 
 55-64 yr 311 50.5 (44.7-56.1) 33.8 (28.2-39.4) 24.2 (18.9-30.0) 21.3 (14.8-28.7) 
 65-74 yr 341 33.2 (28.1-38.4) 21.6 (17.0-26.5) 15.8 (11.5-20.7) 11.8 (7.0-17.9) 
 75+ yr 602 14.9 (12.0-18.0) 9.8 (7.4-12.7) 6.2 (3.8-9.3) 4.1 (1.5-8.8) 
Neuronal and mixed neuronal-glial tumors 0-14 yr – – – – – – – – – 
0-19 yr 57 92.5 (81.0-97.1) 81.9 (67.9-90.2) 81.9 (67.9-90.2) 68.5 (35.5-87.2) 
 20-44 yr 138 96.4 (91.3-98.5) 91.8 (85.4-95.4) 80.6 (71.7-87.0) 68.3 (56.2-77.7) 
 45-54 yr 131 93.4 (87.2-96.6) 90.3 (83.2-94.5) 77.9 (68.1-85.1) 63.4 (49.7-74.3) 
 55-64 yr 103 90.4 (82.1-94.9) 75.2 (64.4-83.1) 64.4 (52.3-74.2) 53.1 (38.2-66.0) 
 65-74 yr 51 75.7 (60.5-85.7) 68.4 (52.2-80.1) 67.0 (50.2-79.3) 38.5 (18.3-58.5) 
 75+ yr – – – – – – – – – 
Embryonal tumors 0-14 yr 1,644 80.8 (78.8-82.7) 70.3 (68.0-72.6) 61.9 (59.2-64.4) 55.5 (52.5-58.4) 
 0-19 yr 1,810 81.8 (79.9-83.6) 71.1 (68.9-73.2) 61.9 (59.4-64.3) 56.0 (53.2-58.8) 
 20-44 yr 514 86.9 (83.5-89.5) 79.8 (75.8-83.1) 64.5 (59.6-68.9) 55.4 (49.6-60.9) 
 45-54 yr 68 78.6 (66.2-86.8) 65.0 (51.4-75.6) 52.3 (36.6-65.8) 29.5 (13.2-47.9) 
 55-64 yr – – – – – – – – – 
 65-74 yr – – – – – – – – – 
 75+ yr – – – – – – – – – 
Lymphoma 0-14 yr – – – – – – – – – 
 0-19 yr 60 83.0 (70.6-90.5) 77.3 (64.0-86.2) 73.2 (59.2-83.0) 61.8 (40.7-77.3) 
 20-44 yr 1,013 39.4 (36.3-42.4) 33.1 (30.2-36.1) 27.9 (25.0-30.9) 21.7 (18.4-25.2) 
 45-54 yr 678 56.8 (52.9-60.5) 48.4 (44.4-52.2) 37.9 (33.8-42.0) 28.5 (23.5-33.7) 
 55-64 yr 771 60.3 (56.6-63.7) 50.0 (46.2-53.6) 36.2 (32.3-40.1) 27.0 (22.6-31.7) 
 65-74 yr 878 47.6 (44.1-51.0) 37.4 (33.9-40.9) 22.3 (19.0-25.9) 12.4 (8.3-17.3) 
 75+ yr 742 34.8 (31.1-38.4) 23.1 (19.7-26.6) 13.2 (10.0-16.8) 9.7 (6.5-13.6) 
Total: All Brain and CNS 0-14 yr 7,183 85.7 (84.8-86.5) 78.1 (77.1-79.1) 72.2 (71.1-73.3) 68.1 (66.8-69.4) 
 0-19 yr 8,778 86.9 (86.1-87.6) 79.3 (78.4-80.1) 73.0 (72.0-74.0) 69.0 (67.8-70.2) 
 20-44 yr 13,023 83.4 (82.8-84.1) 71.9 (71.1-72.7) 57.7 (56.7-58.6) 45.7 (44.5-46.9) 
 45-54 yr 9,506 66.4 (65.4-67.3) 45.1 (44.0-46.1) 31.7 (30.6-32.8) 24.4 (23.1-25.7) 
 55-64 yr 10,709 50.7 (49.7-51.7) 28.4 (27.5-29.3) 17.6 (16.8-18.5) 12.9 (11.9-13.9) 
 65-74 yr 9,737 32.4 (31.4-33.4) 17.2 (16.4-18.0) 10.0 (9.3-10.7) 7.0 (6.1-7.9) 
 75+ yr 9,231 16.6 (15.8-17.4) 9.0 (8.4-9.7) 5.7 (5.1-6.4) 3.8 (3.0-4.8) 
Histology Age Group  1-Yr
 
2-Yr
 
5-Yr
 
10-Yr
 
  95% CI 95% CI 95% CI 95% CI 
Pilocytic astrocytoma 0-14 yr 1,782 98.6 (97.9-99.1) 98.3 (97.6-98.9) 97.1 (96.1-97.9) 95.8 (94.2-96.9) 
 0-19 yr 2,145 98.4 (97.8-98.9) 98.2 (97.4-98.7) 96.8 (95.8-97.5) 95.6 (94.2-96.7) 
 20-44 yr 619 96.6 (94.8-97.8) 94.8 (92.6-96.3) 89.8 (86.7-92.2) 84.9 (80.3-88.4) 
 45-54 yr 113 93.7 (86.7-97.1) 86.0 (77.3-91.5) 77.2 (66.6-84.8) 70.8 (57.2-80.8) 
 55-64 yr 53 96.6 (84.0-99.0) 88.6 (73.7-95.3) 86.6 (71.1-94.1) 64.6 (40.3-81.0) 
 65-74 yr – – – – – – – – – 
 75+ yr – – – – – – – – – 
Diffuse astrocytoma 0-14 yr 641 91.7 (89.3-93.7) 87.5 (84.5-89.9) 83.0 (79.6-86.0) 81.2 (77.1-84.6) 
 0-19 yr 801 92.6 (90.5-94.3) 87.8 (85.3-90.0) 83.2 (80.1-85.8) 80.7 (77.1-83.8) 
 20-44 yr 1,941 92.6 (91.3-93.7) 84.5 (82.7-86.1) 64.7 (62.2-67.1) 44.8 (41.4-48.1) 
 45-54 yr 859 73.1 (69.9-76.0) 58.7 (55.1-62.1) 42.2 (38.4-45.9) 30.2 (25.5-35.1) 
 55-64 yr 731 53.4 (49.6-57.1) 33.2 (29.5-36.8) 20.2 (16.9-23.7) 11.3 (7.9-15.4) 
 65-74 yr 582 36.3 (32.2-40.4) 22.7 (19.1-26.5) 12.6 (9.5-16.2) 6.6 (3.2-11.7) 
 75+ yr 516 20.5 (16.9-24.3) 10.4 (7.7-13.6) 4.4 (2.3-7.4) – – 
Anaplastic astrocytoma 0-14 yr 176 58.2 (50.4-65.3) 40.0 (32.5-47.4) 29.8 (22.9-37.1) 25.0 (18.1-32.3) 
 0-19 yr 240 64.3 (57.8-70.1) 42.1 (35.6-48.5) 31.2 (25.1-37.6) 26.2 (19.9-32.9) 
 20-44 yr 1,030 86.9 (84.6-88.9) 71.6 (68.5-74.4) 48.8 (45.2-52.3) 33.6 (29.4-37.9) 
 45-54 yr 558 69.8 (65.7-73.5) 47.2 (42.8-51.6) 28.0 (23.9-32.3) 15.6 (11.2-20.7) 
 55-64 yr 544 50.0 (45.6-54.3) 24.8 (21.0-28.8) 10.2 (7.3-13.7) 6.7 (3.8-10.7) 
 65-74 yr 448 30.9 (26.5-35.3) 12.7 (9.6-16.2) 4.2 (2.2-7.1) – – 
 75+ yr 353 15.2 (11.5-19.5) 4.8 (2.7-8.0) – – – – 
Glioblastoma 0-14 yr 222 50.1 (43.1-56.7) 28.5 (22.2-35.1) 21.3 (15.6-27.7) 13.7 (8.3-20.5) 
 0-19 yr 322 57.1 (51.3-62.5) 31.7 (26.3-37.3) 18.2 (13.6-23.3) 11.9 (7.5-17.3) 
 20-44 yr 2,543 67.1 (65.1-68.9) 35.4 (33.5-37.4) 16.6 (15.0-18.3) 9.8 (8.1-11.6) 
 45-54 yr 4,559 53.7 (52.2-55.2) 20.6 (19.4-21.9) 5.8 (5.0-6.7) 2.9 (2.0-3.9) 
 55-64 yr 6,584 41.6 (40.4-42.8) 14.2 (13.3-15.1) 3.9 (3.4-4.6) 0.9 (0.4-1.9) 
 65-74 yr 6,279 24.0 (22.9-25.1) 6.9 (6.2-7.6) 1.6 (1.2-2.1) 0.5 (0.2-1.2) 
 75+ yr 5,341 9.7 (8.8-10.5) 2.6 (2.1-3.1) 0.8 (0.5-1.2) – – 
Oligodendroglioma 0-14 yr 136 97.0 (92.2-98.9) 96.2 (91.1-98.4) 93.6 (87.5-96.8) 90.4 (81.5-95.1) 
 0-19 yr 232 97.4 (94.3-98.9) 95.6 (91.8-97.6) 92.5 (87.9-95.4) 90.0 (84.0-93.9) 
 20-44 yr 1,548 98.2 (97.3-98.8) 95.7 (94.5-96.7) 85.2 (83.0-87.1) 67.8 (64.2-71.1) 
 45-54 yr 648 94.4 (92.2-96.0) 89.4 (86.5-91.7) 77.8 (73.8-81.3) 58.8 (52.4-64.7) 
 55-64 yr 330 87.5 (83.1-90.8) 78.3 (73.0-82.8) 64.3 (57.6-70.2) 47.2 (38.2-55.7) 
 65-74 yr 139 77.1 (68.7-83.5) 69.1 (59.9-76.6) 47.1 (36.7-56.8) 34.2 (19.5-49.4) 
 75+ yr 81 61.3 (48.9-71.5) 45.7 (33.0-57.5) 36.6 (22.0-51.4) – – 
Anaplastic oligodendroglioma 0-14 yr – – – – – – – – – 
 0-19 yr – – – – – – – – – 
 20-44 yr 465 93.6 (90.9-95.5) 82.2 (78.2-85.5) 65.2 (60.1-69.8) 45.3 (38.0-52.3) 
 45-54 yr 281 83.5 (78.4-87.4) 70.1 (64.0-75.3) 53.8 (46.9-60.1) 40.1 (32.2-47.9) 
 55-64 yr 225 74.8 (68.3-80.2) 58.3 (51.0-65.0) 37.5 (30.0-45.0) 22.6 (13.3-33.3) 
 65-74 yr 116 52.6 (42.7-61.5) 33.9 (24.9-43.2) 15.0 (8.4-23.5) – – 
 75+ yr – – – – – – – – – 
Ependymal tumors 0-14 yr 540 93.2 (90.7-95.1) 85.6 (82.2-88.5) 71.2 (66.7-75.3) 62.5 (56.8-67.6) 
 0-19 yr 645 93.7 (91.5-95.4) 86.7 (83.6-89.2) 73.8 (69.7-77.4) 64.4 (59.2-69.2) 
 20-44 yr 736 96.1 (94.3-97.3) 94.9 (93.0-96.4) 91.3 (88.6-93.4) 88.2 (84.4-91.1) 
 45-54 yr 404 94.3 (91.3-96.2) 90.6 (87.0-93.3) 84.3 (79.4-88.1) 82.7 (77.4-86.9) 
 55-64 yr 280 92.2 (88.0-95.0) 87.8 (82.7-91.5) 83.8 (77.2-88.6) 83.7 (76.2-89.0) 
 65-74 yr 132 89.6 (82.0-94.1) 79.5 (70.0-86.3) 75.1 (64.6-82.9) 66.4 (50.4-78.3) 
 75+ yr 67 77.3 (64.2-86.1) 72.2 (57.0-82.7) 65.3 (47.7-78.2) 30.2 (9.0-55.1) 
Oligoastrocytic tumors 0-14 yr 69 93.8 (84.2-97.7) 84.5 (72.0-91.7) 79.9 (66.3-88.5) 72.3 (54.8-84.0) 
 0-19 yr 114 92.7 (85.8-96.3) 85.2 (76.6-90.9) 82.8 (73.6-89.0) 76.2 (63.7-84.9) 
 20-44 yr 892 96.2 (94.6-97.3) 89.1 (86.7-91.1) 70.3 (66.5-73.8) 55.3 (50.1-60.2) 
 45-54 yr 322 88.2 (83.9-91.3) 75.0 (69.4-79.6) 58.3 (51.6-64.4) 41.2 (31.3-50.7) 
 55-64 yr 173 71.4 (63.6-77.8) 47.4 (39.0-55.2) 28.3 (20.4-36.8) 21.8 (13.1-31.9) 
 65-74 yr 94 63.3 (52.2-72.5) 36.7 (26.4-47.0) 23.6 (14.5-34.0) – – 
 75+ yr – – – – – – – – – 
Glioma malignant, NOS 0-14 yr 1,191 75.1 (72.5-77.6) 61.6 (58.6-64.4) 57.6 (54.5-60.5) 56.3 (53.1-59.3) 
 0-19 yr 1,319 76.6 (74.1-78.8) 63.5 (60.6-66.1) 59.0 (56.1-61.8) 57.5 (54.5-60.5) 
 20-44 yr 700 87.6 (84.9-89.9) 77.8 (74.3-80.9) 64.6 (60.3-68.5) 50.0 (44.4-55.3) 
 45-54 yr 371 71.4 (66.4-75.8) 56.9 (51.4-62.0) 46.1 (40.3-51.8) 39.1 (32.0-46.1) 
 55-64 yr 311 50.5 (44.7-56.1) 33.8 (28.2-39.4) 24.2 (18.9-30.0) 21.3 (14.8-28.7) 
 65-74 yr 341 33.2 (28.1-38.4) 21.6 (17.0-26.5) 15.8 (11.5-20.7) 11.8 (7.0-17.9) 
 75+ yr 602 14.9 (12.0-18.0) 9.8 (7.4-12.7) 6.2 (3.8-9.3) 4.1 (1.5-8.8) 
Neuronal and mixed neuronal-glial tumors 0-14 yr – – – – – – – – – 
0-19 yr 57 92.5 (81.0-97.1) 81.9 (67.9-90.2) 81.9 (67.9-90.2) 68.5 (35.5-87.2) 
 20-44 yr 138 96.4 (91.3-98.5) 91.8 (85.4-95.4) 80.6 (71.7-87.0) 68.3 (56.2-77.7) 
 45-54 yr 131 93.4 (87.2-96.6) 90.3 (83.2-94.5) 77.9 (68.1-85.1) 63.4 (49.7-74.3) 
 55-64 yr 103 90.4 (82.1-94.9) 75.2 (64.4-83.1) 64.4 (52.3-74.2) 53.1 (38.2-66.0) 
 65-74 yr 51 75.7 (60.5-85.7) 68.4 (52.2-80.1) 67.0 (50.2-79.3) 38.5 (18.3-58.5) 
 75+ yr – – – – – – – – – 
Embryonal tumors 0-14 yr 1,644 80.8 (78.8-82.7) 70.3 (68.0-72.6) 61.9 (59.2-64.4) 55.5 (52.5-58.4) 
 0-19 yr 1,810 81.8 (79.9-83.6) 71.1 (68.9-73.2) 61.9 (59.4-64.3) 56.0 (53.2-58.8) 
 20-44 yr 514 86.9 (83.5-89.5) 79.8 (75.8-83.1) 64.5 (59.6-68.9) 55.4 (49.6-60.9) 
 45-54 yr 68 78.6 (66.2-86.8) 65.0 (51.4-75.6) 52.3 (36.6-65.8) 29.5 (13.2-47.9) 
 55-64 yr – – – – – – – – – 
 65-74 yr – – – – – – – – – 
 75+ yr – – – – – – – – – 
Lymphoma 0-14 yr – – – – – – – – – 
 0-19 yr 60 83.0 (70.6-90.5) 77.3 (64.0-86.2) 73.2 (59.2-83.0) 61.8 (40.7-77.3) 
 20-44 yr 1,013 39.4 (36.3-42.4) 33.1 (30.2-36.1) 27.9 (25.0-30.9) 21.7 (18.4-25.2) 
 45-54 yr 678 56.8 (52.9-60.5) 48.4 (44.4-52.2) 37.9 (33.8-42.0) 28.5 (23.5-33.7) 
 55-64 yr 771 60.3 (56.6-63.7) 50.0 (46.2-53.6) 36.2 (32.3-40.1) 27.0 (22.6-31.7) 
 65-74 yr 878 47.6 (44.1-51.0) 37.4 (33.9-40.9) 22.3 (19.0-25.9) 12.4 (8.3-17.3) 
 75+ yr 742 34.8 (31.1-38.4) 23.1 (19.7-26.6) 13.2 (10.0-16.8) 9.7 (6.5-13.6) 
Total: All Brain and CNS 0-14 yr 7,183 85.7 (84.8-86.5) 78.1 (77.1-79.1) 72.2 (71.1-73.3) 68.1 (66.8-69.4) 
 0-19 yr 8,778 86.9 (86.1-87.6) 79.3 (78.4-80.1) 73.0 (72.0-74.0) 69.0 (67.8-70.2) 
 20-44 yr 13,023 83.4 (82.8-84.1) 71.9 (71.1-72.7) 57.7 (56.7-58.6) 45.7 (44.5-46.9) 
 45-54 yr 9,506 66.4 (65.4-67.3) 45.1 (44.0-46.1) 31.7 (30.6-32.8) 24.4 (23.1-25.7) 
 55-64 yr 10,709 50.7 (49.7-51.7) 28.4 (27.5-29.3) 17.6 (16.8-18.5) 12.9 (11.9-13.9) 
 65-74 yr 9,737 32.4 (31.4-33.4) 17.2 (16.4-18.0) 10.0 (9.3-10.7) 7.0 (6.1-7.9) 
 75+ yr 9,231 16.6 (15.8-17.4) 9.0 (8.4-9.7) 5.7 (5.1-6.4) 3.8 (3.0-4.8) 

The cohort analysis of survival rates was utilized for calculating the survival estimates presented in this table. Long-term cohort-based survival estimates reflect the survival experience of individuals diagnosed over the time period, and they may not necessarily reflect the long-term survival outlook of newly diagnosed cases.

Rates are an estimate of the percentage of patients alive at one, two, five, and ten year, respectively. Rates were not presented for categories with 50 or less cases and were suppressed for rates where less than 16 cases were surviving within a category.

§ Estimated by CBTRUS using Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program (www.seer.cancer.gov) SEER*Stat Database: Incidence - SEER 18 Regs Research Data + Hurricane Katrina Impacted Louisiana Cases, Nov 2011 Sub (1973-2009 varying) - Linked To County Attributes - Total U.S., 1969-2010 Counties, National Cancer Institute, DCCPS, Surveillance Research Program, Cancer Statistics Branch, released April 2012, based on the November 2011 submission.

Includes histologies not listed in this table

Abbreviation: SEER, Survival, Epidemiology and End Results; CI, confidence interval; NOS, not otherwise specified.

Descriptive Summary of Meningioma and Glioblastoma

The findings in the CBTRUS Statistical Report 2005–2009 are synthesized to describe the two most common histologies, meningioma and glioblastoma. Meningiomas are the most frequently reported tumors and account for more than 35% of tumors reported to CBTRUS (Table 8; Figure 4). Ninety–eight percent of meningiomas reported to CBTRUS had a non–malignant behavior code (Table 8). Of the non-malignant meningiomas, 49% were histologically confirmed, while 49% were radiographically confirmed. Meningiomas are more common in older adults (Table 12) and are uncommon in children. The incidence of meningiomas increases with increasing age. The rates for meningiomas increase dramatically after age 65 and continue to be high even among the population aged 85 years and older (Table 12). Meningiomas are more than twice as common in females as compared to males (Table 9). The incidence of meningiomas is statistically significantly higher in blacks than whites (Table 10). As only malignant meningiomas were reported in the SEER database prior to 2004, insufficient time has passed to estimate 5-year survival for non-malignant meningiomas, and therefore, survival estimates were not generated for this report. However, information about meningioma survival estimates was obtained from a manuscript that used the National Cancer Data Base and showed the overall five–year survival rate for meningioma to be 69% (70% for benign and 55% for malignant).24 In addition, a recent study of 12,284 patients with a diagnosis of nonmalignant intracranial meningioma reported to SEER for diagnosis years 2004-2007 found that over 85% of patients survived three years after diagnosis, and resection was associated with improved survival.25

Glioblastomas are the second most frequently reported histology and the most common malignancy. They account for 16% of all primary brain tumors (Table 8; Figure 4). Glioblastomas are more common in older adults (Table 12) and are uncommon in children. Glioblastomas comprise approximately 3% of all brain and CNS tumors reported among 0–19 year olds (Table 4). The incidence of glioblastomas increases with increasing age, with rates highest in the 75 to 84 years olds (Table 12). Glioblastomas are 1.6 times more common in males (Table 9). Glioblastomas are two to three times higher among whites as compared to black, AIAN and API race groups (Table 10). The relative survival estimates for glioblastoma are quite low; less than 5% of patients survived five years post diagnosis (Table 21). Glioblastoma survival estimates are somewhat higher for the small number of patients who are diagnosed under age 20 (Table 22).

Concluding Comment

The CBTRUS Statistical Report: Primary Brain and Central Nervous System Tumors Diagnosed in the United States in 2005–2009 presents a comprehensive view of current population-based incidence and related surveillance measures on primary malignant and non-malignant brain and CNS tumors collected and reported by central cancer registries that cover approximately 97% of the United States population. This report aims to serve as a useful resource for researchers, patient families as well as clinicians. In keeping with its mission, CBTRUS continually revises its reports mindful of the broader surveillance community in which it works while balancing the input it receives from the clinical and research community, especially those comments from neuropathologists. In this way, the CBTRUS facilitates communication between the cancer surveillance and the brain tumor research and clinical communities and contributes meaningful insight into the descriptive epidemiology of all primary brain and CNS tumors in the United States.

Abbreviations

AIAN – American Indian/Alaskan Native
API – Asian Pacific Islander
CBTRUS – Central Brain Tumor Registry of the United States
CDC –Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
CSS –Cancer Surveillance System
CI – Confidence interval
CNS – central nervous system
ICD-O-3 – International Classification of Diseases for Oncology, Third Edition
ICCC – International Classification of Childhood Cancer
NAACCR – North American Association of Central Cancer Registries
NCDB – National Cancer Data Base
NCHS – National Center for Health Statistics
NCI –National Cancer Institute
NOS – Not otherwise specified
NPCR – National Program of Cancer Registries
SEER – Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results
SPSS –Statistical Packages for the Social Sciences
UDS – Uniform Data Standards
US – United States
VHA – Veterans Health Administration
WHO – World Health Organization

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Appendix

Appendix A.

2000 U.S. Standard Population

Age Group 2000 U.S. Age Group 2000 U.S. Age Group 2000 U.S. 
0-4 18,986,520 45-49 19,805,793 Total 274,633,642 
5-9 19,919,840 50-54 17,224,359   
10-14 20,056,779 55-59 13,307,234   
15-19 19,819,518 60-64 10,654,272   
20-24 18,257,225 65-69  9,409,940   
25-29 17,722,067 70-74  8,725,574   
30-34 19,511,370 75-79  7,414,559   
35-39 22,179,956 80-84  4,900,234   
40-44 22,479,229 85 +  4,259,173   
Age Group 2000 U.S. Age Group 2000 U.S. Age Group 2000 U.S. 
0-4 18,986,520 45-49 19,805,793 Total 274,633,642 
5-9 19,919,840 50-54 17,224,359   
10-14 20,056,779 55-59 13,307,234   
15-19 19,819,518 60-64 10,654,272   
20-24 18,257,225 65-69  9,409,940   
25-29 17,722,067 70-74  8,725,574   
30-34 19,511,370 75-79  7,414,559   
35-39 22,179,956 80-84  4,900,234   
40-44 22,479,229 85 +  4,259,173   
Appendix B.

Average Annual Populations for 2005–2009, By Age, Gender and Race

Age Group White Black AIAN API Total 
Male 
0-4 8,037,698 1,622,527 159,258 566,834 10,386,317 
5-9 7,793,666 1,544,900 139,946 509,083 9,987,595 
10-14 7,888,319 1,627,045 139,972 479,511 10,134,847 
15-19 8,338,842 1,715,900 153,160 486,529 10,694,432 
20-24 8,410,996 1,576,574 151,010 519,412 10,657,993 
25-29 8,228,350 1,428,057 137,050 594,488 10,387,945 
30-34 7,691,310 1,233,338 117,988 633,887 9,676,522 
35-39 8,218,599 1,248,410 113,550 616,955 10,197,514 
40-44 8,663,105 1,268,913 113,563 545,955 10,591,536 
45-49 9,048,219 1,247,998 110,007 492,833 10,899,056 
50-54 8,355,171 1,071,350 94,187 426,708 9,947,415 
55-59 7,320,322 847,538 76,093 355,164 8,599,117 
60-64 5,772,849 579,643 54,121 257,295 6,663,908 
65-69 4,288,055 419,179 37,341 191,508 4,936,083 
70-74 3,336,984 321,809 25,633 140,338 3,824,763 
75-79 2,737,962 230,861 17,366 98,399 3,084,587 
80-84 1,963,511 144,799 10,494 64,648 2,183,452 
85+ 1,444,483 88,929 7,413 49,597 1,590,423 
Total 117,538,441 18,217,770 1,658,152 7,029,142 144,443,505 
Female 
0-4 7,662,890 1,567,047 154,968 546,376 9,931,281 
5-9 7,416,719 1,496,348 135,425 494,935 9,543,427 
10-14 7,484,741 1,576,475 135,679 461,321 9,658,217 
15-19 7,865,425 1,667,329 148,312 460,551 10,141,617 
20-24 7,830,296 1,533,923 142,567 503,546 10,010,332 
25-29 7,725,919 1,475,962 126,944 621,460 9,950,284 
30-34 7,280,280 1,350,815 109,913 664,590 9,405,598 
35-39 7,905,500 1,393,178 108,591 649,284 10,056,553 
40-44 8,501,828 1,436,436 113,580 583,877 10,635,721 
45-49 9,052,206 1,435,380 115,242 539,788 11,142,615 
50-54 8,501,688 1,260,910 100,959 484,785 10,348,341 
55-59 7,595,609 1,029,493 81,966 415,962 9,123,030 
60-64 6,170,532 739,907 59,158 301,314 7,270,911 
65-69 4,800,958 568,866 41,640 223,716 5,635,180 
70-74 3,985,644 464,588 30,806 176,326 4,657,364 
75-79 3,606,677 375,056 22,573 138,650 4,142,956 
80-84 3,039,413 275,902 15,663 96,536 3,427,514 
85 + 3,181,222 241,124 15,156 84,328 3,521,830 
Total 119,607,548 19,888,738 1,659,141 7,447,345 148,602,772 
Age Group White Black AIAN API Total 
Male 
0-4 8,037,698 1,622,527 159,258 566,834 10,386,317 
5-9 7,793,666 1,544,900 139,946 509,083 9,987,595 
10-14 7,888,319 1,627,045 139,972 479,511 10,134,847 
15-19 8,338,842 1,715,900 153,160 486,529 10,694,432 
20-24 8,410,996 1,576,574 151,010 519,412 10,657,993 
25-29 8,228,350 1,428,057 137,050 594,488 10,387,945 
30-34 7,691,310 1,233,338 117,988 633,887 9,676,522 
35-39 8,218,599 1,248,410 113,550 616,955 10,197,514 
40-44 8,663,105 1,268,913 113,563 545,955 10,591,536 
45-49 9,048,219 1,247,998 110,007 492,833 10,899,056 
50-54 8,355,171 1,071,350 94,187 426,708 9,947,415 
55-59 7,320,322 847,538 76,093 355,164 8,599,117 
60-64 5,772,849 579,643 54,121 257,295 6,663,908 
65-69 4,288,055 419,179 37,341 191,508 4,936,083 
70-74 3,336,984 321,809 25,633 140,338 3,824,763 
75-79 2,737,962 230,861 17,366 98,399 3,084,587 
80-84 1,963,511 144,799 10,494 64,648 2,183,452 
85+ 1,444,483 88,929 7,413 49,597 1,590,423 
Total 117,538,441 18,217,770 1,658,152 7,029,142 144,443,505 
Female 
0-4 7,662,890 1,567,047 154,968 546,376 9,931,281 
5-9 7,416,719 1,496,348 135,425 494,935 9,543,427 
10-14 7,484,741 1,576,475 135,679 461,321 9,658,217 
15-19 7,865,425 1,667,329 148,312 460,551 10,141,617 
20-24 7,830,296 1,533,923 142,567 503,546 10,010,332 
25-29 7,725,919 1,475,962 126,944 621,460 9,950,284 
30-34 7,280,280 1,350,815 109,913 664,590 9,405,598 
35-39 7,905,500 1,393,178 108,591 649,284 10,056,553 
40-44 8,501,828 1,436,436 113,580 583,877 10,635,721 
45-49 9,052,206 1,435,380 115,242 539,788 11,142,615 
50-54 8,501,688 1,260,910 100,959 484,785 10,348,341 
55-59 7,595,609 1,029,493 81,966 415,962 9,123,030 
60-64 6,170,532 739,907 59,158 301,314 7,270,911 
65-69 4,800,958 568,866 41,640 223,716 5,635,180 
70-74 3,985,644 464,588 30,806 176,326 4,657,364 
75-79 3,606,677 375,056 22,573 138,650 4,142,956 
80-84 3,039,413 275,902 15,663 96,536 3,427,514 
85 + 3,181,222 241,124 15,156 84,328 3,521,830 
Total 119,607,548 19,888,738 1,659,141 7,447,345 148,602,772 

Population data source for 49 population-based geographic regions: Estimates from the United States. Bureau of the Census <http://seer.cancer.gov/popdata/index.html>.

Abbreviations: AIAN, American Indian Alaskan Native; API, Asian Pacific Islander.

Appendix C.

Average Annual Populations† for 2005–2009 By Age, Gender, and Hispanic Ethnicity

Age Group Hispanic Non-Hispanic Total 
Male 
0-4 2,591,526 7,794,790 10,386,317 
5-9 2,206,575 7,781,020 9,987,595 
10-14 1,994,101 8,140,746 10,134,847 
15-19 1,937,795 8,756,636 10,694,432 
20-24 2,015,006 8,642,987 10,657,993 
25-29 2,191,048 8,196,897 10,387,945 
30-34 2,071,604 7,604,918 9,676,522 
35-39 1,872,881 8,324,633 10,197,514 
40-44 1,630,191 8,961,346 10,591,536 
45-49 1,339,787 9,559,269 10,899,056 
50-54 1,013,168 8,934,247 9,947,415 
55-59 748,483 7,850,634 8,599,117 
60-64 520,940 6,142,969 6,663,908 
65-69 366,071 4,570,012 4,936,083 
70-74 271,035 3,553,729 3,824,763 
75-79 199,994 2,884,594 3,084,587 
80-84 128,533 2,054,919 2,183,452 
85 + 92,899 1,497,524 1,590,423 
Total 23,191,636 121,251,869 144,443,505 
Female 
0-4 2,485,956 7,445,325 9,931,281 
5-9 2,106,961 7,436,465 9,543,427 
10-14 1,900,666 7,757,551 9,658,217 
15-19 1,799,832 8,341,785 10,141,617 
20-24 1,732,051 8,278,281 10,010,332 
25-29 1,778,951 8,171,333 9,950,284 
30-34 1,724,996 7,680,602 9,405,598 
35-39 1,621,039 8,435,514 10,056,553 
40-44 1,464,772 9,170,949 10,635,721 
45-49 1,265,587 9,877,029 11,142,615 
50-54 1,007,437 9,340,904 10,348,341 
55-59 786,589 8,336,441 9,123,030 
60-64 581,503 6,689,407 7,270,911 
65-69 434,780 5,200,400 5,635,180 
70-74 344,316 4,313,047 4,657,364 
75-79 272,247 3,870,710 4,142,956 
80-84 191,020 3,236,494 3,427,514 
85 + 176,572 3,345,258 3,521,830 
Total 21,675,276 126,927,496 148,602,772 
Age Group Hispanic Non-Hispanic Total 
Male 
0-4 2,591,526 7,794,790 10,386,317 
5-9 2,206,575 7,781,020 9,987,595 
10-14 1,994,101 8,140,746 10,134,847 
15-19 1,937,795 8,756,636 10,694,432 
20-24 2,015,006 8,642,987 10,657,993 
25-29 2,191,048 8,196,897 10,387,945 
30-34 2,071,604 7,604,918 9,676,522 
35-39 1,872,881 8,324,633 10,197,514 
40-44 1,630,191 8,961,346 10,591,536 
45-49 1,339,787 9,559,269 10,899,056 
50-54 1,013,168 8,934,247 9,947,415 
55-59 748,483 7,850,634 8,599,117 
60-64 520,940 6,142,969 6,663,908 
65-69 366,071 4,570,012 4,936,083 
70-74 271,035 3,553,729 3,824,763 
75-79 199,994 2,884,594 3,084,587 
80-84 128,533 2,054,919 2,183,452 
85 + 92,899 1,497,524 1,590,423 
Total 23,191,636 121,251,869 144,443,505 
Female 
0-4 2,485,956 7,445,325 9,931,281 
5-9 2,106,961 7,436,465 9,543,427 
10-14 1,900,666 7,757,551 9,658,217 
15-19 1,799,832 8,341,785 10,141,617 
20-24 1,732,051 8,278,281 10,010,332 
25-29 1,778,951 8,171,333 9,950,284 
30-34 1,724,996 7,680,602 9,405,598 
35-39 1,621,039 8,435,514 10,056,553 
40-44 1,464,772 9,170,949 10,635,721 
45-49 1,265,587 9,877,029 11,142,615 
50-54 1,007,437 9,340,904 10,348,341 
55-59 786,589 8,336,441 9,123,030 
60-64 581,503 6,689,407 7,270,911 
65-69 434,780 5,200,400 5,635,180 
70-74 344,316 4,313,047 4,657,364 
75-79 272,247 3,870,710 4,142,956 
80-84 191,020 3,236,494 3,427,514 
85 + 176,572 3,345,258 3,521,830 
Total 21,675,276 126,927,496 148,602,772 

† Population data source for 49 population-based geographic regions: Estimates from the U.S. Census Bureau. <http://seer.cancer.gov/popdata/index.html>.

Disclaimer

The Central Brain Tumor Registry of the United States (CBTRUS) is a not-for-profit corporation which gathers and disseminates epidemiologic data on primary brain and central nervous system tumors in order to facilitate research and establish awareness of the disease. CBTRUS makes no representations or warranties, and gives no other assurances or guarantees, express or implied, with respect to the accuracy or completeness of the data presented. The information provided in this report is not intended to assist in the evaluation, diagnosis or treatment of individual diseases. Persons with questions regarding individual diseases should contact their own physician to obtain medical assistance. The contents in this report are solely the responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official views of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.