Introduction

The objective of the CBTRUS Statistical Report: Primary Brain and Other Central Nervous System Tumors Diagnosed in the United States in 2009–2013 is to provide a comprehensive summary of the current descriptive epidemiology of primary brain and other central nervous system (CNS) tumors in the United States (US) population. CBTRUS obtained the latest available data on all newly diagnosed primary brain and CNS tumors from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), National Program of Cancer Registries (NPCR), and the National Cancer Institute (NCI), Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program for diagnosis years 2009–2013. Incidence counts and rates of primary malignant and non-malignant brain and other CNS tumors are documented by histology, sex, age, race, and Hispanic ethnicity. Mortality rates calculated using the National Vital Statistics System (NVSS) data from 2009–2013, and relative survival rates for selected malignant and non-malignant histologies calculated using SEER data for the period 2000–2013 are also presented.

Background

CBTRUS is a unique professional research organization that focuses exclusively on providing high quality statistical data on the population-based incidence of primary brain and other CNS tumors in the US (for more information on CBTRUS see: http://www.cbtrus.org/aboutus.html ). CBTRUS was incorporated as a nonprofit 501(c)(3) in 1992 following a study conducted by the American Brain Tumor Association (ABTA) to determine the feasibility of a central registry focused on primary brain and other CNS tumors in the US.

CBTRUS is currently the only population-based site-specific registry in the US that works in partnership with a public cancer surveillance organization, the CDC’s NPCR, and from which data are directly received under a special agreement. This agreement permits transfer of data through the National Program of Central Registries Cancer Surveillance System (NPCR-CSS) Submission Specifications mechanism, 1 the system utilized for collection of central (state) cancer data as mandated in 1992 by Public Law 102–515, the Cancer Registries Amendment Act. 2 This mandate was expanded with the 2002 passage of Public Law 107–260 to include non-malignant CNS tumors diagnosed starting January 1, 2004. 3 CBTRUS researchers combine the NPCR data with data from the SEER program 4 of the NCI, which was established for national cancer surveillance in the early 1970s. All data from NPCR and SEER originate from tumor registrars who adhere to the Uniform Data Standards (UDS) for malignant and non-malignant brain and other CNS tumors as directed by the North American Association of Cancer Registries (NAACCR) ( http://www.naaccr.org ). Along with the UDS, there are quality control checks and a system for rating each central cancer registry (CCR) to further insure that these data are reported as accurately and completely as possible. As a surveillance partner, CBTRUS can, therefore, report high quality data on brain and other CNS tumors with histological specificity useful to the communities it serves. Its database is comprised of the largest histology-specific aggregation of population-based data limited to the incidence of primary brain and other CNS tumors in the US, and it is likely the largest histology-specific aggregation of primary brain and other CNS tumor cases in the world. There are several other brain-specific registry systems in existence, including the Austrian Brain Tumor Registry, 5 the Swedish Brain Tumor Registry, 6 as well as other population-based epidemiological studies of brain and other central nervous system tumors which cover a smaller population base. Aggregate information on all cancers from all CCR in the US, including primary brain and other CNS tumors, is available from the United States Cancer Statistics . 7

For this nineteenth statistical report and fifth report published as a supplement to Neuro-Oncology , the official journal of the Society for Neuro-Oncology ( http://www.soc-neuro-onc.org ), CBTRUS continues its past efforts to provide the most up-to-date population-based incidence rates for all primary brain and other CNS tumors by histology, age, sex, race, and Hispanic ethnicity. These data have been organized by clinically relevant histology groupings and reflect the 2007 WHO Classification of Tumours of the Central Nervous System.8,9 These data provide important information for allocation and planning of specialty healthcare services such as clinical trials, disease prevention and control programs, and research activities. These data may also lead to clues that will stimulate research into the causes of this group of diseases which cause significant morbidity and mortality.

Technical Notes

Data Collection

CBTRUS does not collect data directly from patients’ medical records. Registration of individual cases is conducted by cancer registrars at the institution where diagnosis occurs and is then transmitted to the CCR, which further transmits this information to NPCR or SEER. As noted, data for CBTRUS analyses come from the NPCR and SEER programs. By law, all primary malignant and non-malignant CNS tumors are reportable diseases. Hence, tumor registrars in treatment centers collect these data and send this information to CCR in their states where they are collated and de-identified and sent to NPCR and SEER. Brain and other CNS tumors are reported using the site definition described in Public Law 107–260. 3 On an annual basis, NPCR secures permission from CCR to release their data on brain and other CNS tumors to CBTRUS. CCR play an essential role in the collection process, diagrammatically presented in Fig. 1 . These data are population-based and, therefore, by definition, represent a comprehensive documentation of all cancers diagnosed within a geographic region over a period of time.

Fig. 1.

Schematic of Cancer Registration Process for CBTRUS Reporting.

Fig. 1.

Schematic of Cancer Registration Process for CBTRUS Reporting.

CBTRUS obtained incidence data from 51 CCR (46 NPCR and 5 SEER) that include cases of malignant and non-malignant (benign and uncertain) primary brain and other CNS tumors. The population-based CCR include 50 state registries and the District of Columbia. Data were requested for all newly-diagnosed primary malignant and non-malignant tumors from 2009 to 2013 at any of the following anatomic sites: brain, meninges, spinal cord, cranial nerves, and other parts of the central nervous system, pituitary and pineal glands, and olfactory tumors of the nasal cavity ( Table 1 ). 10

Table 1.

Central Brain Tumor Registry of the United States (CBTRUS), Brain and Other Central Nervous System Tumor Site Groupings

Site ICD-O-3aSite Code 
Frontal lobe of brain C71.1 
Temporal lobe of brain C71.2 
Parietal lobe of brain C71.3 
Occipital lobe of brain C71.4 
Cerebrum C71.0 
Ventricle C71.5 
Cerebellum C71.6 
Brain stem C71.7 
Other brain C71.8-C71.9 
 Overlapping lesion of brain C71.8 
 Brain, NOS C71.9 
Spinal cord and cauda equina C72.0-C72.1 
 Spinal cord C72.0 
 Cauda equina C72.1 
Cranial nerves C72.2-C72.5 
 Olfactory nerve C72.2 
 Optic nerve C72.3 
 Acoustic nerve C72.4 
 Cranial nerve, NOS C72.5 
Other nervous system C72.8-C72.9 
 Overlapping lesion of brain and central nervous system C72.8 
 Nervous system, NOS C72.9 
Meninges (cerebral & spinal) C70.0-C70.9 
 Cerebral meninges C70.0 
 Spinal meninges C70.1 
 Meninges, NOS C70.9 
Pituitary and craniopharyngeal duct C75.1-C75.2 
 Pituitary gland C75.1 
 Craniopharyngeal duct C75.2 
Pineal gland C75.3 
Olfactory tumors of the nasal cavity b C30.0 
Site ICD-O-3aSite Code 
Frontal lobe of brain C71.1 
Temporal lobe of brain C71.2 
Parietal lobe of brain C71.3 
Occipital lobe of brain C71.4 
Cerebrum C71.0 
Ventricle C71.5 
Cerebellum C71.6 
Brain stem C71.7 
Other brain C71.8-C71.9 
 Overlapping lesion of brain C71.8 
 Brain, NOS C71.9 
Spinal cord and cauda equina C72.0-C72.1 
 Spinal cord C72.0 
 Cauda equina C72.1 
Cranial nerves C72.2-C72.5 
 Olfactory nerve C72.2 
 Optic nerve C72.3 
 Acoustic nerve C72.4 
 Cranial nerve, NOS C72.5 
Other nervous system C72.8-C72.9 
 Overlapping lesion of brain and central nervous system C72.8 
 Nervous system, NOS C72.9 
Meninges (cerebral & spinal) C70.0-C70.9 
 Cerebral meninges C70.0 
 Spinal meninges C70.1 
 Meninges, NOS C70.9 
Pituitary and craniopharyngeal duct C75.1-C75.2 
 Pituitary gland C75.1 
 Craniopharyngeal duct C75.2 
Pineal gland C75.3 
Olfactory tumors of the nasal cavity b C30.0 

a International Classification of Diseases for Oncology, 3rd Edition, 2000. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.

b ICD-O-3 histology codes 9522-9523 only.

Abbreviations: CBTRUS, Central Brain Tumor Registry of the United States; NOS, not otherwise specified.

NPCR provided data on 361,802 primary brain and CNS tumors diagnosed from 2009 to 2013. An additional 15,357 primary brain and CNS tumor case records for the time period were obtained from SEER. These data were combined into a single data set for analyses. A total of 9,042 records (2.5%) were deleted from the final analytic data set for one or more of the following reasons: invalid site/histology combination, duplicate records that included a less accurate reporting source than microscopic confirmation (e.g. radiographic versus microscopic confirmation. Microscopic confirmation may also be referred to as histologic confirmation), duplicate records for bilateral vestibular schwannoma or meningioma, duplicate record for recurrent disease, and errors in time sequence of diagnosis. The final analytic data set included 368,117 records from all 51 population-based CCR.

Age-adjusted incidence rates per 100,000 population for the entire US for selected other cancers were obtained from the United States Cancer Statistics (USCS), 7 produced by the CDC and the NCI, via CDC Wide-ranging Online Data for Epidemiologic Research (WONDER), for the purpose of comparison with brain and CNS tumor incidence rates. 7 This database includes both NPCR and SEER data and represents approximately 100% of the US population.

Survival data for malignant brain and other CNS tumors were obtained from 18 SEER registries for the years 2000 to 2013, and survival data for non-malignant brain and other CNS tumors were obtained from 18 SEER registries for the years 2004 to 2013. This dataset provides population-based information for approximately 26% of the US population, 11 and is a subset of the data used for the incidence calculations presented in this report. Survival information derived from active patient follow-up is not available in the data that CBTRUS receives from NPCR registries, so the SEER data are used for the generation of these tables.

Mortality data used in this report are from the National Center for Health Statistics and include deaths where primary brain or other CNS tumor was listed as cause of death on the death certificate for individuals from all 50 states and the District of Columbia. These data were obtained from the National Vital Statistics System 12 (which includes death certification data for 100% of the US population) for malignant brain and other CNS tumors and comparison via SEER*Stat (for malignant brain tumors and comparison cancers).

Definitions

Measures in Surveillance Epidemiology

This report presents the following population-based measures: incidence rates, mortality rates, and relative survival rates (for more information on definitions of terms and measures used see: http://www.cbtrus.org/glossary/glossary1.html ).

Comparing incidence rates between statistical reports from different reporting agencies or previous CBTRUS statistical reports is not recommended due to differences in case definition, data collection, rate calculations, and/or reporting delays.

Classification by Behavior, Histology, and WHO Grade

There are over 100 histologically distinct types of primary central nervous system (CNS) tumors, each with its own spectrum of clinical presentations, treatments, and outcomes. This report uses the most recent 2012 CBTRUS histology grouping scheme ( Table 2a ). The classification scheme utilizes ICD-O-3 codes 10 and may include morphology codes that were not previously reported to CBTRUS. 13Tables 2b and 2c list malignant only and non-malignant only histologies, respectively. In this report, incidence rates are provided by major histology grouping and specific histology.

Table 2a.

Central Brain Tumor Registry of the United States (CBTRUS), Brain and Other Central Nervous System Tumor Histology Groupings

Histology ICD-O-3aHistology Codeb 
Tumors of Neuroepithelial Tissue  
Pilocytic astrocytoma*  9421, 9425 c 
Diffuse astrocytoma* 9400, 9410, 9411, 9420 
Anaplastic astrocytoma* 9401 
Unique astrocytoma variants* 9381, 9384, 9424 
Glioblastoma*  9440, 9441, 9442/3 d 
Oligodendroglioma* 9450 
Anaplastic oligodendroglioma* 9451, 9460 
Oligoastrocytic tumors* 9382 
Ependymal tumors* 9383, 9391, 9392, 9393, 9394 
Glioma malignant, NOS*  9380 9431 c , 9432 c 
Choroid plexus tumors 9390 
Other neuroepithelial tumors* 9363, 9423, 9430, 9444 
Neuronal and mixed neuronal-glial tumors*  8680, 8681, 8690, 8693, 9412, 9413, 9442/1 e ,  
 9492 (excluding site C75.1), 9493, 9505, 9506, 9522, 9523 
Tumors of the pineal region  9360, 9361, 9362, 9395 c 
Embryonal tumors 8963, 9364, 9470, 9471, 9472, 9473, 9474, 9480, 9490, 9500, 9501, 9502, 9508 
 
Tumors of Cranial and Spinal Nerves  
Nerve sheath tumors 9540, 9541, 9550, 9560, 9561, 9570, 9571 
Other tumors of cranial and spinal nerves 9562 
Tumors of Meninges  
Meningioma 9530, 9531, 9532, 9533, 9534, 9537, 9538, 9539 
Mesenchymal tumors 8324, 8800, 8801, 8802, 8803, 8804, 8805, 8806, 8810, 8815, 8824, 8830, 8831, 8835, 8836, 8850, 8851, 8852, 8853, 8854, 8857, 8861, 8870, 8880, 8890, 8897, 8900, 8901, 8902, 8910, 8912, 8920, 8921, 8935, 8990, 9040, 9136, 9150, 9170, 9180, 9210, 9241, 9260, 9373 
 
 
 
Primary melanocytic lesions 8720, 8728, 8770, 8771 
Other neoplasms related to the meninges 9161, 9220, 9231, 9240, 9243, 9370, 9371, 9372, 9535 
Lymphomas and Hemopoietic Neoplasms  
Lymphoma 9590, 9591, 9596, 9650, 9651, 9652, 9653, 9654, 9655, 9659, 9661, 
 9662, 9663, 9664, 9665, 9667, 9670, 9671, 9673, 9675, 9680, 9684, 
 9687, 9690, 9691, 9695, 9698, 9699, 9701, 9702, 9705, 9714, 9719, 
 9728, 9729 
Other hemopoietic neoplasms 9727, 9731, 9733, 9734, 9740, 9741, 9750, 9751, 9752, 9753, 9754, 9755, 
  9756, 9757, 9758, 9760, 9766, 9823, 9826, 9827, 9832, 9837, 9860, 9861,
9866, 9930, 9970  
Germ Cell Tumors and Cysts  
Germ cell tumors, cysts and heterotopias 8020, 8440, 9060, 9061, 9064, 9065, 9070, 9071, 9072, 9080, 9081, 9082, 9083, 9084, 9085, 9100, 9101 
 
Tumors of Sellar Region  
Tumors of the pituitary 8040, 8140, 8146, 8246, 8260, 8270, 8271, 8272, 
 8280, 8281, 8290, 8300, 8310, 8323, 9492 (Site C75.1 only), 9582 
Craniopharyngioma 9350, 9351, 9352 
Unclassified Tumors  
Hemangioma 9120, 9121, 9122, 9123, 9125, 9130, 9131, 9133, 9140 
Neoplasm, unspecified 8000, 8001, 8002, 8003, 8004, 8005, 8010, 8021 
All other 8320, 8452, 8710, 8711, 8713, 8811, 8840, 8896, 8980, 9173, 9503, 9580 
Histology ICD-O-3aHistology Codeb 
Tumors of Neuroepithelial Tissue  
Pilocytic astrocytoma*  9421, 9425 c 
Diffuse astrocytoma* 9400, 9410, 9411, 9420 
Anaplastic astrocytoma* 9401 
Unique astrocytoma variants* 9381, 9384, 9424 
Glioblastoma*  9440, 9441, 9442/3 d 
Oligodendroglioma* 9450 
Anaplastic oligodendroglioma* 9451, 9460 
Oligoastrocytic tumors* 9382 
Ependymal tumors* 9383, 9391, 9392, 9393, 9394 
Glioma malignant, NOS*  9380 9431 c , 9432 c 
Choroid plexus tumors 9390 
Other neuroepithelial tumors* 9363, 9423, 9430, 9444 
Neuronal and mixed neuronal-glial tumors*  8680, 8681, 8690, 8693, 9412, 9413, 9442/1 e ,  
 9492 (excluding site C75.1), 9493, 9505, 9506, 9522, 9523 
Tumors of the pineal region  9360, 9361, 9362, 9395 c 
Embryonal tumors 8963, 9364, 9470, 9471, 9472, 9473, 9474, 9480, 9490, 9500, 9501, 9502, 9508 
 
Tumors of Cranial and Spinal Nerves  
Nerve sheath tumors 9540, 9541, 9550, 9560, 9561, 9570, 9571 
Other tumors of cranial and spinal nerves 9562 
Tumors of Meninges  
Meningioma 9530, 9531, 9532, 9533, 9534, 9537, 9538, 9539 
Mesenchymal tumors 8324, 8800, 8801, 8802, 8803, 8804, 8805, 8806, 8810, 8815, 8824, 8830, 8831, 8835, 8836, 8850, 8851, 8852, 8853, 8854, 8857, 8861, 8870, 8880, 8890, 8897, 8900, 8901, 8902, 8910, 8912, 8920, 8921, 8935, 8990, 9040, 9136, 9150, 9170, 9180, 9210, 9241, 9260, 9373 
 
 
 
Primary melanocytic lesions 8720, 8728, 8770, 8771 
Other neoplasms related to the meninges 9161, 9220, 9231, 9240, 9243, 9370, 9371, 9372, 9535 
Lymphomas and Hemopoietic Neoplasms  
Lymphoma 9590, 9591, 9596, 9650, 9651, 9652, 9653, 9654, 9655, 9659, 9661, 
 9662, 9663, 9664, 9665, 9667, 9670, 9671, 9673, 9675, 9680, 9684, 
 9687, 9690, 9691, 9695, 9698, 9699, 9701, 9702, 9705, 9714, 9719, 
 9728, 9729 
Other hemopoietic neoplasms 9727, 9731, 9733, 9734, 9740, 9741, 9750, 9751, 9752, 9753, 9754, 9755, 
  9756, 9757, 9758, 9760, 9766, 9823, 9826, 9827, 9832, 9837, 9860, 9861,
9866, 9930, 9970  
Germ Cell Tumors and Cysts  
Germ cell tumors, cysts and heterotopias 8020, 8440, 9060, 9061, 9064, 9065, 9070, 9071, 9072, 9080, 9081, 9082, 9083, 9084, 9085, 9100, 9101 
 
Tumors of Sellar Region  
Tumors of the pituitary 8040, 8140, 8146, 8246, 8260, 8270, 8271, 8272, 
 8280, 8281, 8290, 8300, 8310, 8323, 9492 (Site C75.1 only), 9582 
Craniopharyngioma 9350, 9351, 9352 
Unclassified Tumors  
Hemangioma 9120, 9121, 9122, 9123, 9125, 9130, 9131, 9133, 9140 
Neoplasm, unspecified 8000, 8001, 8002, 8003, 8004, 8005, 8010, 8021 
All other 8320, 8452, 8710, 8711, 8713, 8811, 8840, 8896, 8980, 9173, 9503, 9580 

a International Classification of Diseases for Oncology, 3rd Edition, 2000. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.

b See the CBTRUS website for additional information about the specific histology codes included in each group: http://www.cbtrus.org .

c Histology not currently used to US cancer registration, will be included starting with diagnosis year 2015. See NAACCR website: http://www.naaccr . org/LinkClick.aspx?fileticket1⁄44Hx-2XJJqFo%3d&tabid1⁄4161&mid1⁄4523.

d Morphology 9442/3 only.

e Morphology 9442/1 only.

*All or some of this histology is included in the CBTRUS definition of gliomas, including ICD-O-3 histology codes 9380-9384, 9391-9460.

Abbreviations: CBTRUS, Central Brain Tumor Registry of the United States; NOS, not otherwise specified.

Table 2b.

Central Brain Tumor Registry of the United States (CBTRUS), Brain and Other Central Nervous System Tumor Malignant Histology Groupings a

Histology ICD-O-3bHistology Codec 
Tumors of Neuroepithelial Tissue  
Pilocytic astrocytoma*  9421/1 [Included with malignant tumors], 9425/3 d 
Diffuse astrocytoma* 9400/3, 9410/3, 9411/3, 9420/3 
Anaplastic astrocytoma* 9401/3 
Unique astrocytoma variants* 9381/3, 9424/3 
Glioblastoma* 9440/3, 9441/3, 9442/3 
Oligodendroglioma* 9450/3 
Anaplastic oligodendroglioma* 9451/3, 9460/3 
Oligoastrocytic tumors* 9382/3 
Ependymal tumors* 9391/3, 9392/3, 9393/3 
Glioma malignant, NOS*  9380/3, 9431/1 d , 9432/1 d [Included with malignant tumors]  
Choroid plexus tumors 9390/3 
Other neuroepithelial tumors* 9423/3, 9430/3 
Neuronal and mixed neuronal-glial tumors* 8680/3, 8693/3, 9505/3, 9522/3, 9523/3 
Tumors of the pineal region  9362/3, 9395/3 d 
Embryonal tumors 8963/3, 9364/3, 9470/3, 9471/3, 9472/3,9473/3, 9474/3, 9480/3, 9490/3, 9500/3, 9501/3, 9502/3, 9508/3 
 
Tumors of Cranial and Spinal Nerves  
Nerve sheath tumors 9540/3, 9560/3, 9561/3, 9571/3 
Tumors of Meninges  
Meningioma 9530/3, 9538/3, 9539/3 
Mesenchymal tumors 8800/3, 8801/3, 8802/3, 8803/3, 8804/3, 8805/3, 8806/3, 8810/3, 8815/3, 8830/3, 8850/3, 8851/3, 8852/3, 8853/3, 8854/3, 8857/3, 8890/3, 8900/3, 8901/3, 8902/3, 8910/3, 8912/3, 8920/3, 8921/3, 8990/3, 9040/3, 9150/3, 9170/3, 9180/3, 9260/3 
 
 
Primary melanocytic lesions 8720/3, 8728/3, 8770/3, 8771/3 
Other neoplasms related to the meninges 9220/3, 9231/3, 9240/3, 9243/3, 9370/3, 9371/3, 9372/3 
Lymphomas and Hemopoietic Neoplasms  
Lymphoma 9590/3, 9591/3, 9596/3, 9650/3, 9651/3, 9652/3, 9653/3, 9654/3, 9655/3, 9659/3, 9661/3, 9662/3, 9663/3, 9664/3, 9665/3, 9667/3, 9670/3, 9671/3, 9673/3, 9675/3, 9680/3, 9684/3, 9687/3, 9690/3, 9691/3, 9695/3, 9698/3, 9699/3, 9701/3, 9702/3, 9705/3, 9714/3, 9719/3, 9728/3, 9729/3 
 
 
 
Other hemopoietic neoplasms  9727/3, 9731/3, 9733/3, 9734/3, 9740/3, 9741/3, 9750/3, 9754/3, 9755/3, 9756/3,
9757/3, 9758/3, 9760/3, 9823/3, 9826/3, 9827/3, 9832/3, 9837/3, 9860/3, 9861/3, 9866/3, 9930/3  
 
Germ Cell Tumors and Cysts  
Germ cell tumors, cysts and heterotopias 8020/3, 8440/3, 9060/3, 9061/3, 9064/3, 9065/3, 9070/3, 9071/3, 9072/3, 9080/3, 9081/3, 9082/3, 9083/3, 9084/3, 9085/3, 9100/3, 9101/3 
 
Tumors of Sellar Region  
Tumors of the pituitary 8140/3, 8246/3, 8260/3, 8270/3, 8272/3, 8280/3, 8281/3, 8290/3, 8300/3, 8310/3, 8323/3 
Unclassified Tumors  
Hemangioma 9120/3, 9130/3, 9133/3, 9140/3 
Neoplasm, unspecified 8000/3, 8001/3, 8002/3, 8003/3, 8004/3, 8005/3, 8010/3, 8021/3 
All other 8320/3, 8710/3, 8711/3, 8811/3, 8840/3, 8896/3, 8980/3, 9503/3, 9580/3 
Histology ICD-O-3bHistology Codec 
Tumors of Neuroepithelial Tissue  
Pilocytic astrocytoma*  9421/1 [Included with malignant tumors], 9425/3 d 
Diffuse astrocytoma* 9400/3, 9410/3, 9411/3, 9420/3 
Anaplastic astrocytoma* 9401/3 
Unique astrocytoma variants* 9381/3, 9424/3 
Glioblastoma* 9440/3, 9441/3, 9442/3 
Oligodendroglioma* 9450/3 
Anaplastic oligodendroglioma* 9451/3, 9460/3 
Oligoastrocytic tumors* 9382/3 
Ependymal tumors* 9391/3, 9392/3, 9393/3 
Glioma malignant, NOS*  9380/3, 9431/1 d , 9432/1 d [Included with malignant tumors]  
Choroid plexus tumors 9390/3 
Other neuroepithelial tumors* 9423/3, 9430/3 
Neuronal and mixed neuronal-glial tumors* 8680/3, 8693/3, 9505/3, 9522/3, 9523/3 
Tumors of the pineal region  9362/3, 9395/3 d 
Embryonal tumors 8963/3, 9364/3, 9470/3, 9471/3, 9472/3,9473/3, 9474/3, 9480/3, 9490/3, 9500/3, 9501/3, 9502/3, 9508/3 
 
Tumors of Cranial and Spinal Nerves  
Nerve sheath tumors 9540/3, 9560/3, 9561/3, 9571/3 
Tumors of Meninges  
Meningioma 9530/3, 9538/3, 9539/3 
Mesenchymal tumors 8800/3, 8801/3, 8802/3, 8803/3, 8804/3, 8805/3, 8806/3, 8810/3, 8815/3, 8830/3, 8850/3, 8851/3, 8852/3, 8853/3, 8854/3, 8857/3, 8890/3, 8900/3, 8901/3, 8902/3, 8910/3, 8912/3, 8920/3, 8921/3, 8990/3, 9040/3, 9150/3, 9170/3, 9180/3, 9260/3 
 
 
Primary melanocytic lesions 8720/3, 8728/3, 8770/3, 8771/3 
Other neoplasms related to the meninges 9220/3, 9231/3, 9240/3, 9243/3, 9370/3, 9371/3, 9372/3 
Lymphomas and Hemopoietic Neoplasms  
Lymphoma 9590/3, 9591/3, 9596/3, 9650/3, 9651/3, 9652/3, 9653/3, 9654/3, 9655/3, 9659/3, 9661/3, 9662/3, 9663/3, 9664/3, 9665/3, 9667/3, 9670/3, 9671/3, 9673/3, 9675/3, 9680/3, 9684/3, 9687/3, 9690/3, 9691/3, 9695/3, 9698/3, 9699/3, 9701/3, 9702/3, 9705/3, 9714/3, 9719/3, 9728/3, 9729/3 
 
 
 
Other hemopoietic neoplasms  9727/3, 9731/3, 9733/3, 9734/3, 9740/3, 9741/3, 9750/3, 9754/3, 9755/3, 9756/3,
9757/3, 9758/3, 9760/3, 9823/3, 9826/3, 9827/3, 9832/3, 9837/3, 9860/3, 9861/3, 9866/3, 9930/3  
 
Germ Cell Tumors and Cysts  
Germ cell tumors, cysts and heterotopias 8020/3, 8440/3, 9060/3, 9061/3, 9064/3, 9065/3, 9070/3, 9071/3, 9072/3, 9080/3, 9081/3, 9082/3, 9083/3, 9084/3, 9085/3, 9100/3, 9101/3 
 
Tumors of Sellar Region  
Tumors of the pituitary 8140/3, 8246/3, 8260/3, 8270/3, 8272/3, 8280/3, 8281/3, 8290/3, 8300/3, 8310/3, 8323/3 
Unclassified Tumors  
Hemangioma 9120/3, 9130/3, 9133/3, 9140/3 
Neoplasm, unspecified 8000/3, 8001/3, 8002/3, 8003/3, 8004/3, 8005/3, 8010/3, 8021/3 
All other 8320/3, 8710/3, 8711/3, 8811/3, 8840/3, 8896/3, 8980/3, 9503/3, 9580/3 

a Includes all the histologies listed in the standard definition of reportable brain tumors from the Consensus Conference on Brain Tumor Definitions.

b International Classification of Diseases for Oncology, 3rd Edition, 2000. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.

c See the CBTRUS website for additional information about the specific histology codes included in each group. http://www.cbtrus.org .

d Histology not currently used to US cancer registration, will be included starting with diagnosis year 2015. See NAACCR website. http://www.naaccr . org/LinkClick.aspx?fileticket1⁄44Hx-2XJJqFo%3d&tabid1⁄4161&mid1⁄4523.

* All or some of this histology is included in the CBTRUS definition of gliomas, including ICD-O-3 histology codes 9380-9384, 9391-9460.

Abbreviations. CBTRUS, Central Brain Tumor Registry of the United States; NOS, not otherwise specified.

Table 2c.

Central Brain Tumor Registry of the United States (CBTRUS), Brain and Other Central Nervous System Tumor Non-Malignant Histology Groupings a

Histology ICD-O-3bHistology Codec 
Tumors of Neuroepithelial Tissue  
Unique astrocytoma variants* 9384/1 
Ependymal tumors* 9383/1, 9394/1 
Choroid plexus 9390/0,1 
Other neuroepithelial tumors 9363/0, 9444/1 
Neuronal and mixed neuronal-glial tumors* 8680/0,1, 8681/1, 8690/1, 8693/1, 9412/1, 9413/0, 9442/1, 9492/0 (excluding site C75.1), 9493/0, 9505/1, 9506/1, 9509/1 
 
Tumors of the pineal region 9360/1, 9361/1 
Embryonal tumors 9490/0 
Tumors of Cranial and Spinal Nerves  
Nerve sheath tumors 9540/0,1, 9541/0, 9550/0, 9560/0,1, 9570/0, 9571/0 
Other tumors of cranial and spinal nerves 9562/0 
Tumors of Meninges  
Meningioma 9530/0,1, 9531/0, 9532/0, 9533/0, 9534/0, 9537/0, 9538/1, 9539/1 
Mesenchymal tumors 8324/0, 8800/0, 8810/0, 8815/0, 8824/0,1, 8830/0,1, 8831/0, 8835/1, 8836/1, 8850/0,1, 8851/0, 8852/0, 8854/0, 8857/0, 8861/0, 8870/0, 8880/0, 8890/0,1, 8897/1, 8900/0, 8920/1, 8935/0,1, 8990/0,1, 9040/0, 9136/1, 9150/0,1, 9170/0, 9180/0, 9210/0, 9241/0, 9373/0 
 
 
Primary melanocytic lesions 8728/0,1, 8770/0, 8771/0 
Other neoplasms related to the meninges 9161/1, 9220/0,1, 9535/0 
Lymphomas and Hemopoietic Neoplasms  
Other hemopoietic neoplasms 9740/1, 9751/1, 9752/1, 9753/1, 9766/1, 9970/1 
Germ Cell Tumors and Cysts  
Germ cell tumors, cysts and heterotopias 8440/0, 9080/0,1, 9084/0 
Tumors of Sellar Region  
Tumors of the pituitary 8040/0,1, 8140/0,1, 8146/0, 8260/0, 8270/0, 8271/0, 8272/0, 8280/0, 8281/0, 8290/0, 8300/0, 8310/0, 8323/0, 9492/0 (site C75.1 only), 9582/0 
 
Craniopharyngioma 9350/1, 9351/1, 9352/1 
Unclassified Tumors  
Hemangioma 9120/0, 9121/0, 9122/0, 9123/0, 9125/0, 9130/0,1, 9131/0, 9133/1 
Neoplasm, unspecified 8000/0,1, 8001/0,1, 8005/0, 8010/0 
All other 8452/1, 8711/0, 8713/0, 8811/0, 8840/0, 9173/0, 9580/0 
Histology ICD-O-3bHistology Codec 
Tumors of Neuroepithelial Tissue  
Unique astrocytoma variants* 9384/1 
Ependymal tumors* 9383/1, 9394/1 
Choroid plexus 9390/0,1 
Other neuroepithelial tumors 9363/0, 9444/1 
Neuronal and mixed neuronal-glial tumors* 8680/0,1, 8681/1, 8690/1, 8693/1, 9412/1, 9413/0, 9442/1, 9492/0 (excluding site C75.1), 9493/0, 9505/1, 9506/1, 9509/1 
 
Tumors of the pineal region 9360/1, 9361/1 
Embryonal tumors 9490/0 
Tumors of Cranial and Spinal Nerves  
Nerve sheath tumors 9540/0,1, 9541/0, 9550/0, 9560/0,1, 9570/0, 9571/0 
Other tumors of cranial and spinal nerves 9562/0 
Tumors of Meninges  
Meningioma 9530/0,1, 9531/0, 9532/0, 9533/0, 9534/0, 9537/0, 9538/1, 9539/1 
Mesenchymal tumors 8324/0, 8800/0, 8810/0, 8815/0, 8824/0,1, 8830/0,1, 8831/0, 8835/1, 8836/1, 8850/0,1, 8851/0, 8852/0, 8854/0, 8857/0, 8861/0, 8870/0, 8880/0, 8890/0,1, 8897/1, 8900/0, 8920/1, 8935/0,1, 8990/0,1, 9040/0, 9136/1, 9150/0,1, 9170/0, 9180/0, 9210/0, 9241/0, 9373/0 
 
 
Primary melanocytic lesions 8728/0,1, 8770/0, 8771/0 
Other neoplasms related to the meninges 9161/1, 9220/0,1, 9535/0 
Lymphomas and Hemopoietic Neoplasms  
Other hemopoietic neoplasms 9740/1, 9751/1, 9752/1, 9753/1, 9766/1, 9970/1 
Germ Cell Tumors and Cysts  
Germ cell tumors, cysts and heterotopias 8440/0, 9080/0,1, 9084/0 
Tumors of Sellar Region  
Tumors of the pituitary 8040/0,1, 8140/0,1, 8146/0, 8260/0, 8270/0, 8271/0, 8272/0, 8280/0, 8281/0, 8290/0, 8300/0, 8310/0, 8323/0, 9492/0 (site C75.1 only), 9582/0 
 
Craniopharyngioma 9350/1, 9351/1, 9352/1 
Unclassified Tumors  
Hemangioma 9120/0, 9121/0, 9122/0, 9123/0, 9125/0, 9130/0,1, 9131/0, 9133/1 
Neoplasm, unspecified 8000/0,1, 8001/0,1, 8005/0, 8010/0 
All other 8452/1, 8711/0, 8713/0, 8811/0, 8840/0, 9173/0, 9580/0 

a Includes all the histologies listed in the standard definition of reportable brain tumors from the Consensus Conference on Brain Tumor Definition.

b International Classification of Diseases for Oncology, 3rd Edition, 2000. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.

cSee the CBTRUS website for additional information about the specific histology codes included in each group: http://www.cbtrus.org .

* All or some of this histology is included in the CBTRUS definition of gliomas, including ICD-O-3 histology codes 9380-9384, 9391-9460.

Abbreviations: CBTRUS, Central Brain Tumor Registry of the United States; NOS, not otherwise specified.

Unlike other types of cancer, brain tumors are not staged. They are classified according to the World Health Organization (WHO) 2000 Classification of Tumours of the Central Nervous System14 which assigns a grade (grade I through grade IV) based on predicted clinical behavior. Though the WHO classification scheme was also updated in 2007 8 and 2016 15 these updated schema have not been fully implemented by US CCR. Updates made in 2007 may affect diagnostic practices used in characterization of individual tumors included in this report, though the newest revision would not affect any cases included in this report. With the increased recognition of the value of biomarkers for specific brain tumor histologies in classification, the WHO Classification of Tumours of the Central Nervous System has included biomarkers in its 2016 revision. However, implementing the collection of these markers in cancer registration is multi-faceted and includes among other tasks software accommodations. WHO grading assignments are recorded by cancer registrars as Collaborative Stage Site-Specific Factor 1 - World Health Organization (WHO) Grade Classification according to the American Joint Commission on Cancer’s (AJCC) Collaborative Staging (CS) schema. 16 Cancer staging is a critical component of determining cancer prognosis and treatment in clinical care and provides a rubric for evaluating how much cancer is in a person’s body and where the cancer is located. The AJCC CS schema provides a consistent framework for recording variables related to staging. This variable has been a required component of cancer registry data collection for brain and other CNS tumors since 2004 for SEER registries, and since 2011 for NPCR registries. A previous study by CBTRUS analyzed the completeness and concordance of WHO grading in SEER data from 2004–2011, and found that both of these factors have improved significantly over time. 17 As a result, CBTRUS reports statistics related to this variable in the CBTRUS Statistical Report: Primary Brain and Other Central Nervous System Tumors Diagnosed in the United States in 2009–2013 . Completeness of this variable is defined as having a value equal to WHO grade I, II, III, or IV. Cases where WHO grade is marked as not applicable, or not documented, are considered to be incomplete.

Gliomas are tumors that arise from glial or precursor cells and include astrocytoma (including glioblastoma), oligodendroglioma, ependymoma, oligoastrocytoma (mixed glioma), malignant glioma, not otherwise specified (NOS), and a few rare histologies. Because there is no standard definition for glioma, CBTRUS defines glioma as ICD-O-3 histology codes 9380–9384, and 9391–9460 as starred in Tables 2a , 2b , and 2c. It is also important to note that the statistics for lymphomas and hematopoietic neoplasms contained in this report refer only to those lymphomas and hematopoietic neoplasms that arise in the brain and CNS.

This report also utilizes the International Classification of Childhood Cancer (ICCC) grouping system for pediatric cancers. ICCC categories for this report were generated using the SEER Site/Histology ICCC-3 Recode 18 based on the ICCC, Third edition 19 and 2007 WHO Classification of Tumours of Haematopoietic and Lymphoid Tissues (See the CBTRUS website for additional information on this classification scheme: http://www.cbtrus.org ). The ICCC was developed in 1996 with subsequent changes made to correlate with revisions to ICD-O in order to provide a standard classification of childhood tumors for comparing incidence and survival across regions and time periods. As shown, the Table 17 age-group category total, age 0–19 years age-group count, and age-specific and age-adjusted rates are equivalent to those presented throughout this report, even though the histology grouping scheme differs from that used by CBTRUS. The CBTRUS grouping scheme is specific to brain and other CNS tumors and correlates with the 2000 WHO Classification of Tumours of the Central Nervous System that is the current standard for cancer registration procedures in the US.

Anatomic Location of Tumor Sites

Various terms are used to describe the regions of the brain and other central nervous system. The specific sites used in this report are broadly based on the categories and site codes defined in the SEER Site/Histology Validation List. 20 See Table 1 for an overview of CBTRUS primary site groupings. The CBTRUS Site/Validation List can be found on the CBTRUS website ( http://www.cbtrus.org ).

Measurement and Statistical Methods

Counts, means, rates, ratios, proportions, and other relevant statistics were calculated using R 3.2.3 statistical software 21 and/or SEER*Stat 8.3.2. 22 Figures were created in R 3.2.3 21 using rgeos, 23 rgdal, 24 maptools, 25 ggplot2, 26 plotrix, 27 and SEER2R. 28 Statistics are suppressed when counts are fewer than 16 within a cell but included in totals except when data are suppressed from only one cell within a category to prevent identification of the number in the suppressed cell. Note that reported percentages may not add up to 100% due to rounding.

Population data for each geographic region were obtained from the SEER program website 29 for the purpose of rate calculation.

Age-adjusted incidence rates and 95% confidence intervals 30 for malignant and non-malignant tumors and for selected histology groupings by sex, race, Hispanic ethnicity, and pediatric, adolescent, young adult, and adult age groups were estimated per 100,000 population. Age-adjustment was based on one-year age groupings and standardized to the 2000 US standard population. The age distribution of the 2000 US standard population is shown in Appendix A . Combined populations for the regions included in this report are shown in Appendix B and Appendix C .

CBTRUS presents statistics on the pediatric and adolescent age group 0–19 years for clinical relevance and describes specific brain and other CNS tumor patterns in age groups 0–4, 5–9, 10–14, and 15–19 years. However, the 0–14 year age group is a standard age category for childhood cancer used by other cancer surveillance organizations and has been included in this report for consistency and comparison purposes. Race categories in this report are all races, White, Black, American Indian/Alaskan Native (AIAN), and Asian/Pacific Islander (API). Other race, unspecified, and unknown race are included in statistics that are not race-specific. Hispanic ethnicity was defined using the NAACCR Hispanic Identification Algorithm, version 2, data element, which utilizes a combination of cancer registry data fields (Spanish/Hispanic Origin data element, birthplace, race, and surnames) to directly and indirectly classify cases as Hispanic or non-Hispanic. 31

When comparing two rates to one another, it is important to consider whether they are truly different or whether the difference in the estimates may be due to random error. There are several methods used in this report for determining whether two values are ‘significantly different,’ meaning whether the evidence meets a level of strength (usually a 5% chance of error) where the difference can be assumed to not be due to random error. There are two methods that are used to determine whether a difference between rates is statistically significant in this report. The first is through 95% confidence intervals, which are calculated for all presented rates. A 95% confidence interval is a range around an estimate which, if sampling of the population was repeated, should contain the ‘true’ value for the population 95% of the time. If the confidence intervals of two estimates do not overlap, these values are considered to be significantly different with a less than 5% probability of happening by chance. The second method for determining whether two values are different is through the calculation of p values. A p value is the probability of finding the observed or more extreme results by chance alone, and a p value of < 0.05 (or 5% chance of results being due to chance) is conventionally used as a cut off for considering a value statistically significant. Therefore, a p value < 0.0001 could be interpreted as meaning the observed value (or a more extreme value) had a < 0.01% chance of occurring by chance alone and the difference can be considered statistically significant at the 0.01% level.

Brain Tumor Definition Differences

It should be noted that NPCR, SEER, and NAACCR report brain tumors differently from CBTRUS. The definition of brain and other CNS tumors used by these organizations in their published incidence and mortality statistics includes tumors located in the following sites with their ICD-O-3 site codes in parentheses: brain, meninges, and other central nervous system tumors (C70.0–9, C71.0–9, and C72.0–9), but excludes lymphoma and leukemia histologies (9590–9989) from all brain and other CNS sites. 9

In contrast, CBTRUS reports data on all tumor morphologies located within the Consensus Conference site definition including lymphoma and other hematopoietic histologies (9590–9989), as well as olfactory tumors of the nasal cavity [C30.0 (9522–9523)]. 13 Additionally, CBTRUS reports data on all brain and other CNS tumors irrespective of behavior, whereas many reporting organizations may only publish rates for malignant brain and other CNS tumors. It is important to understand these differences in definition, as they influence the direct comparison of published rates.

In the US, cancer registries and surveillance groups only collect data on primary CNS tumors (meaning tumors that originate within the brain and spinal cord) and do not collect data on tumors that metastasize to the brain or spinal cord from other primary sites. As a result, only primary brain and other CNS tumors are included in this report.

Estimation of Expected Numbers of Brain and Other CNS Tumors in 2016 and 2017

Estimated numbers of expected malignant and non-malignant brain and other CNS tumors were calculated for 2016 and 2017. To project estimates of newly diagnosed brain and other CNS tumors in 2016 and 2017, age-adjusted annual brain tumor incidence rates were generated for 2000–2013 for malignant tumors, and 2006–2013 for non-malignant tumors. These were generated by state, age, and histologic type. Joinpoint 4.2.0.2 32 was used to fit regression models to these incidence rates, 33 which were used to predict numbers of cases in future years using the parameter from the selected models. The models allowed for a maximum of 2 joinpoints (1 for non-malignant tumors), a minimum of 3 observations from a joinpoint to either end of the data, and a minimum of 3 observations between joinpoints. 34 Modified Bayesian Information Criterion procedures included in Joinpoint were used to select the best fitting model.

Estimation of Mortality Rates for Brain and Other CNS Tumors

Age-adjusted mortality rates for deaths resulting from all malignant brain and other CNS tumors were calculated using the mortality data available in the CDC WONDER Online Database provided by National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) per 100,000 population. 35 In addition to the total age-adjusted rate for the US, age-adjusted rates are presented by sex and state.

Estimation of Survival Rates

SEER*Stat 8.3.2 statistical software was used to estimate one-, two-, three-, four-, five-, and ten-year relative survival rates for primary malignant CNS tumor cases diagnosed between 2000–2013 in eighteen SEER areas 22,36 and for primary non-malignant CNS tumor cases diagnosed between 2004–2013. This software utilizes life-table (actuarial) methods to compute survival estimates and accounts for current follow-up. Survival was estimated for brain (C71.0-C71.9), meninges (C70.0-C70.9), spinal cord, cranial nerves, and other parts of the central nervous system (C72.0-C72.9), pituitary and pineal glands (C75.1-C75.3), and olfactory tumors of the nasal cavity [C30.0 (9522–9523)]. Second or later primary tumors, cases diagnosed at autopsy, cases in which race or sex is coded as other or unknown, and cases known to be alive but for whom follow-up time could not be calculated, were excluded from the SEER survival data analyses. For selected non-malignant brain and other CNS tumors relative survival rates were estimated for one-, two-, five-, and ten- years using the 18 SEER areas for 2004–2013. Relative survival for NCI age groups and selected non-malignant histologies was also estimated for one-, two-, and five- years.

Estimation of Time Trends

Joinpoint 4.2.02 32 was used to estimate incidence time trends and generate annual percentage change (APC) and 95% confidence intervals. The joinpoint regression program fits a linear regression to annual incidence rates to test significance of changes overtime, with different trends lines connected at ‘joinpoints’ where there are changes in the direction of incidence trends. Annual percent change (APC) is the average percent change in incidence per year over the time period included in the trend segment. The best fitting model was determined through permutation tests, with a minimum of three observations required between two joinpoints as well as a minimum of three observations required between a joinpoint and either end of the data.

Data Interpretation

The CBTRUS works diligently to support the broader surveillance efforts aimed at improving the collection and reporting of primary brain and other CNS tumors. CCR data provided to NPCR and SEER and, subsequently, to CBTRUS vary from year-to-year due to ongoing updates in collection and data refinement aimed to improve completeness and accuracy. Therefore, it is important to note that data from previous CBTRUS Reports cannot be compared to data in this current report, CBTRUS Statistical Report: Primary Brain and Other Central Nervous System Tumors Diagnosed in the United States in 2009–2013. This current report supersedes all previous Reports in terms of coverage of the US population with the most up-to-date information, making these data the most accurate and timely to reference.

Random fluctuations in average annual rates are common, especially for rates based on small case counts. The CBTRUS policy to suppress data presentation for cells with counts of fewer than 16 cases is consistent with the NPCR policy.

As noted in the Annual Report to the Nation on the Status of Cancer, 1975–2010, Featuring Prevalence of Comorbidity and Impact on Survival Among Persons with Lung, Colorectal, Breast, or Prostate Cancer and in the 2013 CBTRUS Statistical Report , the policy change enacted in 2007 guiding the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) had resulted in underreporting of cancer data—especially for men—to central cancer registries. The ongoing process to clarify this policy indicates that underreporting for VHA facilities has diminished over time, and that the Veterans Affairs Central Cancer Registry (VACCR) now captures approximately 87–90% of cases. 37,38

Delays in reporting and late ascertainment are a reality and a known issue influencing registry completeness and, consequently, rate underestimations occur, especially for the most recent years. 39,40 The SEER program allows for reporting delay of up to 22 months prior to public data release, but additional cases may still be discovered after that point. 41 On average across all cancer sites, the submissions for the most recent diagnosis year are approximately 4% lower than the total number of cases that will eventually be submitted. CBTRUS also recognizes that this problem may be even more likely to occur in the reporting of non-malignant brain and other CNS tumors, where reporting often comes from non-hospital-based sources, and mandated collection is relatively recent (January 1, 2004). Type of diagnostic confirmation may also lead to increased reporting delay, with histologically confirmed tumors being subject to less reporting delay than radiographically confirmed tumors.

CBTRUS editing practices are conducted yearly. These practices are aimed at refining the data for accuracy and clinical relevance and play a role in interpreting these Report data. Exclusion of site and histology combinations considered to be invalid by the consulting neuropathologists who revised the CBTRUS site/histology validation list in 2012 may have the impact of underestimating the incidence of brain and other CNS tumors. Editing changes, such as reconsidering paired sites as multiple tumors rather than a single bilateral tumor beginning in 2004, also incorporate updates to the cancer registration coding rules that influence case ascertainment and data collection. 9

Population estimates used for denominators affect incidence rates. CBTRUS has utilized population estimates based on the 2000 US Census in this report.

Results

Primary Brain and Other CNS Tumors: Incidence and Mortality in Comparison to Other Common Neoplasms in the US

Average annual age-adjusted incidence rates for primary brain and other CNS tumors (2009–2013) and a selection of common cancers (2009–2013) in the US are presented by age in Fig. 2 , A) Children (Age 0–14 Years), 2, B) Adolescents and Young Adults (Age 15–39 Years), and 2, C) Adults (Age 40+ Years).

Fig. 2.

Average Annual Age-Adjusted Incidence Rates a of All Primary Brain and Other CNS Tumors in Comparison to Other Common Cancers for A) Children Age 0-14 Years, B) Adolescents and Young Adults Age 15-39 Years, and C) Older Adults Age 40+ Years, CBTRUS Statistical Report: NPCR and SEER 2009-2013, USCS, 2009-2013.

Fig. 2.

Average Annual Age-Adjusted Incidence Rates a of All Primary Brain and Other CNS Tumors in Comparison to Other Common Cancers for A) Children Age 0-14 Years, B) Adolescents and Young Adults Age 15-39 Years, and C) Older Adults Age 40+ Years, CBTRUS Statistical Report: NPCR and SEER 2009-2013, USCS, 2009-2013.

  • Brain and other CNS tumors are the most common cancer site among those age 0–14 years, with an average annual age-adjusted incidence rate of 5.47 per 100,000 population. Leukemia is the second most common neoplasm in those age 0–14 years, with an average annual age-adjusted incidence rate of 5.00 per 100,000 population.

  • Breast cancer (females only) is the most common cancer among those age 15–39 years, with average annual age-adjusted incidence rates of 21.32 per 100,000. Thyroid cancer is the most common cancer in males age 15–39 years, and second most common cancer for females age 15–39 years, with overall average annual adjusted incidence rates of 11.19 per 100,000. Brain and other CNS (both malignant and non-malignant tumors) among those age 15–39 years have an average annual age-adjusted incidence of 10.71 per 100,000 population.

  • Prostate and breast cancer are the most common cancers among those age 40+ years in the US, with average annual age-adjusted incidence rates of 286.11 per 100,000 population (males only) and 269.06 per 100,000 (females only) population, respectively. 7

  • Brain and other CNS (both malignant and non-malignant) tumors among those age 40+ years have an average annual age-adjusted incidence of 40.10 per 100,000 population.

Average annual age-adjusted mortality rates for primary brain and other CNS tumors, a selection of common cancers, and the top three non-cancer causes of death in the US are presented by age in Figs. 3 , A) (Age 0–14 Years), 3, B) (Age 15–39 Years), and 3, C) (Age 40+ Years).

Fig. 3.

Average Annual Age-Adjusted Mortality Rates of All Primary Brain and Other CNS Tumors in Comparison to Other Common Cancers and Top Three Non-Cancer Causes of Death for A) Children Age 0-14 Years, B) Adolescents and Young Adults Age 15-39 Years, and C) Older Adults Age 40+ Years, CBTRUS Statistical Report: NVSS a, 2009-2013.

Fig. 3.

Average Annual Age-Adjusted Mortality Rates of All Primary Brain and Other CNS Tumors in Comparison to Other Common Cancers and Top Three Non-Cancer Causes of Death for A) Children Age 0-14 Years, B) Adolescents and Young Adults Age 15-39 Years, and C) Older Adults Age 40+ Years, CBTRUS Statistical Report: NVSS a, 2009-2013.

  • The most common causes of death in persons age 0–14 years are conditions originating in the perinatal period (19.86 per 100,000). Brain and other CNS tumors among persons age 0–14 years have an average annual age-adjusted mortality rate of 0.70 per 100,000.

  • Accidents and adverse effects are the leading causes of death in persons age 15–39 years. Brain and other CNS tumors among persons age 15–39 years have an average annual age-adjusted mortality rate of 0.95 per 100,000.

  • Heart disease is largest contributor to mortality in persons age 40+ years in the US, with an average annual age adjusted mortality rate of 397.40 per 100,000. Brain and other CNS tumors among persons age 40+ years have an average annual age-adjusted mortality rate of 8.89 per 100,000.

Primary Brain and Other CNS Tumors: Distributions and Incidence by Sex, Age, Year, Behavior, WHO Grade, and CCR

Counts and rates from the 368,117 incident brain and other CNS tumors (117,906 malignant; 250,211 non-malignant shown in Fig. 4 ) reported during 2009–2013 by histology and demographic characteristics for all ages are presented in Tables 3 –6. The predominant tumor categories by behavior are presented in Fig. 4 .

Fig. 4.

Distribution a of Primary Brain and Other CNS Tumors by Behavior (N=368,117), CBTRUS Statistical Report: NPCR and SEER, 2009-2013.

Fig. 4.

Distribution a of Primary Brain and Other CNS Tumors by Behavior (N=368,117), CBTRUS Statistical Report: NPCR and SEER, 2009-2013.

Table 3.

Five-Year Total, Annual Average Total a , and Average Annual Age-Adjusted Incidence Rates b for Brain and Other Central Nervous System Tumors by Major Histology Groupings, Histology, Behavior, and Sex, CBTRUS Statistical Report: NPCR and SEER, 2009-2013

Histology Total Male Female 
5-year total Annual average Rate 95% CI 5-year total Annual average % Malignant % Non- Malignant Rate 95% CI 5-year total Annual average % Malignant % Non- Malignant Rate 95% CI 
Tumors of Neuroepithelial Tissue 107,732 21,546 6.60 (6.56-6.64) 60,196 12,039 93.1% 6.9% 7.75 (7.69-7.81) 47,536 9,507 92.6% 7.4% 5.60 (5.55-5.65) 
Pilocytic astrocytoma 5,106 1,021 0.35 (0.34-0.36) 2,637 527 100.0% 0.0% 0.35 (0.34-0.37) 2,469 494 100.0% 0.0% 0.34 (0.33-0.36) 
Diffuse astrocytoma 8,081 1,616 0.51 (0.50-0.52) 4,472 894 100.0% 0.0% 0.58 (0.57-0.60) 3,609 722 100.0% 0.0% 0.44 (0.43-0.46) 
Anaplastic astrocytoma 6,245 1,249 0.39 (0.38-0.40) 3,452 690 100.0% 0.0% 0.45 (0.43-0.46) 2,793 559 100.0% 0.0% 0.33 (0.32-0.35) 
Unique astrocytoma variants 1,070 214 0.07 (0.07-0.07) 581 116 67.3% 32.7% 0.08 (0.07-0.08) 489 98 65.8% 34.2% 0.06 (0.06-0.07) 
Glioblastoma 54,980 10,996 3.20 (3.17-3.22) 31,545 6,309 100.0% 0.0% 3.98 (3.93-4.02) 23,435 4,687 100.0% 0.0% 2.53 (2.50-2.56) 
Oligodendroglioma 3,852 770 0.25 (0.24-0.26) 2,159 432 100.0% 0.0% 0.29 (0.27-0.30) 1,693 339 100.0% 0.0% 0.21 (0.20-0.22) 
Anaplastic oligodendroglioma 1,677 335 0.10 (0.10-0.11) 944 189 100.0% 0.0% 0.12 (0.11-0.13) 733 147 99.9% 0.1% 0.09 (0.08-0.10) 
Oligoastrocytic tumors 3,179 636 0.20 (0.20-0.21) 1,824 365 100.0% 0.0% 0.24 (0.23-0.25) 1,355 271 99.9% 0.1% 0.17 (0.16-0.18) 
Ependymal tumors 6,780 1,356 0.43 (0.42-0.44) 3,812 762 56.8% 43.2% 0.49 (0.48-0.51) 2,968 594 65.9% 34.1% 0.37 (0.36-0.39) 
Glioma malignant, NOS 7,221 1,444 0.47 (0.46-0.48) 3,625 725 100.0% 0.0% 0.49 (0.47-0.51) 3,596 719 100.0% 0.0% 0.45 (0.44-0.47) 
Choroid plexus tumors 784 157 0.05 (0.05-0.06) 382 76 14.1% 85.9% 0.05 (0.05-0.06) 402 80 14.4% 85.6% 0.05 (0.05-0.06) 
Other neuroepithelial tumors 95 19 0.01 (0.01-0.01) 36 52.8% 47.2% 0.00 (0.00-0.01) 59 12 69.5% 30.5% 0.01 (0.01-0.01) 
Neuronal and mixed neuronal-glial tumors 4,367 873 0.29 (0.28-0.29) 2,324 465 21.3% 78.7% 0.30 (0.29-0.32) 2,043 409 17.8% 82.2% 0.27 (0.26-0.28) 
Tumors of the pineal region 686 137 0.04 (0.04-0.05) 273 55 68.1% 31.9% 0.04 (0.03-0.04) 413 83 47.2% 52.8% 0.05 (0.05-0.06) 
Embryonal tumors 3,609 722 0.25 (0.24-0.25) 2,130 426 97.8% 2.2% 0.29 (0.28-0.30) 1,479 296 95.5% 4.5% 0.20 (0.19-0.21) 
Tumors of Cranial and Spinal Nerves 30,384 6,077 1.83 (1.80-1.85) 14,517 2,903 0.8% 99.2% 1.82 (1.79-1.85) 15,867 3,173 0.7% 99.3% 1.84 (1.81-1.87) 
Nerve sheath tumors 30,360 6,072 1.82 (1.80-1.85) 14,503 2,901 0.8% 99.2% 1.82 (1.79-1.85) 15,857 3,171 0.7% 99.3% 1.83 (1.81-1.86) 
Other tumors of cranial and spinal nerves 24 0.00 (0.00-0.00) -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 
Tumors of Meninges 139,205 27,841 8.30 (8.26-8.35) 38,300 7,660 3.0% 97.0% 5.09 (5.04-5.14) 100,905 20,181 1.3% 98.7% 11.11 (11.04-11.18) 
Meningioma 134,835 26,967 8.03 (7.99-8.07) 35,985 7,197 2.0% 98.0% 4.79 (4.74-4.84) 98,850 19,770 1.0% 99.0% 10.86 (10.79-10.93) 
Mesenchymal tumors 1,302 260 0.08 (0.08-0.09) 635 127 34.3% 65.7% 0.08 (0.08-0.09) 667 133 27.7% 72.3% 0.08 (0.08-0.09) 
Primary melanocytic lesions 136 27 0.01 (0.01-0.01) 86 17 75.6% 24.4% 0.01 (0.01-0.01) 50 10 50.0% 50.0% 0.01 (0.00-0.01) 
Other neoplasms related to the meninges 2,932 586 0.18 (0.18-0.19) 1,594 319 9.1% 90.9% 0.21 (0.20-0.22) 1,338 268 8.6% 91.4% 0.16 (0.15-0.17) 
Lymphomas and Hematopoietic Neoplasms 7,415 1,483 0.44 (0.43-0.45) 3,832 766 99.6% 0.4% 0.50 (0.48-0.51) 3,583 717 99.7% 0.3% 0.40 (0.38-0.41) 
Lymphoma 7,160 1,432 0.43 (0.42-0.44) 3,697 739 100.0% 0.0% 0.48 (0.46-0.49) 3,463 693 100.0% 0.0% 0.38 (0.37-0.40) 
Other hematopoietic neoplasms 255 51 0.02 (0.01-0.02) 135 27 88.9% 11.1% 0.02 (0.01-0.02) 120 24 91.7% 8.3% 0.01 (0.01-0.02) 
Germ Cell Tumors and Cysts 1,469 294 0.10 (0.09-0.10) 990 198 76.7% 23.3% 0.13 (0.12-0.14) 479 96 49.7% 50.3% 0.07 (0.06-0.07) 
Germ cell tumors, cysts and heterotopias 1,469 294 0.10 (0.09-0.10) 990 198 76.7% 23.3% 0.13 (0.12-0.14) 479 96 49.7% 50.3% 0.07 (0.06-0.07) 
Tumors of Sellar Region 61,597 12,319 3.85 (3.82-3.88) 27,798 5,560 0.3% 99.7% 3.57 (3.53-3.61) 33,799 6,760 0.2% 99.8% 4.21 (4.16-4.25) 
Tumors of the pituitary 58,666 11,733 3.66 (3.63-3.69) 26,404 5,281 0.3% 99.7% 3.39 (3.35-3.43) 32,262 6,452 0.2% 99.8% 4.01 (3.97-4.06) 
Craniopharyngioma 2,931 586 0.19 (0.18-0.19) 1,394 279 0.3% 99.7% 0.18 (0.17-0.19) 1,537 307 0.2% 99.8% 0.19 (0.18-0.20) 
Unclassified Tumors 20,315 4,063 1.24 (1.22-1.26) 9,183 1,837 34.4% 65.6% 1.24 (1.21-1.26) 11,132 2,226 30.8% 69.2% 1.25 (1.23-1.28) 
Hemangioma 5,869 1,174 0.37 (0.36-0.38) 2,521 504 0.4% 99.6% 0.32 (0.31-0.34) 3,348 670 0.2% 99.8% 0.41 (0.39-0.42) 
Neoplasm, unspecified 14,356 2,871 0.87 (0.85-0.88) 6,614 1,323 47.4% 52.6% 0.91 (0.89-0.93) 7,742 1,548 44.0% 56.0% 0.84 (0.82-0.86) 
All other 90 18 0.01 (0.00-0.01) 48 10 29.2% 70.8% 0.01 (0.00-0.01) 42 31.0% 69.0% 0.01 (0.00-0.01) 
TOTALc 368,117 73,623 22.36 (22.29-22.44) 154,816 30,963 42.1% 57.9% 20.10 (20.00-20.20) 213,301 42,660 24.7% 75.3% 24.46 (24.36-24.57) 
Histology Total Male Female 
5-year total Annual average Rate 95% CI 5-year total Annual average % Malignant % Non- Malignant Rate 95% CI 5-year total Annual average % Malignant % Non- Malignant Rate 95% CI 
Tumors of Neuroepithelial Tissue 107,732 21,546 6.60 (6.56-6.64) 60,196 12,039 93.1% 6.9% 7.75 (7.69-7.81) 47,536 9,507 92.6% 7.4% 5.60 (5.55-5.65) 
Pilocytic astrocytoma 5,106 1,021 0.35 (0.34-0.36) 2,637 527 100.0% 0.0% 0.35 (0.34-0.37) 2,469 494 100.0% 0.0% 0.34 (0.33-0.36) 
Diffuse astrocytoma 8,081 1,616 0.51 (0.50-0.52) 4,472 894 100.0% 0.0% 0.58 (0.57-0.60) 3,609 722 100.0% 0.0% 0.44 (0.43-0.46) 
Anaplastic astrocytoma 6,245 1,249 0.39 (0.38-0.40) 3,452 690 100.0% 0.0% 0.45 (0.43-0.46) 2,793 559 100.0% 0.0% 0.33 (0.32-0.35) 
Unique astrocytoma variants 1,070 214 0.07 (0.07-0.07) 581 116 67.3% 32.7% 0.08 (0.07-0.08) 489 98 65.8% 34.2% 0.06 (0.06-0.07) 
Glioblastoma 54,980 10,996 3.20 (3.17-3.22) 31,545 6,309 100.0% 0.0% 3.98 (3.93-4.02) 23,435 4,687 100.0% 0.0% 2.53 (2.50-2.56) 
Oligodendroglioma 3,852 770 0.25 (0.24-0.26) 2,159 432 100.0% 0.0% 0.29 (0.27-0.30) 1,693 339 100.0% 0.0% 0.21 (0.20-0.22) 
Anaplastic oligodendroglioma 1,677 335 0.10 (0.10-0.11) 944 189 100.0% 0.0% 0.12 (0.11-0.13) 733 147 99.9% 0.1% 0.09 (0.08-0.10) 
Oligoastrocytic tumors 3,179 636 0.20 (0.20-0.21) 1,824 365 100.0% 0.0% 0.24 (0.23-0.25) 1,355 271 99.9% 0.1% 0.17 (0.16-0.18) 
Ependymal tumors 6,780 1,356 0.43 (0.42-0.44) 3,812 762 56.8% 43.2% 0.49 (0.48-0.51) 2,968 594 65.9% 34.1% 0.37 (0.36-0.39) 
Glioma malignant, NOS 7,221 1,444 0.47 (0.46-0.48) 3,625 725 100.0% 0.0% 0.49 (0.47-0.51) 3,596 719 100.0% 0.0% 0.45 (0.44-0.47) 
Choroid plexus tumors 784 157 0.05 (0.05-0.06) 382 76 14.1% 85.9% 0.05 (0.05-0.06) 402 80 14.4% 85.6% 0.05 (0.05-0.06) 
Other neuroepithelial tumors 95 19 0.01 (0.01-0.01) 36 52.8% 47.2% 0.00 (0.00-0.01) 59 12 69.5% 30.5% 0.01 (0.01-0.01) 
Neuronal and mixed neuronal-glial tumors 4,367 873 0.29 (0.28-0.29) 2,324 465 21.3% 78.7% 0.30 (0.29-0.32) 2,043 409 17.8% 82.2% 0.27 (0.26-0.28) 
Tumors of the pineal region 686 137 0.04 (0.04-0.05) 273 55 68.1% 31.9% 0.04 (0.03-0.04) 413 83 47.2% 52.8% 0.05 (0.05-0.06) 
Embryonal tumors 3,609 722 0.25 (0.24-0.25) 2,130 426 97.8% 2.2% 0.29 (0.28-0.30) 1,479 296 95.5% 4.5% 0.20 (0.19-0.21) 
Tumors of Cranial and Spinal Nerves 30,384 6,077 1.83 (1.80-1.85) 14,517 2,903 0.8% 99.2% 1.82 (1.79-1.85) 15,867 3,173 0.7% 99.3% 1.84 (1.81-1.87) 
Nerve sheath tumors 30,360 6,072 1.82 (1.80-1.85) 14,503 2,901 0.8% 99.2% 1.82 (1.79-1.85) 15,857 3,171 0.7% 99.3% 1.83 (1.81-1.86) 
Other tumors of cranial and spinal nerves 24 0.00 (0.00-0.00) -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 
Tumors of Meninges 139,205 27,841 8.30 (8.26-8.35) 38,300 7,660 3.0% 97.0% 5.09 (5.04-5.14) 100,905 20,181 1.3% 98.7% 11.11 (11.04-11.18) 
Meningioma 134,835 26,967 8.03 (7.99-8.07) 35,985 7,197 2.0% 98.0% 4.79 (4.74-4.84) 98,850 19,770 1.0% 99.0% 10.86 (10.79-10.93) 
Mesenchymal tumors 1,302 260 0.08 (0.08-0.09) 635 127 34.3% 65.7% 0.08 (0.08-0.09) 667 133 27.7% 72.3% 0.08 (0.08-0.09) 
Primary melanocytic lesions 136 27 0.01 (0.01-0.01) 86 17 75.6% 24.4% 0.01 (0.01-0.01) 50 10 50.0% 50.0% 0.01 (0.00-0.01) 
Other neoplasms related to the meninges 2,932 586 0.18 (0.18-0.19) 1,594 319 9.1% 90.9% 0.21 (0.20-0.22) 1,338 268 8.6% 91.4% 0.16 (0.15-0.17) 
Lymphomas and Hematopoietic Neoplasms 7,415 1,483 0.44 (0.43-0.45) 3,832 766 99.6% 0.4% 0.50 (0.48-0.51) 3,583 717 99.7% 0.3% 0.40 (0.38-0.41) 
Lymphoma 7,160 1,432 0.43 (0.42-0.44) 3,697 739 100.0% 0.0% 0.48 (0.46-0.49) 3,463 693 100.0% 0.0% 0.38 (0.37-0.40) 
Other hematopoietic neoplasms 255 51 0.02 (0.01-0.02) 135 27 88.9% 11.1% 0.02 (0.01-0.02) 120 24 91.7% 8.3% 0.01 (0.01-0.02) 
Germ Cell Tumors and Cysts 1,469 294 0.10 (0.09-0.10) 990 198 76.7% 23.3% 0.13 (0.12-0.14) 479 96 49.7% 50.3% 0.07 (0.06-0.07) 
Germ cell tumors, cysts and heterotopias 1,469 294 0.10 (0.09-0.10) 990 198 76.7% 23.3% 0.13 (0.12-0.14) 479 96 49.7% 50.3% 0.07 (0.06-0.07) 
Tumors of Sellar Region 61,597 12,319 3.85 (3.82-3.88) 27,798 5,560 0.3% 99.7% 3.57 (3.53-3.61) 33,799 6,760 0.2% 99.8% 4.21 (4.16-4.25) 
Tumors of the pituitary 58,666 11,733 3.66 (3.63-3.69) 26,404 5,281 0.3% 99.7% 3.39 (3.35-3.43) 32,262 6,452 0.2% 99.8% 4.01 (3.97-4.06) 
Craniopharyngioma 2,931 586 0.19 (0.18-0.19) 1,394 279 0.3% 99.7% 0.18 (0.17-0.19) 1,537 307 0.2% 99.8% 0.19 (0.18-0.20) 
Unclassified Tumors 20,315 4,063 1.24 (1.22-1.26) 9,183 1,837 34.4% 65.6% 1.24 (1.21-1.26) 11,132 2,226 30.8% 69.2% 1.25 (1.23-1.28) 
Hemangioma 5,869 1,174 0.37 (0.36-0.38) 2,521 504 0.4% 99.6% 0.32 (0.31-0.34) 3,348 670 0.2% 99.8% 0.41 (0.39-0.42) 
Neoplasm, unspecified 14,356 2,871 0.87 (0.85-0.88) 6,614 1,323 47.4% 52.6% 0.91 (0.89-0.93) 7,742 1,548 44.0% 56.0% 0.84 (0.82-0.86) 
All other 90 18 0.01 (0.00-0.01) 48 10 29.2% 70.8% 0.01 (0.00-0.01) 42 31.0% 69.0% 0.01 (0.00-0.01) 
TOTALc 368,117 73,623 22.36 (22.29-22.44) 154,816 30,963 42.1% 57.9% 20.10 (20.00-20.20) 213,301 42,660 24.7% 75.3% 24.46 (24.36-24.57) 

a Annual average cases are calculated by dividing the five-year total by five.

b Rates are per 100,000 and are age-adjusted to the 2000 US standard population.

c Refers to all brain and other CNS tumors including histologies not presented in this table.

- Counts are not presented when fewer than 16 cases were reported in the five year period for the specific histology category.

Abbreviations: CBTRUS, Central Brain Tumor Registry of the United States; NPCR, National Program of Cancer Registries; SEER, Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results program; CI, confidence interval; NOS, not otherwise specified.

Incidence Rates by Sex and Behavior

  • Overall, 42.1% of all tumors diagnosed between 2009 and 2013 occurred in males (154,816 tumors) and 57.9% in females (213,301 tumors).

  • Approximately 55.2% of the malignant tumors occurred in males (65,121 tumors between 2009 and 2013) and 44.8% in females (52,785 tumors between 2009 and 2013).

  • Approximately 35.8% of the non-malignant tumors occurred in males (89,695 tumors between 2009 and 2013) and 64.2% in females (160,516 tumors between 2009 and 2013).

Incidence Rates by Age

The overall average annual age-adjusted incidence rate for 2009–2013 for all primary brain and other CNS tumors was 22.36 per 100,000 population ( Table 3 ). The overall incidence rate was 5.70 per 100,000 population for children and adolescents age 0–19 years, 5.47 per 100,000 population for children age 0–14 years ( Table 4 ), and 29.18 per 100,000 population for adults age 20+ years ( Table 5 ). The overall incidence rates of tumors by behavior and age group (age 0–19 years and 20+ years) are shown in Fig. 5 and Table 5 .

Table 4.

Five-Year Total, Annual Average Total a , and Average Annual Age-Adjusted Incidence Rates b for Children and Adolescents (Age 0-19 Years), Brain and Other Central Nervous System Tumors by Major Histology Groupings, Histology, and Age Group at Diagnosis, CBTRUS Statistical Report: NPCR and SEER, 2009-2013

 Age At Diagnosis 
0-14 Years‡ 0-19 Years‡ 0-4 Years 5-9 Years 10-14 Years 15-19 Years 
5-year total Annual average Rate 95% CI 5-year total Annual average Rate 95% CI 5-year total Annual average Rate 95% CI 5-year total Annual average Rate 95% CI 5-year total Annual average Rate 95% CI 5-year total Annual average Rate 95% CI 
Tumors of Neuroepithelial Tissue 12,303 2,461 4.04 (3.96-4.11) 15,363 3,073 3.74 (3.68-3.80) 4,880 976 4.88 (4.75-5.02) 3,914 783 3.85 (3.73-3.98) 3,509 702 3.41 (3.30-3.53) 3,060 612 2.85 (2.75-2.95) 
Pilocytic astrocytoma 2,999 600 0.98 (0.95-1.02) 3,645 729 0.89 (0.86-0.92) 1,065 213 1.06 (1.00-1.13) 1,017 203 1.00 (0.94-1.06) 917 183 0.89 (0.83-0.95) 646 129 0.60 (0.56-0.65) 
Diffuse astrocytoma 792 158 0.26 (0.24-0.28) 1,083 217 0.26 (0.25-0.28) 308 62 0.31 (0.28-0.34) 227 45 0.22 (0.20-0.26) 257 51 0.25 (0.22-0.28) 291 58 0.27 (0.24-0.30) 
Anaplastic astrocytoma 275 55 0.09 (0.08-0.10) 375 75 0.09 (0.08-0.10) 69 14 0.07 (0.05-0.09) 97 19 0.10 (0.08-0.12) 109 22 0.11 (0.09-0.13) 100 20 0.09 (0.08-0.11) 
Unique astrocyto(ma variants 343 69 0.11 (0.10-0.13) 461 92 0.11 (0.10-0.12) 89 18 0.09 (0.07-0.11) 118 24 0.12 (0.10-0.14) 136 27 0.13 (0.11-0.16) 118 24 0.11 (0.09-0.13) 
Glioblastoma 467 93 0.15 (0.14-0.17) 692 138 0.17 (0.16-0.18) 113 23 0.11 (0.09-0.14) 163 33 0.16 (0.14-0.19) 191 38 0.19 (0.16-0.21) 225 45 0.21 (0.18-0.24) 
Oligodendroglioma 110 22 0.04 (0.03-0.04) 203 41 0.05 (0.04-0.06) 19 0.02 (0.01-0.03) 41 0.04 (0.03-0.05) 50 10 0.05 (0.04-0.06) 93 19 0.09 (0.07-0.11) 
Anaplastic oligodendroglioma -- -- -- -- 28 0.01 (0.00-0.01) -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 18 0.02 (0.01-0.03) 
Oligoastrocytic tumors 70 14 0.02 (0.02-0.03) 127 25 0.03 (0.03-0.04) 19 0.02 (0.01-0.03) 22 0.02 (0.01-0.03) 29 0.03 (0.02-0.04) 57 11 0.05 (0.04-0.07) 
Ependymal tumors 961 192 0.31 (0.29-0.33) 1,230 246 0.30 (0.28-0.31) 496 99 0.50 (0.45-0.54) 229 46 0.23 (0.20-0.26) 236 47 0.23 (0.20-0.26) 269 54 0.25 (0.22-0.28) 
Glioma malignant, NOS 2,385 477 0.78 (0.75-0.81) 2,737 547 0.67 (0.64-0.69) 931 186 0.93 (0.87-0.99) 893 179 0.88 (0.82-0.94) 561 112 0.55 (0.50-0.60) 352 70 0.33 (0.29-0.36) 
Choroid plexus tumors 336 67 0.11 (0.10-0.12) 390 78 0.09 (0.09-0.10) 239 48 0.24 (0.21-0.27) 48 10 0.05 (0.03-0.06) 49 10 0.05 (0.04-0.06) 54 11 0.05 (0.04-0.07) 
Other neuroepithelial tumors 30 0.01 (0.01-0.01) 34 0.01 (0.01-0.01) -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 
Neuronal and mixed neuronal-glial tumors 1,091 218 0.36 (0.34-0.38) 1,631 326 0.40 (0.38-0.41) 276 55 0.28 (0.25-0.31) 313 63 0.31 (0.28-0.35) 502 100 0.49 (0.45-0.53) 540 108 0.50 (0.46-0.55) 
Tumors of the pineal region 139 28 0.05 (0.04-0.05) 183 37 0.04 (0.04-0.05) 57 11 0.06 (0.04-0.07) 37 0.04 (0.03-0.05) 45 0.04 (0.03-0.06) 44 0.04 (0.03-0.06) 
Embryonal tumors 2,295 459 0.75 (0.72-0.78) 2,544 509 0.62 (0.60-0.64) 1,188 238 1.19 (1.12-1.26) 699 140 0.69 (0.64-0.74) 408 82 0.40 (0.36-0.44) 249 50 0.23 (0.20-0.26) 
Medulloblastomac 1,466 293 0.48 (0.46-0.51 )  1,642 328 0.40 (0.38-0.42 )  554 111 0.55 (0.51-0.60 )  584 117 0.57 (0.53-0.62 )  328 66 0.32 (0.29-0.36 )  176 35 0.16 (0.14-0.19 )  
Primitive  neuroectodermal tumord 287 57 0.09 (0.08-0.10 )  334 67 0.08 (0.07-0.09 )  176 35 0.18 (0.15-0.20 )  64 13 0.06 (0.05-0.08 )  47 9 0.05 (0.03-0.06 )  47 9 0.04 (0.03-0.06 )  
Atypical teratoid/  rhabdoid tumore 353 71 0.11 (0.10-0.13 )  359 72 0.09 (0.08-0.10 )  316 63 0.32 (0.28-0.35 )  25 5 0.02 (0.02-0.04 )  -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 
Other embryonal  histologiesf 189 38 0.06 (0.05-0.07 )  209 42 0.05 (0.04-0.06 )  142 28 0.14 (0.12-0.17 )  26 5 0.03 (0.02-0.04 )  21 4 0.02 (0.01-0.03 )  20 4 0.02 (0.01-0.03 )  
Tumors of Cranial and Spinal Nerves 809 162 0.27 (0.25-0.28) 1,218 244 0.29 (0.28-0.31) 277 55 0.28 (0.25-0.31) 259 52 0.26 (0.23-0.29) 273 55 0.27 (0.23-0.30) 409 82 0.38 (0.34-0.42) 
Nerve sheath tumors 809 162 0.27 (0.25-0.28) 1,216 243 0.29 (0.28-0.31) 277 55 0.28 (0.25-0.31) 259 52 0.26 (0.23-0.29) 273 55 0.27 (0.23-0.30) 407 81 0.38 (0.34-0.42) 
Other tumors of cranial and spinal nerves -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 
Tumors of Meninges 500 100 0.16 (0.15-0.18) 1,012 202 0.24 (0.23-0.26) 151 30 0.15 (0.13-0.18) 112 22 0.11 (0.09-0.13) 237 47 0.23 (0.20-0.26) 512 102 0.47 (0.43-0.52) 
Meningioma 273 55 0.09 (0.08-0.10) 615 123 0.15 (0.14-0.16) 59 12 0.06 (0.05-0.08) 61 12 0.06 (0.05-0.08) 153 31 0.15 (0.13-0.17) 342 68 0.32 (0.28-0.35) 
Mesenchymal tumors 162 32 0.05 (0.05-0.06) 210 42 0.05 (0.04-0.06) 80 16 0.08 (0.06-0.10) 43 0.04 (0.03-0.06) 39 0.04 (0.03-0.05) 48 10 0.04 (0.03-0.06) 
Primary melanocytic lesions -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 
Other neoplasms related to the meninges 58 12 0.02 (0.01-0.02) 177 35 0.04 (0.04-0.05) -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 44 0.04 (0.03-0.06) 119 24 0.11 (0.09-0.13) 
Lymphomas and Hematopoietic Neoplasms 79 16 0.03 (0.02-0.03) 120 24 0.03 (0.02-0.03) 17 3 0.02 (0.01-0.03) 34 7 0.03 (0.02-0.05) 28 6 0.03 (0.02-0.04) 41 8 0.04 (0.03-0.05) 
Lymphoma 29 0.01 (0.01-0.01) 58 12 0.01 (0.01-0.02) -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 29 0.03 (0.02-0.04) 
Other hematopoietic neoplasms 50 10 0.02 (0.01-0.02) 62 12 0.02 (0.01-0.02) -- -- -- -- 23 0.02 (0.01-0.03) -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 
Germ Cell Tumors and Cysts 635 127 0.21 (0.19-0.23) 918 184 0.22 (0.21-0.24) 156 31 0.16 (0.13-0.18) 168 34 0.17 (0.14-0.20) 311 62 0.30 (0.27-0.34) 283 57 0.26 (0.23-0.30) 
Germ cell tumors, cysts and heterotopias 635 127 0.21 (0.19-0.23) 918 184 0.22 (0.21-0.24) 156 31 0.16 (0.13-0.18) 168 34 0.17 (0.14-0.20) 311 62 0.30 (0.27-0.34) 283 57 0.26 (0.23-0.30) 
Tumors of Sellar Region 1,415 283 0.47 (0.44-0.49) 3,472 694 0.83 (0.80-0.86) 169 34 0.17 (0.14-0.20) 483 97 0.48 (0.44-0.52) 763 153 0.74 (0.68-0.79) 2,057 411 1.91 (1.82-1.99) 
Tumors of the pituitary 743 149 0.24 (0.23-0.26) 2,655 531 0.63 (0.60-0.65) 30 0.03 (0.02-0.04) 175 35 0.17 (0.15-0.20) 538 108 0.52 (0.47-0.56) 1,912 382 1.77 (1.69-1.85) 
Craniopharyngioma 672 134 0.22 (0.21-0.24) 817 163 0.20 (0.19-0.21) 139 28 0.14 (0.12-0.16) 308 62 0.30 (0.27-0.34) 225 45 0.22 (0.19-0.25) 145 29 0.13 (0.11-0.16) 
Unclassified Tumors 912 182 0.30 (0.28-0.32) 1,419 284 0.34 (0.33-0.36) 318 64 0.32 (0.29-0.36) 219 44 0.22 (0.19-0.25) 375 75 0.36 (0.33-0.40) 507 101 0.47 (0.43-0.51) 
Hemangioma 308 62 0.10 (0.09-0.11) 534 107 0.13 (0.12-0.14) 115 23 0.12 (0.10-0.14) 66 13 0.07 (0.05-0.08) 127 25 0.12 (0.10-0.15) 226 45 0.21 (0.18-0.24) 
Neoplasm, unspecified 585 117 0.19 (0.18-0.21) 862 172 0.21 (0.19-0.22) 194 39 0.19 (0.17-0.22) 150 30 0.15 (0.13-0.17) 241 48 0.23 (0.20-0.26) 277 55 0.26 (0.23-0.29) 
All other 19 0.01 (0.00-0.01) 23 0.01 (0.00-0.01) -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 
TOTALg 16,653 3,331 5.47 (5.39-5.55) 23,522 4,704 5.70 (5.62-5.77) 5,968 1,194 5.98 (5.83-6.13) 5,189 1,038 5.12 (4.98-5.26) 5,496 1,099 5.34 (5.20-5.48) 6,869 1,374 6.38 (6.23-6.53) 
 Age At Diagnosis 
0-14 Years‡ 0-19 Years‡ 0-4 Years 5-9 Years 10-14 Years 15-19 Years 
5-year total Annual average Rate 95% CI 5-year total Annual average Rate 95% CI 5-year total Annual average Rate 95% CI 5-year total Annual average Rate 95% CI 5-year total Annual average Rate 95% CI 5-year total Annual average Rate 95% CI 
Tumors of Neuroepithelial Tissue 12,303 2,461 4.04 (3.96-4.11) 15,363 3,073 3.74 (3.68-3.80) 4,880 976 4.88 (4.75-5.02) 3,914 783 3.85 (3.73-3.98) 3,509 702 3.41 (3.30-3.53) 3,060 612 2.85 (2.75-2.95) 
Pilocytic astrocytoma 2,999 600 0.98 (0.95-1.02) 3,645 729 0.89 (0.86-0.92) 1,065 213 1.06 (1.00-1.13) 1,017 203 1.00 (0.94-1.06) 917 183 0.89 (0.83-0.95) 646 129 0.60 (0.56-0.65) 
Diffuse astrocytoma 792 158 0.26 (0.24-0.28) 1,083 217 0.26 (0.25-0.28) 308 62 0.31 (0.28-0.34) 227 45 0.22 (0.20-0.26) 257 51 0.25 (0.22-0.28) 291 58 0.27 (0.24-0.30) 
Anaplastic astrocytoma 275 55 0.09 (0.08-0.10) 375 75 0.09 (0.08-0.10) 69 14 0.07 (0.05-0.09) 97 19 0.10 (0.08-0.12) 109 22 0.11 (0.09-0.13) 100 20 0.09 (0.08-0.11) 
Unique astrocyto(ma variants 343 69 0.11 (0.10-0.13) 461 92 0.11 (0.10-0.12) 89 18 0.09 (0.07-0.11) 118 24 0.12 (0.10-0.14) 136 27 0.13 (0.11-0.16) 118 24 0.11 (0.09-0.13) 
Glioblastoma 467 93 0.15 (0.14-0.17) 692 138 0.17 (0.16-0.18) 113 23 0.11 (0.09-0.14) 163 33 0.16 (0.14-0.19) 191 38 0.19 (0.16-0.21) 225 45 0.21 (0.18-0.24) 
Oligodendroglioma 110 22 0.04 (0.03-0.04) 203 41 0.05 (0.04-0.06) 19 0.02 (0.01-0.03) 41 0.04 (0.03-0.05) 50 10 0.05 (0.04-0.06) 93 19 0.09 (0.07-0.11) 
Anaplastic oligodendroglioma -- -- -- -- 28 0.01 (0.00-0.01) -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 18 0.02 (0.01-0.03) 
Oligoastrocytic tumors 70 14 0.02 (0.02-0.03) 127 25 0.03 (0.03-0.04) 19 0.02 (0.01-0.03) 22 0.02 (0.01-0.03) 29 0.03 (0.02-0.04) 57 11 0.05 (0.04-0.07) 
Ependymal tumors 961 192 0.31 (0.29-0.33) 1,230 246 0.30 (0.28-0.31) 496 99 0.50 (0.45-0.54) 229 46 0.23 (0.20-0.26) 236 47 0.23 (0.20-0.26) 269 54 0.25 (0.22-0.28) 
Glioma malignant, NOS 2,385 477 0.78 (0.75-0.81) 2,737 547 0.67 (0.64-0.69) 931 186 0.93 (0.87-0.99) 893 179 0.88 (0.82-0.94) 561 112 0.55 (0.50-0.60) 352 70 0.33 (0.29-0.36) 
Choroid plexus tumors 336 67 0.11 (0.10-0.12) 390 78 0.09 (0.09-0.10) 239 48 0.24 (0.21-0.27) 48 10 0.05 (0.03-0.06) 49 10 0.05 (0.04-0.06) 54 11 0.05 (0.04-0.07) 
Other neuroepithelial tumors 30 0.01 (0.01-0.01) 34 0.01 (0.01-0.01) -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 
Neuronal and mixed neuronal-glial tumors 1,091 218 0.36 (0.34-0.38) 1,631 326 0.40 (0.38-0.41) 276 55 0.28 (0.25-0.31) 313 63 0.31 (0.28-0.35) 502 100 0.49 (0.45-0.53) 540 108 0.50 (0.46-0.55) 
Tumors of the pineal region 139 28 0.05 (0.04-0.05) 183 37 0.04 (0.04-0.05) 57 11 0.06 (0.04-0.07) 37 0.04 (0.03-0.05) 45 0.04 (0.03-0.06) 44 0.04 (0.03-0.06) 
Embryonal tumors 2,295 459 0.75 (0.72-0.78) 2,544 509 0.62 (0.60-0.64) 1,188 238 1.19 (1.12-1.26) 699 140 0.69 (0.64-0.74) 408 82 0.40 (0.36-0.44) 249 50 0.23 (0.20-0.26) 
Medulloblastomac 1,466 293 0.48 (0.46-0.51 )  1,642 328 0.40 (0.38-0.42 )  554 111 0.55 (0.51-0.60 )  584 117 0.57 (0.53-0.62 )  328 66 0.32 (0.29-0.36 )  176 35 0.16 (0.14-0.19 )  
Primitive  neuroectodermal tumord 287 57 0.09 (0.08-0.10 )  334 67 0.08 (0.07-0.09 )  176 35 0.18 (0.15-0.20 )  64 13 0.06 (0.05-0.08 )  47 9 0.05 (0.03-0.06 )  47 9 0.04 (0.03-0.06 )  
Atypical teratoid/  rhabdoid tumore 353 71 0.11 (0.10-0.13 )  359 72 0.09 (0.08-0.10 )  316 63 0.32 (0.28-0.35 )  25 5 0.02 (0.02-0.04 )  -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 
Other embryonal  histologiesf 189 38 0.06 (0.05-0.07 )  209 42 0.05 (0.04-0.06 )  142 28 0.14 (0.12-0.17 )  26 5 0.03 (0.02-0.04 )  21 4 0.02 (0.01-0.03 )  20 4 0.02 (0.01-0.03 )  
Tumors of Cranial and Spinal Nerves 809 162 0.27 (0.25-0.28) 1,218 244 0.29 (0.28-0.31) 277 55 0.28 (0.25-0.31) 259 52 0.26 (0.23-0.29) 273 55 0.27 (0.23-0.30) 409 82 0.38 (0.34-0.42) 
Nerve sheath tumors 809 162 0.27 (0.25-0.28) 1,216 243 0.29 (0.28-0.31) 277 55 0.28 (0.25-0.31) 259 52 0.26 (0.23-0.29) 273 55 0.27 (0.23-0.30) 407 81 0.38 (0.34-0.42) 
Other tumors of cranial and spinal nerves -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 
Tumors of Meninges 500 100 0.16 (0.15-0.18) 1,012 202 0.24 (0.23-0.26) 151 30 0.15 (0.13-0.18) 112 22 0.11 (0.09-0.13) 237 47 0.23 (0.20-0.26) 512 102 0.47 (0.43-0.52) 
Meningioma 273 55 0.09 (0.08-0.10) 615 123 0.15 (0.14-0.16) 59 12 0.06 (0.05-0.08) 61 12 0.06 (0.05-0.08) 153 31 0.15 (0.13-0.17) 342 68 0.32 (0.28-0.35) 
Mesenchymal tumors 162 32 0.05 (0.05-0.06) 210 42 0.05 (0.04-0.06) 80 16 0.08 (0.06-0.10) 43 0.04 (0.03-0.06) 39 0.04 (0.03-0.05) 48 10 0.04 (0.03-0.06) 
Primary melanocytic lesions -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 
Other neoplasms related to the meninges 58 12 0.02 (0.01-0.02) 177 35 0.04 (0.04-0.05) -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 44 0.04 (0.03-0.06) 119 24 0.11 (0.09-0.13) 
Lymphomas and Hematopoietic Neoplasms 79 16 0.03 (0.02-0.03) 120 24 0.03 (0.02-0.03) 17 3 0.02 (0.01-0.03) 34 7 0.03 (0.02-0.05) 28 6 0.03 (0.02-0.04) 41 8 0.04 (0.03-0.05) 
Lymphoma 29 0.01 (0.01-0.01) 58 12 0.01 (0.01-0.02) -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 29 0.03 (0.02-0.04) 
Other hematopoietic neoplasms 50 10 0.02 (0.01-0.02) 62 12 0.02 (0.01-0.02) -- -- -- -- 23 0.02 (0.01-0.03) -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 
Germ Cell Tumors and Cysts 635 127 0.21 (0.19-0.23) 918 184 0.22 (0.21-0.24) 156 31 0.16 (0.13-0.18) 168 34 0.17 (0.14-0.20) 311 62 0.30 (0.27-0.34) 283 57 0.26 (0.23-0.30) 
Germ cell tumors, cysts and heterotopias 635 127 0.21 (0.19-0.23) 918 184 0.22 (0.21-0.24) 156 31 0.16 (0.13-0.18) 168 34 0.17 (0.14-0.20) 311 62 0.30 (0.27-0.34) 283 57 0.26 (0.23-0.30) 
Tumors of Sellar Region 1,415 283 0.47 (0.44-0.49) 3,472 694 0.83 (0.80-0.86) 169 34 0.17 (0.14-0.20) 483 97 0.48 (0.44-0.52) 763 153 0.74 (0.68-0.79) 2,057 411 1.91 (1.82-1.99) 
Tumors of the pituitary 743 149 0.24 (0.23-0.26) 2,655 531 0.63 (0.60-0.65) 30 0.03 (0.02-0.04) 175 35 0.17 (0.15-0.20) 538 108 0.52 (0.47-0.56) 1,912 382 1.77 (1.69-1.85) 
Craniopharyngioma 672 134 0.22 (0.21-0.24) 817 163 0.20 (0.19-0.21) 139 28 0.14 (0.12-0.16) 308 62 0.30 (0.27-0.34) 225 45 0.22 (0.19-0.25) 145 29 0.13 (0.11-0.16) 
Unclassified Tumors 912 182 0.30 (0.28-0.32) 1,419 284 0.34 (0.33-0.36) 318 64 0.32 (0.29-0.36) 219 44 0.22 (0.19-0.25) 375 75 0.36 (0.33-0.40) 507 101 0.47 (0.43-0.51) 
Hemangioma 308 62 0.10 (0.09-0.11) 534 107 0.13 (0.12-0.14) 115 23 0.12 (0.10-0.14) 66 13 0.07 (0.05-0.08) 127 25 0.12 (0.10-0.15) 226 45 0.21 (0.18-0.24) 
Neoplasm, unspecified 585 117 0.19 (0.18-0.21) 862 172 0.21 (0.19-0.22) 194 39 0.19 (0.17-0.22) 150 30 0.15 (0.13-0.17) 241 48 0.23 (0.20-0.26) 277 55 0.26 (0.23-0.29) 
All other 19 0.01 (0.00-0.01) 23 0.01 (0.00-0.01) -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 
TOTALg 16,653 3,331 5.47 (5.39-5.55) 23,522 4,704 5.70 (5.62-5.77) 5,968 1,194 5.98 (5.83-6.13) 5,189 1,038 5.12 (4.98-5.26) 5,496 1,099 5.34 (5.20-5.48) 6,869 1,374 6.38 (6.23-6.53) 

a Annual average cases are calculated by dividing the five-year total by five.

b Rates are per 100,000 and are age-adjusted to the 2000 US standard population.

c ICD-O-3 histology codes: 9470/3, 9471/3, 9472/3, 9474/3.

d ICD-O-3 histology code: 9473/3.

e ICD-O-3 histology code: 9508/3.

f ICD-O-3 histology codes: 8963/3, 9364/3, 9480/3, 9490/0, 9490/3, 9500/3, 9501/3, 9502/3.

gRefers to all brain and other CNS tumors including histologies not presented in this table.

- Counts and rates are not presented when fewer than 16 cases were reported in the five year period for the specific histology category. The suppressed cases are included in the counts and rates for totals.

Abbreviations: CBTRUS, Central Brain Tumor Registry of the United States; NPCR, National Program of Cancer Registries; SEER, Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results program; CI, confidence interval; NOS, not otherwise specified.

Table 5.

Annual Age-Adjusted Incidence Rates a for Brain and Other Central Nervous System Tumors Average by Age, Behavior, and Central Cancer Registry, CBTRUS Statistical Report: NPCR and SEER, 2009-2013

 0-19 Years 20+ Years All Ages 
State Malignant Non-Malignant All Tumors Malignant Non-Malignant All Tumors Malignant Non-Malignant All Tumors 
 Rate 95% CI Rate 95% CI Rate 95% CI Rate 95% CI Rate 95% CI Rate 95% CI Rate 95% CI Rate 95% CI Rate 95% CI 
Alabama 2.98 (2.57-3.44) 1.07 (0.83-1.35) 4.05 (3.56-4.57) 9.13 (8.70-9.58) 13.27 (12.75-13.82) 22.40 (21.72-23.11) 7.37 (7.03-7.71) 9.77 (9.39-10.17) 17.14 (16.63-17.66) 
Alaska 3.22 (2.23-4.51) 3.77 (2.69-5.14) 6.99 (5.49-8.79) 10.25 (8.86-11.80) 20.61 (18.63-22.74) 30.86 (28.42-33.46) 8.24 (7.19-9.38) 15.78 (14.33-17.33) 24.02 (22.22-25.92) 
Arizona 3.13 (2.77-3.51) 2.32 (2.01-2.65) 5.44 (4.97-5.95) 8.94 (8.56-9.33) 20.07 (19.50-20.65) 29.01 (28.33-29.71) 7.27 (6.98-7.57) 14.98 (14.56-15.40) 22.25 (21.74-22.77) 
Arkansas 3.26 (2.72-3.88) 2.84 (2.34-3.41) 6.10 (5.35-6.92) 8.57 (8.03-9.13) 16.54 (15.78-17.33) 25.11 (24.18-26.07) 7.04 (6.63-7.48) 12.61 (12.05-13.19) 19.66 (18.95-20.38) 
California 2.93 (2.79-3.09) 1.81 (1.70-1.93) 4.75 (4.56-4.94) 8.25 (8.10-8.41) 19.11 (18.87-19.35) 27.36 (27.07-27.64) 6.73 (6.61-6.85) 14.14 (13.97-14.32) 20.87 (20.66-21.08) 
Colorado 3.25 (2.84-3.71) 1.84 (1.53-2.19) 5.09 (4.57-5.66) 8.96 (8.52-9.42) 27.77 (26.98-28.57) 36.73 (35.83-37.65) 7.32 (6.99-7.67) 20.33 (19.76-20.91) 27.66 (26.99-28.33) 
Connecticut 3.65 (3.11-4.25) 1.99 (1.60-2.43) 5.63 (4.96-6.37) 9.23 (8.73-9.76) 18.07 (17.36-18.80) 27.30 (26.43-28.19) 7.63 (7.24-8.04) 13.46 (12.94-13.99) 21.09 (20.44-21.75) 
Delaware 4.46 (3.33-5.86) 3.56 (2.56-4.83) 8.03 (6.48-9.84) 8.58 (7.63-9.62) 16.57 (15.24-17.99) 25.15 (23.50-26.88) 7.40 (6.64-8.22) 12.84 (11.84-13.90) 20.24 (18.97-21.56) 
District of Columbia 4.35 (2.81-6.41) 3.67 (2.28-5.60) 8.02 (5.88-10.68) 7.93 (6.76-9.24) 20.98 (19.05-23.05) 28.91 (26.64-31.32) 6.90 (5.94-7.97) 16.01 (14.57-17.56) 22.92 (21.17-24.77) 
Florida 3.57 (3.33-3.83) 2.45 (2.25-2.66) 6.02 (5.70-6.35) 8.65 (8.44-8.86) 22.18 (21.85-22.52) 30.83 (30.44-31.22) 7.19 (7.03-7.36) 16.52 (16.28-16.77) 23.71 (23.42-24.01) 
Georgia 3.38 (3.08-3.70) 1.99 (1.76-2.24) 5.37 (4.99-5.77) 8.24 (7.93-8.56) 21.99 (21.48-22.51) 30.23 (29.63-30.83) 6.84 (6.61-7.09) 16.25 (15.88-16.63) 23.10 (22.66-23.54) 
Hawaii 2.75 (2.02-3.66) 1.42 (0.91-2.11) 4.17 (3.25-5.26) 5.71 (5.08-6.40) 18.28 (17.13-19.50) 24.00 (22.67-25.38) 4.86 (4.36-5.41) 13.45 (12.61-14.33) 18.31 (17.33-19.33) 
Idaho 2.82 (2.19-3.59) 1.64 (1.16-2.25) 4.46 (3.65-5.40) 8.94 (8.17-9.77) 18.10 (16.98-19.27) 27.04 (25.67-28.46) 7.19 (6.60-7.81) 13.38 (12.56-14.23) 20.56 (19.56-21.61) 
Illinois 3.02 (2.77-3.30) 2.42 (2.19-2.66) 5.44 (5.10-5.80) 8.92 (8.65-9.19) 21.42 (21.00-21.85) 30.34 (29.84-30.84) 7.23 (7.02-7.44) 15.97 (15.66-16.28) 23.20 (22.83-23.57) 
Indiana 3.96 (3.56-4.39) 2.29 (1.99-2.62) 6.25 (5.74-6.78) 9.00 (8.62-9.39) 19.18 (18.63-19.75) 28.18 (27.51-28.87) 7.55 (7.26-7.86) 14.34 (13.93-14.75) 21.89 (21.39-22.40) 
Iowa 3.72 (3.15-4.36) 3.00 (2.50-3.58) 6.72 (5.95-7.56) 9.92 (9.35-10.51) 22.25 (21.39-23.13) 32.17 (31.14-33.22) 8.14 (7.70-8.59) 16.73 (16.10-17.38) 24.87 (24.10-25.65) 
Kansas 3.25 (2.72-3.85) 1.83 (1.44-2.30) 5.08 (4.41-5.82) 9.36 (8.78-9.96) 17.63 (16.83-18.47) 26.99 (25.99-28.01) 7.60 (7.16-8.07) 13.10 (12.52-13.71) 20.70 (19.97-21.46) 
Kentucky 4.23 (3.71-4.80) 2.94 (2.51-3.42) 7.17 (6.49-7.90) 9.75 (9.27-10.24) 26.11 (25.33-26.91) 35.86 (34.94-36.79) 8.16 (7.79-8.55) 19.46 (18.89-20.05) 27.63 (26.94-28.32) 
Louisiana 3.69 (3.23-4.19) 2.04 (1.70-2.43) 5.73 (5.15-6.36) 7.74 (7.32-8.18) 19.75 (19.07-20.45) 27.49 (26.69-28.31) 6.58 (6.25-6.92) 14.67 (14.17-15.18) 21.25 (20.65-21.86) 
Maine 4.35 (3.36-5.53) 1.65 (1.08-2.41) 6.00 (4.84-7.35) 10.00 (9.17-10.88) 14.52 (13.50-15.60) 24.52 (23.20-25.89) 8.38 (7.72-9.08) 10.83 (10.08-11.62) 19.21 (18.20-20.25) 
Maryland 3.48 (3.07-3.93) 1.90 (1.60-2.24) 5.38 (4.87-5.93) 8.54 (8.15-8.95) 18.47 (17.90-19.06) 27.02 (26.32-27.73) 7.09 (6.79-7.40) 13.72 (13.30-14.15) 20.81 (20.29-21.34) 
Massachusetts 3.85 (3.43-4.31) 2.09 (1.79-2.43) 5.94 (5.42-6.50) 9.03 (8.66-9.41) 15.66 (15.18-16.16) 24.69 (24.08-25.31) 7.54 (7.26-7.84) 11.77 (11.41-12.13) 19.31 (18.85-19.78) 
Michigan 3.71 (3.38-4.05) 1.90 (1.68-2.15) 5.61 (5.21-6.03) 8.94 (8.64-9.24) 19.62 (19.17-20.08) 28.56 (28.02-29.11) 7.44 (7.20-7.68) 14.54 (14.21-14.87) 21.97 (21.57-22.38) 
Minnesota 3.52 (3.10-3.98) 1.60 (1.32-1.92) 5.12 (4.61-5.67) 8.98 (8.56-9.41) 12.71 (12.21-13.23) 21.69 (21.04-22.36) 7.41 (7.09-7.75) 9.52 (9.16-9.90) 16.94 (16.45-17.44) 
Mississippi 3.11 (2.60-3.69) 2.39 (1.95-2.91) 5.51 (4.82-6.26) 8.13 (7.60-8.69) 18.18 (17.37-19.01) 26.31 (25.35-27.31) 6.69 (6.29-7.12) 13.65 (13.06-14.26) 20.35 (19.63-21.08) 
Missouri 3.47 (3.08-3.91) 1.44 (1.19-1.73) 4.92 (4.44-5.43) 8.81 (8.43-9.20) 21.23 (20.63-21.85) 30.04 (29.33-30.76) 7.28 (6.98-7.58) 15.56 (15.12-16.00) 22.83 (22.31-23.37) 
Montana 3.16 (2.25-4.32) 1.78 (1.13-2.67) 4.94 (3.78-6.33) 9.44 (8.49-10.47) 21.06 (19.62-22.58) 30.50 (28.77-32.32) 7.64 (6.91-8.43) 15.53 (14.48-16.63) 23.17 (21.88-24.51) 
Nebraska 4.50 (3.72-5.40) 3.51 (2.82-4.32) 8.01 (6.95-9.18) 9.38 (8.65-10.14) 15.23 (14.31-16.20) 24.61 (23.43-25.83) 7.98 (7.41-8.57) 11.87 (11.18-12.59) 19.85 (18.95-20.78) 
Nevada b 2.37 (1.77-3.11) -- -- 2.91 (2.24-3.72) 7.49 (6.80-8.25) 14.47 (13.48-15.51) 21.97 (20.75-23.24) 6.03 (5.49-6.59) 10.48 (9.76-11.22) 16.50 (15.61-17.43) 
New Hampshire 4.81 (3.77-6.04) 2.59 (1.89-3.48) 7.40 (6.12-8.86) 10.06 (9.20-10.98) 17.33 (16.19-18.52) 27.39 (25.95-28.88) 8.55 (7.87-9.29) 13.10 (12.26-13.98) 21.65 (20.56-22.79) 
New Jersey 4.02 (3.66-4.41) 2.39 (2.12-2.69) 6.41 (5.96-6.90) 9.21 (8.89-9.54) 18.99 (18.53-19.47) 28.20 (27.64-28.78) 7.72 (7.47-7.98) 14.23 (13.89-14.58) 21.95 (21.53-22.39) 
New Mexico 2.54 (1.99-3.19) 1.85 (1.38-2.42) 4.39 (3.65-5.23) 7.46 (6.85-8.10) 17.21 (16.28-18.19) 24.67 (23.55-25.83) 6.05 (5.58-6.54) 12.81 (12.12-13.52) 18.85 (18.02-19.71) 
New York 3.57 (3.34-3.82) 2.98 (2.77-3.20) 6.55 (6.23-6.88) 8.80 (8.59-9.02) 23.86 (23.51-24.22) 32.66 (32.25-33.08) 7.30 (7.14-7.47) 17.87 (17.61-18.13) 25.17 (24.86-25.48) 
North Carolina 3.28 (2.98-3.61) 2.13 (1.88-2.40) 5.41 (5.02-5.83) 8.58 (8.28-8.89) 21.09 (20.61-21.58) 29.67 (29.11-30.25) 7.06 (6.83-7.30) 15.65 (15.30-16.01) 22.71 (22.29-23.14) 
North Dakota 2.37 (1.44-3.66) -- -- 3.68 (2.49-5.22) 8.24 (7.19-9.41) 14.46 (12.99-16.04) 22.70 (20.88-24.64) 6.56 (5.75-7.45) 10.69 (9.62-11.84) 17.24 (15.89-18.68) 
Ohio 3.50 (3.21-3.81) 2.30 (2.07-2.55) 5.80 (5.43-6.20) 9.14 (8.86-9.43) 16.03 (15.65-16.41) 25.17 (24.71-25.65) 7.53 (7.31-7.75) 12.09 (11.82-12.37) 19.62 (19.27-19.97) 
Oklahoma 2.71 (2.28-3.19) 2.01 (1.65-2.44) 4.72 (4.15-5.35) 8.85 (8.36-9.36) 15.93 (15.26-16.61) 24.78 (23.95-25.62) 7.09 (6.72-7.47) 11.94 (11.45-12.44) 19.02 (18.41-19.65) 
Oregon 3.72 (3.20-4.31) 2.05 (1.67-2.50) 5.77 (5.11-6.49) 9.75 (9.25-10.27) 15.96 (15.31-16.63) 25.71 (24.89-26.55) 8.02 (7.63-8.42) 11.97 (11.50-12.46) 19.99 (19.37-20.62) 
Pennsylvania 3.96 (3.65-4.28) 2.34 (2.11-2.58) 6.29 (5.91-6.70) 9.38 (9.12-9.65) 22.86 (22.44-23.28) 32.24 (31.75-32.74) 7.83 (7.62-8.04) 16.97 (16.67-17.28) 24.80 (24.43-25.17) 
Rhode Island 2.90 (2.03-4.01) 2.12 (1.40-3.08) 5.02 (3.86-6.42) 8.32 (7.46-9.26) 16.67 (15.44-17.98) 25.00 (23.48-26.58) 6.77 (6.09-7.49) 12.50 (11.59-13.46) 19.27 (18.13-20.46) 
South Carolina 2.94 (2.53-3.41) 1.67 (1.36-2.02) 4.61 (4.09-5.18) 8.54 (8.12-8.99) 19.78 (19.11-20.46) 28.32 (27.53-29.13) 6.94 (6.61-7.28) 14.58 (14.10-15.07) 21.52 (20.93-22.11) 
South Dakota 3.06 (2.13-4.26) 1.49 (0.87-2.39) 4.55 (3.40-5.97) 9.18 (8.13-10.32) 17.63 (16.15-19.21) 26.81 (24.98-28.73) 7.42 (6.62-8.29) 13.00 (11.93-14.15) 20.42 (19.08-21.84) 
Tennessee 3.73 (3.33-4.17) 2.61 (2.28-2.98) 6.35 (5.82-6.91) 8.95 (8.58-9.34) 23.60 (22.98-24.23) 32.55 (31.83-33.29) 7.46 (7.16-7.76) 17.58 (17.13-18.04) 25.04 (24.50-25.58) 
Texas 3.65 (3.47-3.85) 2.55 (2.39-2.71) 6.20 (5.95-6.46) 8.48 (8.29-8.69) 24.00 (23.67-24.34) 32.49 (32.10-32.88) 7.10 (6.95-7.25) 17.85 (17.60-18.09) 24.95 (24.66-25.24) 
Utah 3.66 (3.14-4.24) 2.60 (2.15-3.11) 6.25 (5.56-7.01) 9.20 (8.54-9.89) 26.78 (25.65-27.94) 35.98 (34.67-37.32) 7.61 (7.12-8.13) 19.84 (19.03-20.68) 27.45 (26.49-28.43) 
Vermont 2.27 (1.31-3.65) 3.33 (2.18-4.88) 5.60 (4.05-7.55) 10.28 (9.06-11.63) 24.31 (22.36-26.39) 34.59 (32.27-37.03) 7.98 (7.06-9.00) 18.29 (16.85-19.82) 26.27 (24.55-28.09) 
Virginia 3.38 (3.04-3.75) 1.65 (1.42-1.92) 5.03 (4.61-5.48) 8.34 (8.01-8.68) 17.27 (16.79-17.75) 25.61 (25.03-26.20) 6.92 (6.66-7.18) 12.79 (12.44-13.14) 19.71 (19.28-20.14) 
Washington 3.67 (3.29-4.10) 3.03 (2.68-3.42) 6.71 (6.18-7.27) 9.81 (9.42-10.21) 27.86 (27.20-28.53) 37.67 (36.90-38.45) 8.05 (7.75-8.36) 20.74 (20.26-21.23) 28.79 (28.22-29.37) 
West Virginia 3.56 (2.81-4.45) 2.32 (1.73-3.05) 5.88 (4.91-6.99) 8.64 (7.99-9.33) 16.20 (15.29-17.14) 24.84 (23.72-26.00) 7.18 (6.67-7.73) 12.22 (11.55-12.92) 19.40 (18.55-20.28) 
Wisconsin 3.83 (3.39-4.30) 2.44 (2.11-2.82) 6.27 (5.72-6.86) 9.99 (9.57-10.41) 22.09 (21.46-22.73) 32.07 (31.32-32.84) 8.22 (7.90-8.55) 16.45 (15.99-16.92) 24.67 (24.11-25.24) 
Wyoming 3.24 (2.09-4.79) -- -- 5.10 (3.62-6.98) 10.15 (8.81-11.65) 18.04 (16.23-20.00) 28.20 (25.92-30.62) 8.17 (7.14-9.30) 13.40 (12.08-14.83) 21.57 (19.89-23.36) 
TOTAL 3.45 (3.39-3.51) 2.22 (2.17-2.26) 5.67 (5.59-5.74) 8.80 (8.75-8.86) 20.38 (20.30-20.46) 29.18 (29.08-29.28) 7.27 (7.23-7.31) 15.17 (15.11-15.23) 22.44 (22.36-22.51) 
 0-19 Years 20+ Years All Ages 
State Malignant Non-Malignant All Tumors Malignant Non-Malignant All Tumors Malignant Non-Malignant All Tumors 
 Rate 95% CI Rate 95% CI Rate 95% CI Rate 95% CI Rate 95% CI Rate 95% CI Rate 95% CI Rate 95% CI Rate 95% CI 
Alabama 2.98 (2.57-3.44) 1.07 (0.83-1.35) 4.05 (3.56-4.57) 9.13 (8.70-9.58) 13.27 (12.75-13.82) 22.40 (21.72-23.11) 7.37 (7.03-7.71) 9.77 (9.39-10.17) 17.14 (16.63-17.66) 
Alaska 3.22 (2.23-4.51) 3.77 (2.69-5.14) 6.99 (5.49-8.79) 10.25 (8.86-11.80) 20.61 (18.63-22.74) 30.86 (28.42-33.46) 8.24 (7.19-9.38) 15.78 (14.33-17.33) 24.02 (22.22-25.92) 
Arizona 3.13 (2.77-3.51) 2.32 (2.01-2.65) 5.44 (4.97-5.95) 8.94 (8.56-9.33) 20.07 (19.50-20.65) 29.01 (28.33-29.71) 7.27 (6.98-7.57) 14.98 (14.56-15.40) 22.25 (21.74-22.77) 
Arkansas 3.26 (2.72-3.88) 2.84 (2.34-3.41) 6.10 (5.35-6.92) 8.57 (8.03-9.13) 16.54 (15.78-17.33) 25.11 (24.18-26.07) 7.04 (6.63-7.48) 12.61 (12.05-13.19) 19.66 (18.95-20.38) 
California 2.93 (2.79-3.09) 1.81 (1.70-1.93) 4.75 (4.56-4.94) 8.25 (8.10-8.41) 19.11 (18.87-19.35) 27.36 (27.07-27.64) 6.73 (6.61-6.85) 14.14 (13.97-14.32) 20.87 (20.66-21.08) 
Colorado 3.25 (2.84-3.71) 1.84 (1.53-2.19) 5.09 (4.57-5.66) 8.96 (8.52-9.42) 27.77 (26.98-28.57) 36.73 (35.83-37.65) 7.32 (6.99-7.67) 20.33 (19.76-20.91) 27.66 (26.99-28.33) 
Connecticut 3.65 (3.11-4.25) 1.99 (1.60-2.43) 5.63 (4.96-6.37) 9.23 (8.73-9.76) 18.07 (17.36-18.80) 27.30 (26.43-28.19) 7.63 (7.24-8.04) 13.46 (12.94-13.99) 21.09 (20.44-21.75) 
Delaware 4.46 (3.33-5.86) 3.56 (2.56-4.83) 8.03 (6.48-9.84) 8.58 (7.63-9.62) 16.57 (15.24-17.99) 25.15 (23.50-26.88) 7.40 (6.64-8.22) 12.84 (11.84-13.90) 20.24 (18.97-21.56) 
District of Columbia 4.35 (2.81-6.41) 3.67 (2.28-5.60) 8.02 (5.88-10.68) 7.93 (6.76-9.24) 20.98 (19.05-23.05) 28.91 (26.64-31.32) 6.90 (5.94-7.97) 16.01 (14.57-17.56) 22.92 (21.17-24.77) 
Florida 3.57 (3.33-3.83) 2.45 (2.25-2.66) 6.02 (5.70-6.35) 8.65 (8.44-8.86) 22.18 (21.85-22.52) 30.83 (30.44-31.22) 7.19 (7.03-7.36) 16.52 (16.28-16.77) 23.71 (23.42-24.01) 
Georgia 3.38 (3.08-3.70) 1.99 (1.76-2.24) 5.37 (4.99-5.77) 8.24 (7.93-8.56) 21.99 (21.48-22.51) 30.23 (29.63-30.83) 6.84 (6.61-7.09) 16.25 (15.88-16.63) 23.10 (22.66-23.54) 
Hawaii 2.75 (2.02-3.66) 1.42 (0.91-2.11) 4.17 (3.25-5.26) 5.71 (5.08-6.40) 18.28 (17.13-19.50) 24.00 (22.67-25.38) 4.86 (4.36-5.41) 13.45 (12.61-14.33) 18.31 (17.33-19.33) 
Idaho 2.82 (2.19-3.59) 1.64 (1.16-2.25) 4.46 (3.65-5.40) 8.94 (8.17-9.77) 18.10 (16.98-19.27) 27.04 (25.67-28.46) 7.19 (6.60-7.81) 13.38 (12.56-14.23) 20.56 (19.56-21.61) 
Illinois 3.02 (2.77-3.30) 2.42 (2.19-2.66) 5.44 (5.10-5.80) 8.92 (8.65-9.19) 21.42 (21.00-21.85) 30.34 (29.84-30.84) 7.23 (7.02-7.44) 15.97 (15.66-16.28) 23.20 (22.83-23.57) 
Indiana 3.96 (3.56-4.39) 2.29 (1.99-2.62) 6.25 (5.74-6.78) 9.00 (8.62-9.39) 19.18 (18.63-19.75) 28.18 (27.51-28.87) 7.55 (7.26-7.86) 14.34 (13.93-14.75) 21.89 (21.39-22.40) 
Iowa 3.72 (3.15-4.36) 3.00 (2.50-3.58) 6.72 (5.95-7.56) 9.92 (9.35-10.51) 22.25 (21.39-23.13) 32.17 (31.14-33.22) 8.14 (7.70-8.59) 16.73 (16.10-17.38) 24.87 (24.10-25.65) 
Kansas 3.25 (2.72-3.85) 1.83 (1.44-2.30) 5.08 (4.41-5.82) 9.36 (8.78-9.96) 17.63 (16.83-18.47) 26.99 (25.99-28.01) 7.60 (7.16-8.07) 13.10 (12.52-13.71) 20.70 (19.97-21.46) 
Kentucky 4.23 (3.71-4.80) 2.94 (2.51-3.42) 7.17 (6.49-7.90) 9.75 (9.27-10.24) 26.11 (25.33-26.91) 35.86 (34.94-36.79) 8.16 (7.79-8.55) 19.46 (18.89-20.05) 27.63 (26.94-28.32) 
Louisiana 3.69 (3.23-4.19) 2.04 (1.70-2.43) 5.73 (5.15-6.36) 7.74 (7.32-8.18) 19.75 (19.07-20.45) 27.49 (26.69-28.31) 6.58 (6.25-6.92) 14.67 (14.17-15.18) 21.25 (20.65-21.86) 
Maine 4.35 (3.36-5.53) 1.65 (1.08-2.41) 6.00 (4.84-7.35) 10.00 (9.17-10.88) 14.52 (13.50-15.60) 24.52 (23.20-25.89) 8.38 (7.72-9.08) 10.83 (10.08-11.62) 19.21 (18.20-20.25) 
Maryland 3.48 (3.07-3.93) 1.90 (1.60-2.24) 5.38 (4.87-5.93) 8.54 (8.15-8.95) 18.47 (17.90-19.06) 27.02 (26.32-27.73) 7.09 (6.79-7.40) 13.72 (13.30-14.15) 20.81 (20.29-21.34) 
Massachusetts 3.85 (3.43-4.31) 2.09 (1.79-2.43) 5.94 (5.42-6.50) 9.03 (8.66-9.41) 15.66 (15.18-16.16) 24.69 (24.08-25.31) 7.54 (7.26-7.84) 11.77 (11.41-12.13) 19.31 (18.85-19.78) 
Michigan 3.71 (3.38-4.05) 1.90 (1.68-2.15) 5.61 (5.21-6.03) 8.94 (8.64-9.24) 19.62 (19.17-20.08) 28.56 (28.02-29.11) 7.44 (7.20-7.68) 14.54 (14.21-14.87) 21.97 (21.57-22.38) 
Minnesota 3.52 (3.10-3.98) 1.60 (1.32-1.92) 5.12 (4.61-5.67) 8.98 (8.56-9.41) 12.71 (12.21-13.23) 21.69 (21.04-22.36) 7.41 (7.09-7.75) 9.52 (9.16-9.90) 16.94 (16.45-17.44) 
Mississippi 3.11 (2.60-3.69) 2.39 (1.95-2.91) 5.51 (4.82-6.26) 8.13 (7.60-8.69) 18.18 (17.37-19.01) 26.31 (25.35-27.31) 6.69 (6.29-7.12) 13.65 (13.06-14.26) 20.35 (19.63-21.08) 
Missouri 3.47 (3.08-3.91) 1.44 (1.19-1.73) 4.92 (4.44-5.43) 8.81 (8.43-9.20) 21.23 (20.63-21.85) 30.04 (29.33-30.76) 7.28 (6.98-7.58) 15.56 (15.12-16.00) 22.83 (22.31-23.37) 
Montana 3.16 (2.25-4.32) 1.78 (1.13-2.67) 4.94 (3.78-6.33) 9.44 (8.49-10.47) 21.06 (19.62-22.58) 30.50 (28.77-32.32) 7.64 (6.91-8.43) 15.53 (14.48-16.63) 23.17 (21.88-24.51) 
Nebraska 4.50 (3.72-5.40) 3.51 (2.82-4.32) 8.01 (6.95-9.18) 9.38 (8.65-10.14) 15.23 (14.31-16.20) 24.61 (23.43-25.83) 7.98 (7.41-8.57) 11.87 (11.18-12.59) 19.85 (18.95-20.78) 
Nevada b 2.37 (1.77-3.11) -- -- 2.91 (2.24-3.72) 7.49 (6.80-8.25) 14.47 (13.48-15.51) 21.97 (20.75-23.24) 6.03 (5.49-6.59) 10.48 (9.76-11.22) 16.50 (15.61-17.43) 
New Hampshire 4.81 (3.77-6.04) 2.59 (1.89-3.48) 7.40 (6.12-8.86) 10.06 (9.20-10.98) 17.33 (16.19-18.52) 27.39 (25.95-28.88) 8.55 (7.87-9.29) 13.10 (12.26-13.98) 21.65 (20.56-22.79) 
New Jersey 4.02 (3.66-4.41) 2.39 (2.12-2.69) 6.41 (5.96-6.90) 9.21 (8.89-9.54) 18.99 (18.53-19.47) 28.20 (27.64-28.78) 7.72 (7.47-7.98) 14.23 (13.89-14.58) 21.95 (21.53-22.39) 
New Mexico 2.54 (1.99-3.19) 1.85 (1.38-2.42) 4.39 (3.65-5.23) 7.46 (6.85-8.10) 17.21 (16.28-18.19) 24.67 (23.55-25.83) 6.05 (5.58-6.54) 12.81 (12.12-13.52) 18.85 (18.02-19.71) 
New York 3.57 (3.34-3.82) 2.98 (2.77-3.20) 6.55 (6.23-6.88) 8.80 (8.59-9.02) 23.86 (23.51-24.22) 32.66 (32.25-33.08) 7.30 (7.14-7.47) 17.87 (17.61-18.13) 25.17 (24.86-25.48) 
North Carolina 3.28 (2.98-3.61) 2.13 (1.88-2.40) 5.41 (5.02-5.83) 8.58 (8.28-8.89) 21.09 (20.61-21.58) 29.67 (29.11-30.25) 7.06 (6.83-7.30) 15.65 (15.30-16.01) 22.71 (22.29-23.14) 
North Dakota 2.37 (1.44-3.66) -- -- 3.68 (2.49-5.22) 8.24 (7.19-9.41) 14.46 (12.99-16.04) 22.70 (20.88-24.64) 6.56 (5.75-7.45) 10.69 (9.62-11.84) 17.24 (15.89-18.68) 
Ohio 3.50 (3.21-3.81) 2.30 (2.07-2.55) 5.80 (5.43-6.20) 9.14 (8.86-9.43) 16.03 (15.65-16.41) 25.17 (24.71-25.65) 7.53 (7.31-7.75) 12.09 (11.82-12.37) 19.62 (19.27-19.97) 
Oklahoma 2.71 (2.28-3.19) 2.01 (1.65-2.44) 4.72 (4.15-5.35) 8.85 (8.36-9.36) 15.93 (15.26-16.61) 24.78 (23.95-25.62) 7.09 (6.72-7.47) 11.94 (11.45-12.44) 19.02 (18.41-19.65) 
Oregon 3.72 (3.20-4.31) 2.05 (1.67-2.50) 5.77 (5.11-6.49) 9.75 (9.25-10.27) 15.96 (15.31-16.63) 25.71 (24.89-26.55) 8.02 (7.63-8.42) 11.97 (11.50-12.46) 19.99 (19.37-20.62) 
Pennsylvania 3.96 (3.65-4.28) 2.34 (2.11-2.58) 6.29 (5.91-6.70) 9.38 (9.12-9.65) 22.86 (22.44-23.28) 32.24 (31.75-32.74) 7.83 (7.62-8.04) 16.97 (16.67-17.28) 24.80 (24.43-25.17) 
Rhode Island 2.90 (2.03-4.01) 2.12 (1.40-3.08) 5.02 (3.86-6.42) 8.32 (7.46-9.26) 16.67 (15.44-17.98) 25.00 (23.48-26.58) 6.77 (6.09-7.49) 12.50 (11.59-13.46) 19.27 (18.13-20.46) 
South Carolina 2.94 (2.53-3.41) 1.67 (1.36-2.02) 4.61 (4.09-5.18) 8.54 (8.12-8.99) 19.78 (19.11-20.46) 28.32 (27.53-29.13) 6.94 (6.61-7.28) 14.58 (14.10-15.07) 21.52 (20.93-22.11) 
South Dakota 3.06 (2.13-4.26) 1.49 (0.87-2.39) 4.55 (3.40-5.97) 9.18 (8.13-10.32) 17.63 (16.15-19.21) 26.81 (24.98-28.73) 7.42 (6.62-8.29) 13.00 (11.93-14.15) 20.42 (19.08-21.84) 
Tennessee 3.73 (3.33-4.17) 2.61 (2.28-2.98) 6.35 (5.82-6.91) 8.95 (8.58-9.34) 23.60 (22.98-24.23) 32.55 (31.83-33.29) 7.46 (7.16-7.76) 17.58 (17.13-18.04) 25.04 (24.50-25.58) 
Texas 3.65 (3.47-3.85) 2.55 (2.39-2.71) 6.20 (5.95-6.46) 8.48 (8.29-8.69) 24.00 (23.67-24.34) 32.49 (32.10-32.88) 7.10 (6.95-7.25) 17.85 (17.60-18.09) 24.95 (24.66-25.24) 
Utah 3.66 (3.14-4.24) 2.60 (2.15-3.11) 6.25 (5.56-7.01) 9.20 (8.54-9.89) 26.78 (25.65-27.94) 35.98 (34.67-37.32) 7.61 (7.12-8.13) 19.84 (19.03-20.68) 27.45 (26.49-28.43) 
Vermont 2.27 (1.31-3.65) 3.33 (2.18-4.88) 5.60 (4.05-7.55) 10.28 (9.06-11.63) 24.31 (22.36-26.39) 34.59 (32.27-37.03) 7.98 (7.06-9.00) 18.29 (16.85-19.82) 26.27 (24.55-28.09) 
Virginia 3.38 (3.04-3.75) 1.65 (1.42-1.92) 5.03 (4.61-5.48) 8.34 (8.01-8.68) 17.27 (16.79-17.75) 25.61 (25.03-26.20) 6.92 (6.66-7.18) 12.79 (12.44-13.14) 19.71 (19.28-20.14) 
Washington 3.67 (3.29-4.10) 3.03 (2.68-3.42) 6.71 (6.18-7.27) 9.81 (9.42-10.21) 27.86 (27.20-28.53) 37.67 (36.90-38.45) 8.05 (7.75-8.36) 20.74 (20.26-21.23) 28.79 (28.22-29.37) 
West Virginia 3.56 (2.81-4.45) 2.32 (1.73-3.05) 5.88 (4.91-6.99) 8.64 (7.99-9.33) 16.20 (15.29-17.14) 24.84 (23.72-26.00) 7.18 (6.67-7.73) 12.22 (11.55-12.92) 19.40 (18.55-20.28) 
Wisconsin 3.83 (3.39-4.30) 2.44 (2.11-2.82) 6.27 (5.72-6.86) 9.99 (9.57-10.41) 22.09 (21.46-22.73) 32.07 (31.32-32.84) 8.22 (7.90-8.55) 16.45 (15.99-16.92) 24.67 (24.11-25.24) 
Wyoming 3.24 (2.09-4.79) -- -- 5.10 (3.62-6.98) 10.15 (8.81-11.65) 18.04 (16.23-20.00) 28.20 (25.92-30.62) 8.17 (7.14-9.30) 13.40 (12.08-14.83) 21.57 (19.89-23.36) 
TOTAL 3.45 (3.39-3.51) 2.22 (2.17-2.26) 5.67 (5.59-5.74) 8.80 (8.75-8.86) 20.38 (20.30-20.46) 29.18 (29.08-29.28) 7.27 (7.23-7.31) 15.17 (15.11-15.23) 22.44 (22.36-22.51) 

a Rates are per 100,000 and are age-adjusted to the 2000 United States standard population.

b For Nevada only, rates are calculated using data from 2009-2010.

- Rates are not presented when fewer than 16 cases were reported in the five year period for the specific category. The suppressed cases are included in the counts and rates for totals.

Abbreviations: CBTRUS, Central Brain Tumor Registry of the United States; NPCR, National Program of Cancer Registries; SEER, Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results program; CI, confidence interval.

Fig. 5.

Average Annual Age-Adjusted Incidence Rates a of Primary Brain and Other CNS Tumors by Age and Behavior, CBTRUS Statistical Report: NPCR and SEER, 2009-2013.

Fig. 5.

Average Annual Age-Adjusted Incidence Rates a of Primary Brain and Other CNS Tumors by Age and Behavior, CBTRUS Statistical Report: NPCR and SEER, 2009-2013.

Incidence Rates by Year and Behavior

Fig. 6 presents the overall annual age-adjusted incidence rates of all primary brain and other CNS tumors by year, 2009–2013, and behavior. The incidence rates for all primary brain and other CNS tumors, 2009–2013, did not differ significantly by year, both overall and by behavior.

Fig. 6.

Annual Age-Adjusted Incidence Rates a of Primary Brain and Other CNS Tumors by Year and Behavior, CBTRUS Statistical Report: NPCR and SEER, 2009-2013.

Fig. 6.

Annual Age-Adjusted Incidence Rates a of Primary Brain and Other CNS Tumors by Year and Behavior, CBTRUS Statistical Report: NPCR and SEER, 2009-2013.

Distribution and Incidence Rates by CCR, Age, WHO Grade, Diagnostic Confirmation, and Behavior

The overall number of reported tumors is listed by CCR in Table 6a and 6b . The average annual combined 2009–2013 population of 311,689,966 covered by the central cancer registries with data available for this report represents approximately 99.9% of the US population for those years. While most malignant tumors are diagnosed by histologic confirmation (where the patient receives surgery and diagnosis is confirmed by a pathologist), brain and other CNS tumors may also be diagnosed by radiographic confirmation only (where the tumor was visualized on MRI, CT, X-ray, or other imaging technology but surgery was not performed).

Table 6a.

Characteristics of All Brain and Other Central Nervous System Tumors by Central Cancer Registry, CBTRUS Statistical Report: NPCR and SEER, 2009-2013

State 5-Year Total Annual Averagea % Non- Malignant Tumors Histologically Confirmed (% ) b Radiographically Confirmed (% ) b Average Annual
2009-2013 Populationc 
Alabama 4,428 886 57.7% 3,127 (70.6%) 1,103 (24.9%) 4,799,387 
Alaska 781 156.2 67.6% 421 (53.9%) 338 (43.3%) 720,733 
Arizona 7,461 1,492 67.3% 4,369 (58.6%) 2,647 (35.5%) 6,483,851 
Arkansas 3,051 610 62.4% 1,874 (61.4%) 1,037 (34.0%) 2,933,127 
California 39,196 7,839 67.7% 24,957 (63.7%) 12,728 (32.5%) 37,698,663 
Colorado 6,997 1,399 73.9% 3,532 (50.5%) 3,250 (46.4%) 5,120,845 
Connecticut 4,254 851 65.0% 2,850 (67.0%) 1,324 (31.1%) 3,585,078 
Delaware 985 197 64.7% 660 (67.0%) 292 (29.6%) 908,282 
District of Columbia 714 142.8 72.1% 436 (61.1%) 246 (34.5%) 19,113,666 
Florida 26,687 5,337 70.2% 15,162 (56.8%) 10,720 (40.2%) 9,812,454 
Georgia 11,303 2,261 71.2% 6,194 (54.8%) 4,657 (41.2%) 1,378,134 
Hawaii 1,349 270 73.1% 763 (56.6%) 482 (35.7%) 1,583,458 
Idaho 1,602 320 64.3% 1,047 (65.4%) 505 (31.5%) 12,851,983 
Illinois 15,406 3,081 69.3% 9,020 (58.5%) 6,080 (39.5%) 6,514,908 
Indiana 7,463 1,493 66.1% 4,177 (56.0%) 3,071 (41.1%) 3,063,269 
Iowa 4,229 846 68.8% 2,400 (56.8%) 1,738 (41.1%) 2,868,677 
Kansas 3,202 640 64.5% 1,892 (59.1%) 1,210 (37.8%) 4,364,000 
Kentucky 6,523 1,305 70.3% 3,256 (49.9%) 2,983 (45.7%) 4,569,446 
Louisiana 5,161 1,032 69.9% 3,213 (62.3%) 1,774 (34.4%) 1,328,435 
Maine 1,480 296 56.2% 981 (66.3%) 458 (30.9%) 5,838,576 
Maryland 6,338 1,268 66.4% 4,221 (66.6%) 1,814 (28.6%) 6,611,732 
Massachusetts 7,128 1,426 62.1% 5,112 (71.7%) 1,829 (25.7%) 9,887,360 
Michigan 11,640 2,328 66.9% 7,196 (61.8%) 4,091 (35.1%) 5,348,466 
Minnesota 4,993 999 58.0% 4,275 (85.6%) 519 (10.4%) 2,977,278 
Mississippi 3,139 628 66.9% 1,958 (62.4%) 1,071 (34.1%) 6,007,583 
Missouri 7,313 1,463 67.9% 4,094 (56.0%) 2,908 (39.8%) 998,449 
Montana 1,242 248 64.7% 703 (56.6%) 498 (40.1%) 1,841,847 
Nebraska 1,915 383 60.4% 1,187 (62.0%) 664 (34.7%) 2,730,697 
Nevada d 887 444 63.6% 618 (69.7%) 222 (25.0%) 1,318,928 
New Hampshire 1,565 313 60.6% 1,127 (72.0%) 397 (25.4%) 8,837,860 
New Jersey 10,739 2,148 66.1% 6,760 (62.9%) 3,451 (32.1%) 2,070,330 
New Mexico 2,099 420 69.9% 1,358 (64.7%) 640 (30.5%) 19,506,500 
New York 26,460 5,292 71.6% 14,947 (56.5%) 10,844 (41.0%) 9,651,531 
North Carolina 11,709 2,342 69.0% 7,202 (61.5%) 4,080 (34.8%) 690,023 
North Dakota 672 134.4 61.3% 397 (59.1%) 247 (36.8%) 11,547,326 
Ohio 12,546 2,509 62.3% 8,152 (65.0%) 3,741 (29.8%) 3,786,751 
Oklahoma 4,079 816 65.0% 2,145 (52.6%) 1,776 (43.5%) 3,868,016 
Oregon 4,243 849 59.8% 3,004 (70.8%) 1,103 (26.0%) 12,734,654 
Pennsylvania 17,965 3,593 68.6% 10,143 (56.5%) 7,089 (39.5%) 1,052,947 
Rhode Island 1,113 223 66.7% 782 (70.3%) 310 (27.9%) 4,678,753 
South Carolina 5,517 1,103 68.4% 3,086 (55.9%) 2,069 (37.5%) 825,489 
South Dakota 921 184.2 64.2% 534 (58.0%) 351 (38.1%) 6,402,696 
Tennessee 8,586 1,717 70.9% 4,719 (55.0%) 3,655 (42.6%) 25,661,003 
Texas 29,828 5,966 70.7% 15,763 (52.8%) 12,184 (40.8%) 2,814,214 
Utah 3,382 676 72.4% 2,093 (61.9%) 1,255 (37.1%) 626,010 
Vermont 906 181.2 68.2% 524 (57.8%) 370 (40.8%) 8,105,054 
Virginia 8,225 1,645 65.2% 5,433 (66.1%) 2,473 (30.1%) 6,820,303 
Washington 10,344 2,069 72.2% 5,453 (52.7%) 4,601 (44.5%) 620,403 
West Virginia 2,064 413 63.0% 1,265 (61.3%) 737 (35.7%) 1,853,368 
Wisconsin 7,659 1,532 67.1% 4,386 (57.3%) 3,041 (39.7%) 5,707,032 
Wyoming 628 125.6 61.5% 425 (67.7%) 198 (31.5%) 570,391 
TOTAL 368,117 73,890 68.0% 219,393 (59.6%) 134,871 (36.6%) 311,689,966 
State 5-Year Total Annual Averagea % Non- Malignant Tumors Histologically Confirmed (% ) b Radiographically Confirmed (% ) b Average Annual
2009-2013 Populationc 
Alabama 4,428 886 57.7% 3,127 (70.6%) 1,103 (24.9%) 4,799,387 
Alaska 781 156.2 67.6% 421 (53.9%) 338 (43.3%) 720,733 
Arizona 7,461 1,492 67.3% 4,369 (58.6%) 2,647 (35.5%) 6,483,851 
Arkansas 3,051 610 62.4% 1,874 (61.4%) 1,037 (34.0%) 2,933,127 
California 39,196 7,839 67.7% 24,957 (63.7%) 12,728 (32.5%) 37,698,663 
Colorado 6,997 1,399 73.9% 3,532 (50.5%) 3,250 (46.4%) 5,120,845 
Connecticut 4,254 851 65.0% 2,850 (67.0%) 1,324 (31.1%) 3,585,078 
Delaware 985 197 64.7% 660 (67.0%) 292 (29.6%) 908,282 
District of Columbia 714 142.8 72.1% 436 (61.1%) 246 (34.5%) 19,113,666 
Florida 26,687 5,337 70.2% 15,162 (56.8%) 10,720 (40.2%) 9,812,454 
Georgia 11,303 2,261 71.2% 6,194 (54.8%) 4,657 (41.2%) 1,378,134 
Hawaii 1,349 270 73.1% 763 (56.6%) 482 (35.7%) 1,583,458 
Idaho 1,602 320 64.3% 1,047 (65.4%) 505 (31.5%) 12,851,983 
Illinois 15,406 3,081 69.3% 9,020 (58.5%) 6,080 (39.5%) 6,514,908 
Indiana 7,463 1,493 66.1% 4,177 (56.0%) 3,071 (41.1%) 3,063,269 
Iowa 4,229 846 68.8% 2,400 (56.8%) 1,738 (41.1%) 2,868,677 
Kansas 3,202 640 64.5% 1,892 (59.1%) 1,210 (37.8%) 4,364,000 
Kentucky 6,523 1,305 70.3% 3,256 (49.9%) 2,983 (45.7%) 4,569,446 
Louisiana 5,161 1,032 69.9% 3,213 (62.3%) 1,774 (34.4%) 1,328,435 
Maine 1,480 296 56.2% 981 (66.3%) 458 (30.9%) 5,838,576 
Maryland 6,338 1,268 66.4% 4,221 (66.6%) 1,814 (28.6%) 6,611,732 
Massachusetts 7,128 1,426 62.1% 5,112 (71.7%) 1,829 (25.7%) 9,887,360 
Michigan 11,640 2,328 66.9% 7,196 (61.8%) 4,091 (35.1%) 5,348,466 
Minnesota 4,993 999 58.0% 4,275 (85.6%) 519 (10.4%) 2,977,278 
Mississippi 3,139 628 66.9% 1,958 (62.4%) 1,071 (34.1%) 6,007,583 
Missouri 7,313 1,463 67.9% 4,094 (56.0%) 2,908 (39.8%) 998,449 
Montana 1,242 248 64.7% 703 (56.6%) 498 (40.1%) 1,841,847 
Nebraska 1,915 383 60.4% 1,187 (62.0%) 664 (34.7%) 2,730,697 
Nevada d 887 444 63.6% 618 (69.7%) 222 (25.0%) 1,318,928 
New Hampshire 1,565 313 60.6% 1,127 (72.0%) 397 (25.4%) 8,837,860 
New Jersey 10,739 2,148 66.1% 6,760 (62.9%) 3,451 (32.1%) 2,070,330 
New Mexico 2,099 420 69.9% 1,358 (64.7%) 640 (30.5%) 19,506,500 
New York 26,460 5,292 71.6% 14,947 (56.5%) 10,844 (41.0%) 9,651,531 
North Carolina 11,709 2,342 69.0% 7,202 (61.5%) 4,080 (34.8%) 690,023 
North Dakota 672 134.4 61.3% 397 (59.1%) 247 (36.8%) 11,547,326 
Ohio 12,546 2,509 62.3% 8,152 (65.0%) 3,741 (29.8%) 3,786,751 
Oklahoma 4,079 816 65.0% 2,145 (52.6%) 1,776 (43.5%) 3,868,016 
Oregon 4,243 849 59.8% 3,004 (70.8%) 1,103 (26.0%) 12,734,654 
Pennsylvania 17,965 3,593 68.6% 10,143 (56.5%) 7,089 (39.5%) 1,052,947 
Rhode Island 1,113 223 66.7% 782 (70.3%) 310 (27.9%) 4,678,753 
South Carolina 5,517 1,103 68.4% 3,086 (55.9%) 2,069 (37.5%) 825,489 
South Dakota 921 184.2 64.2% 534 (58.0%) 351 (38.1%) 6,402,696 
Tennessee 8,586 1,717 70.9% 4,719 (55.0%) 3,655 (42.6%) 25,661,003 
Texas 29,828 5,966 70.7% 15,763 (52.8%) 12,184 (40.8%) 2,814,214 
Utah 3,382 676 72.4% 2,093 (61.9%) 1,255 (37.1%) 626,010 
Vermont 906 181.2 68.2% 524 (57.8%) 370 (40.8%) 8,105,054 
Virginia 8,225 1,645 65.2% 5,433 (66.1%) 2,473 (30.1%) 6,820,303 
Washington 10,344 2,069 72.2% 5,453 (52.7%) 4,601 (44.5%) 620,403 
West Virginia 2,064 413 63.0% 1,265 (61.3%) 737 (35.7%) 1,853,368 
Wisconsin 7,659 1,532 67.1% 4,386 (57.3%) 3,041 (39.7%) 5,707,032 
Wyoming 628 125.6 61.5% 425 (67.7%) 198 (31.5%) 570,391 
TOTAL 368,117 73,890 68.0% 219,393 (59.6%) 134,871 (36.6%) 311,689,966 

a Annual average cases are calculated by dividing the five-year total by five.

b Percentages may not add to zero due to a small proportion of cases that are diagnosed by alternate confirmation types, such as clinical (based on symptoms or other clinical factors) or unknown diagnostic confirmation type.

c Population estimates were obtained from the United States Bureau of the Census available on the SEER program website.

d Cases and estimated population is for 2008-2010 only.

Abbreviations: CBTRUS, Central Brain Tumor Registry of the United States; CNS, central nervous system; NPCR, National Program of Cancer Registries; SEER, Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results program.

Table 6b.

Characteristics of All Brain and Other Central Nervous System Tumors by Central Cancer Registry and Behavior, CBTRUS Statistical Report: NPCR and SEER, 2009-2013

State Malignant Non-Malignant 
5-Year Total Annual Averagea Histologically Confirmed (% ) b Radio-graphically Confirmed (% ) b 5-Year Total Annual Averagea Histologically Confirmed (% ) b Radiographically Confirmed (% ) b 
Alabama 1,875 375 1,600 (85.3%) 120 (6.4%) 2,553 511 1,527 (59.8%) 983 (38.5%) 
Alaska 253 50.6 213 (84.2%) 30 (11.9%) 528 106 208 (39.4%) 308 (58.3%) 
Arizona 2,442 488 1,988 (81.4%) 217 (8.9%) 5,019 1,004 2,381 (47.4%) 2,430 (48.4%) 
Arkansas 1,146 229 911 (79.5%) 141 (12.3%) 1,905 381 963 (50.6%) 896 (47.0%) 
California 12,669 2,534 10,975 (86.6%) 1,133 (8.9%) 26,527 5,305 13,982 (52.7%) 11,595 (43.7%) 
Colorado 1,827 365 1,507 (82.5%) 212 (11.6%) 5,170 1,034 2,025 (39.2%) 3,038 (58.8%) 
Connecticut 1,488 298 1,279 (86.0%) 172 (11.6%) 2,766 553 1,571 (56.8%) 1,152 (41.6%) 
Delaware 348 70 287 (82.5%) 42 (12.1%) 637 127 373 (58.6%) 250 (39.2%) 
District of Columbia 199 40 171 (85.9%) -- -- 515 103 265 (51.5%) 236 (45.8%) 
Florida 7,941 1,588 6,848 (86.2%) 785 (9.9%) 18,746 3,749 8,314 (44.4%) 9,935 (53.0%) 
Georgia 3,259 652 2,762 (84.7%) 381 (11.7%) 8,044 1,609 3,432 (42.7%) 4,276 (53.2%) 
Hawaii 363 73 309 (85.1%) 35 (9.6%) 986 197 454 (46.0%) 447 (45.3%) 
Idaho 572 114 482 (84.3%) 65 (11.4%) 1,030 206 565 (54.9%) 440 (42.7%) 
Illinois 4,730 946 4,171 (88.2%) 412 (8.7%) 10,676 2,135 4,849 (45.4%) 5,668 (53.1%) 
Indiana 2,533 507 2,178 (86.0%) 276 (10.9%) 4,930 986 1,999 (40.5%) 2,795 (56.7%) 
Iowa 1,320 264 1,113 (84.3%) 176 (13.3%) 2,909 582 1,287 (44.2%) 1,562 (53.7%) 
Kansas 1,138 228 966 (84.9%) 123 (10.8%) 2,064 413 926 (44.9%) 1,087 (52.7%) 
Kentucky 1,939 388 1,549 (79.9%) 270 (13.9%) 4,584 917 1,707 (37.2%) 2,713 (59.2%) 
Louisiana 1,553 311 1,325 (85.3%) 171 (11.0%) 3,608 722 1,888 (52.3%) 1,603 (44.4%) 
Maine 648 130 560 (86.4%) 64 (9.9%) 832 166 421 (50.6%) 394 (47.4%) 
Maryland 2,130 426 1,857 (87.2%) 139 (6.5%) 4,208 842 2,364 (56.2%) 1,675 (39.8%) 
Massachusetts 2,700 540 2,401 (88.9%) 194 (7.2%) 4,428 886 2,711 (61.2%) 1,635 (36.9%) 
Michigan 3,850 770 3,325 (86.4%) 343 (8.9%) 7,790 1,558 3,871 (49.7%) 3,748 (48.1%) 
Minnesota 2,095 419 1,956 (93.4%) 60 (2.9%) 2,898 580 2,319 (80.0%) 459 (15.8%) 
Mississippi 1,039 208 888 (85.5%) 115 (11.1%) 2,100 420 1,070 (51.0%) 956 (45.5%) 
Missouri 2,351 470 2,027 (86.2%) 198 (8.4%) 4,962 992 2,067 (41.7%) 2,710 (54.6%) 
Montana 439 88 389 (88.6%) 36 (8.2%) 803 161 314 (39.1%) 462 (57.5%) 
Nebraska 759 152 638 (84.1%) 79 (10.4%) 1,156 231 549 (47.5%) 585 (50.6%) 
Nevada c 323 65 281 (87.0%) -- -- 564 113 337 (59.8%) 208 (36.9%) 
New Hampshire 617 123 547 (88.7%) 45 (7.3%) 948 190 580 (61.2%) 352 (37.1%) 
New Jersey 3,646 729 3,163 (86.8%) 367 (10.1%) 7,093 1,419 3,597 (50.7%) 3,084 (43.5%) 
New Mexico 632 126 552 (87.3%) 54 (8.5%) 1,467 293 806 (54.9%) 586 (39.9%) 
New York 7,504 1,501 6,456 (86.0%) 885 (11.8%) 18,956 3,791 8,491 (44.8%) 9,959 (52.5%) 
North Carolina 3,627 725 3,114 (85.9%) 382 (10.5%) 8,082 1,616 4,088 (50.6%) 3,698 (45.8%) 
North Dakota 260 52 217 (83.5%) 29 (11.2%) 412 82 180 (43.7%) 218 (52.9%) 
Ohio 4,728 946 3,810 (80.6%) 412 (8.7%) 7,818 1,564 4,342 (55.5%) 3,329 (42.6%) 
Oklahoma 1,428 286 1,139 (79.8%) 169 (11.8%) 2,651 530 1,006 (37.9%) 1,607 (60.6%) 
Oregon 1,706 341 1,466 (85.9%) 136 (8.0%) 2,537 507 1,538 (60.6%) 967 (38.1%) 
Pennsylvania 5,638 1,128 4,736 (84.0%) 570 (10.1%) 12,327 2,465 5,407 (43.9%) 6,519 (52.9%) 
Rhode Island 371 74 338 (91.1%) 17 (4.6%) 742 148 444 (59.8%) 293 (39.5%) 
South Carolina 1,746 349 1,480 (84.8%) 145 (8.3%) 3,771 754 1,606 (42.6%) 1,924 (51.0%) 
South Dakota 330 66 279 (84.5%) 34 (10.3%) 591 118 255 (43.1%) 317 (53.6%) 
Tennessee 2,498 500 2,150 (86.1%) 245 (9.8%) 6,088 1,218 2,569 (42.2%) 3,410 (56.0%) 
Texas 8,753 1,751 7,119 (81.3%) 1,124 (12.8%) 21,075 4,215 8,644 (41.0%) 11,060 (52.5%) 
Utah 935 187 804 (86.0%) 115 (12.3%) 2,447 489 1,289 (52.7%) 1,140 (46.6%) 
Vermont 288 58 260 (90.3%) 23 (8.0%) 618 124 264 (42.7%) 347 (56.1%) 
Virginia 2,863 573 2,440 (85.2%) 198 (6.9%) 5,362 1,072 2,993 (55.8%) 2,275 (42.4%) 
Washington 2,878 576 2,450 (85.1%) 309 (10.7%) 7,466 1,493 3,003 (40.2%) 4,292 (57.5%) 
West Virginia 763 153 675 (88.5%) 53 (6.9%) 1,301 260 590 (45.3%) 684 (52.6%) 
Wisconsin 2,524 505 2,160 (85.6%) 255 (10.1%) 5,135 1,027 2,226 (43.3%) 2,786 (54.3%) 
Wyoming 242 48 207 (85.5%) 32 (13.2%) 386 77 218 (56.5%) 166 (43.0%) 
TOTAL 117,906 23,581 100,518 (85.3%) 11,588 (9.8%) 250,211 50,042 118,875 (47.5%) 123,259 (49.3%) 
State Malignant Non-Malignant 
5-Year Total Annual Averagea Histologically Confirmed (% ) b Radio-graphically Confirmed (% ) b 5-Year Total Annual Averagea Histologically Confirmed (% ) b Radiographically Confirmed (% ) b 
Alabama 1,875 375 1,600 (85.3%) 120 (6.4%) 2,553 511 1,527 (59.8%) 983 (38.5%) 
Alaska 253 50.6 213 (84.2%) 30 (11.9%) 528 106 208 (39.4%) 308 (58.3%) 
Arizona 2,442 488 1,988 (81.4%) 217 (8.9%) 5,019 1,004 2,381 (47.4%) 2,430 (48.4%) 
Arkansas 1,146 229 911 (79.5%) 141 (12.3%) 1,905 381 963 (50.6%) 896 (47.0%) 
California 12,669 2,534 10,975 (86.6%) 1,133 (8.9%) 26,527 5,305 13,982 (52.7%) 11,595 (43.7%) 
Colorado 1,827 365 1,507 (82.5%) 212 (11.6%) 5,170 1,034 2,025 (39.2%) 3,038 (58.8%) 
Connecticut 1,488 298 1,279 (86.0%) 172 (11.6%) 2,766 553 1,571 (56.8%) 1,152 (41.6%) 
Delaware 348 70 287 (82.5%) 42 (12.1%) 637 127 373 (58.6%) 250 (39.2%) 
District of Columbia 199 40 171 (85.9%) -- -- 515 103 265 (51.5%) 236 (45.8%) 
Florida 7,941 1,588 6,848 (86.2%) 785 (9.9%) 18,746 3,749 8,314 (44.4%) 9,935 (53.0%) 
Georgia 3,259 652 2,762 (84.7%) 381 (11.7%) 8,044 1,609 3,432 (42.7%) 4,276 (53.2%) 
Hawaii 363 73 309 (85.1%) 35 (9.6%) 986 197 454 (46.0%) 447 (45.3%) 
Idaho 572 114 482 (84.3%) 65 (11.4%) 1,030 206 565 (54.9%) 440 (42.7%) 
Illinois 4,730 946 4,171 (88.2%) 412 (8.7%) 10,676 2,135 4,849 (45.4%) 5,668 (53.1%) 
Indiana 2,533 507 2,178 (86.0%) 276 (10.9%) 4,930 986 1,999 (40.5%) 2,795 (56.7%) 
Iowa 1,320 264 1,113 (84.3%) 176 (13.3%) 2,909 582 1,287 (44.2%) 1,562 (53.7%) 
Kansas 1,138 228 966 (84.9%) 123 (10.8%) 2,064 413 926 (44.9%) 1,087 (52.7%) 
Kentucky 1,939 388 1,549 (79.9%) 270 (13.9%) 4,584 917 1,707 (37.2%) 2,713 (59.2%) 
Louisiana 1,553 311 1,325 (85.3%) 171 (11.0%) 3,608 722 1,888 (52.3%) 1,603 (44.4%) 
Maine 648 130 560 (86.4%) 64 (9.9%) 832 166 421 (50.6%) 394 (47.4%) 
Maryland 2,130 426 1,857 (87.2%) 139 (6.5%) 4,208 842 2,364 (56.2%) 1,675 (39.8%) 
Massachusetts 2,700 540 2,401 (88.9%) 194 (7.2%) 4,428 886 2,711 (61.2%) 1,635 (36.9%) 
Michigan 3,850 770 3,325 (86.4%) 343 (8.9%) 7,790 1,558 3,871 (49.7%) 3,748 (48.1%) 
Minnesota 2,095 419 1,956 (93.4%) 60 (2.9%) 2,898 580 2,319 (80.0%) 459 (15.8%) 
Mississippi 1,039 208 888 (85.5%) 115 (11.1%) 2,100 420 1,070 (51.0%) 956 (45.5%) 
Missouri 2,351 470 2,027 (86.2%) 198 (8.4%) 4,962 992 2,067 (41.7%) 2,710 (54.6%) 
Montana 439 88 389 (88.6%) 36 (8.2%) 803 161 314 (39.1%) 462 (57.5%) 
Nebraska 759 152 638 (84.1%) 79 (10.4%) 1,156 231 549 (47.5%) 585 (50.6%) 
Nevada c 323 65 281 (87.0%) -- -- 564 113 337 (59.8%) 208 (36.9%) 
New Hampshire 617 123 547 (88.7%) 45 (7.3%) 948 190 580 (61.2%) 352 (37.1%) 
New Jersey 3,646 729 3,163 (86.8%) 367 (10.1%) 7,093 1,419 3,597 (50.7%) 3,084 (43.5%) 
New Mexico 632 126 552 (87.3%) 54 (8.5%) 1,467 293 806 (54.9%) 586 (39.9%) 
New York 7,504 1,501 6,456 (86.0%) 885 (11.8%) 18,956 3,791 8,491 (44.8%) 9,959 (52.5%) 
North Carolina 3,627 725 3,114 (85.9%) 382 (10.5%) 8,082 1,616 4,088 (50.6%) 3,698 (45.8%) 
North Dakota 260 52 217 (83.5%) 29 (11.2%) 412 82 180 (43.7%) 218 (52.9%) 
Ohio 4,728 946 3,810 (80.6%) 412 (8.7%) 7,818 1,564 4,342 (55.5%) 3,329 (42.6%) 
Oklahoma 1,428 286 1,139 (79.8%) 169 (11.8%) 2,651 530 1,006 (37.9%) 1,607 (60.6%) 
Oregon 1,706 341 1,466 (85.9%) 136 (8.0%) 2,537 507 1,538 (60.6%) 967 (38.1%) 
Pennsylvania 5,638 1,128 4,736 (84.0%) 570 (10.1%) 12,327 2,465 5,407 (43.9%) 6,519 (52.9%) 
Rhode Island 371 74 338 (91.1%) 17 (4.6%) 742 148 444 (59.8%) 293 (39.5%) 
South Carolina 1,746 349 1,480 (84.8%) 145 (8.3%) 3,771 754 1,606 (42.6%) 1,924 (51.0%) 
South Dakota 330 66 279 (84.5%) 34 (10.3%) 591 118 255 (43.1%) 317 (53.6%) 
Tennessee 2,498 500 2,150 (86.1%) 245 (9.8%) 6,088 1,218 2,569 (42.2%) 3,410 (56.0%) 
Texas 8,753 1,751 7,119 (81.3%) 1,124 (12.8%) 21,075 4,215 8,644 (41.0%) 11,060 (52.5%) 
Utah 935 187 804 (86.0%) 115 (12.3%) 2,447 489 1,289 (52.7%) 1,140 (46.6%) 
Vermont 288 58 260 (90.3%) 23 (8.0%) 618 124 264 (42.7%) 347 (56.1%) 
Virginia 2,863 573 2,440 (85.2%) 198 (6.9%) 5,362 1,072 2,993 (55.8%) 2,275 (42.4%) 
Washington 2,878 576 2,450 (85.1%) 309 (10.7%) 7,466 1,493 3,003 (40.2%) 4,292 (57.5%) 
West Virginia 763 153 675 (88.5%) 53 (6.9%) 1,301 260 590 (45.3%) 684 (52.6%) 
Wisconsin 2,524 505 2,160 (85.6%) 255 (10.1%) 5,135 1,027 2,226 (43.3%) 2,786 (54.3%) 
Wyoming 242 48 207 (85.5%) 32 (13.2%) 386 77 218 (56.5%) 166 (43.0%) 
TOTAL 117,906 23,581 100,518 (85.3%) 11,588 (9.8%) 250,211 50,042 118,875 (47.5%) 123,259 (49.3%) 

a Annual average cases are calculated by dividing the five-year total by five.

b Percentages may not add to zero due to a small proportion of cases that are diagnosed by alternate confirmation types, such as clinical (based on symptoms or other clinical factors) or unknown diagnostic confirmation type.

c Cases and estimated population is for 2008-2010 only.

- Counts are not presented when fewer than 16 cases were reported in the five year period for the specific category. The suppressed cases are included in the counts and rates for totals.

Abbreviations: CBTRUS, Central Brain Tumor Registry of the United States; CNS, central nervous system; NPCR, National Program of Cancer Registries; SEER, Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results program.

  • Approximately 68% of tumors are non-malignant, but there was variation by cancer registry (range: 56.2%-73.9%).

  • Overall, a larger proportion of malignant tumors were histologically confirmed (85.3%) as compared to non-malignant tumors (47.5%).

  • A slight majority of non-malignant brain and other CNS tumors are radiographically confirmed (49.3%).

The overall average annual age-adjusted incidence rates by age, behavior, and CCR are presented in Table 5 , Figs. 7a-b .

Fig. 7a.

Average Annual Age-Adjusted Incidence Rates a of Malignant Primary Brain and Other CNS Tumors by Central Cancer Registry, CBTRUS Statistical Report: NPCR and SEER, 2009-2013 b .

Fig. 7a.

Average Annual Age-Adjusted Incidence Rates a of Malignant Primary Brain and Other CNS Tumors by Central Cancer Registry, CBTRUS Statistical Report: NPCR and SEER, 2009-2013 b .

Fig. 7b.

Average Annual Age-Adjusted Incidence Rates a of Non-Malignant Primary Brain and Other CNS Tumors by Central Cancer Registry, CBTRUS Statistical Report: NPCR and SEER, 2009-2013 b.

Fig. 7b.

Average Annual Age-Adjusted Incidence Rates a of Non-Malignant Primary Brain and Other CNS Tumors by Central Cancer Registry, CBTRUS Statistical Report: NPCR and SEER, 2009-2013 b.

  • There is less variation by region for malignant tumor incidence rates as compared to incidence rates for non-malignant tumors. CCR and regional variations likely reflect differences in reporting and case ascertainment practices.

  • The overall average annual age-adjusted incidence rates of all tumors (malignant and non-malignant) for each individual CCR range from 16.32 to 28.74 per 100,000 population.

  • Average annual age-adjusted incidence rates of all primary malignant tumors ranged from 4.78 to 8.53 per 100,000 population, and average annual age-adjusted incidence rates of all primary non-malignant tumors range from 9.69 to 20.79 per 100,000 population.

  • Among adults 20 years of age and older, CCR-specific incidence rates range from 5.71 to 10.25 per 100,000 population for malignant tumors and from 12.71 to 27.77 per 100,000 population for non-malignant tumors.

  • In those persons less than 20 years of age, incidence rates listed range from 2.37 to 4.81 per 100,000 population for malignant tumors and from 1.07 to 3.77 per 100,000 population for non-malignant tumors.

Primary Brain and Other CNS Tumors: Incidence by Site, Histology, WHO Grade, Sex, Race, Hispanic Ethnicity, and Age

Distribution of Tumors by Site and Histology

The distribution of brain and other CNS tumors by site is shown in Figs. 8a-c .

Fig. 8a.

Distribution a of All Primary Brain and Other CNS Tumors by Site (N=368,117), CBTRUS Statistical Report: NPCR and SEER, 2009-2013.

Fig. 8a.

Distribution a of All Primary Brain and Other CNS Tumors by Site (N=368,117), CBTRUS Statistical Report: NPCR and SEER, 2009-2013.

Fig. 8b.

Distribution a of Malignant Primary Brain and Other CNS Tumors by Site (N=117,906), CBTRUS Statistical Report: NPCR and SEER, 2009-2013.

Fig. 8b.

Distribution a of Malignant Primary Brain and Other CNS Tumors by Site (N=117,906), CBTRUS Statistical Report: NPCR and SEER, 2009-2013.

Fig. 8c.

Distribution a of Non-Malignant Primary Brain and Other CNS Tumors by Site (N=250,211), CBTRUS Statistical Report: NPCR and SEER, 2009-2013.

Fig. 8c.

Distribution a of Non-Malignant Primary Brain and Other CNS Tumors by Site (N=250,211), CBTRUS Statistical Report: NPCR and SEER, 2009-2013.

  • Overall, frontal (8.0%), temporal (6.0%), parietal (4.0%), and occipital lobes (1.0%) account for 19.0% of all tumors.

  • Overall, the most common tumor site is the meninges, representing 37.0% of all tumors.

  • Cerebrum, ventricle, cerebellum, and brain stem tumors account for 7.0% of all tumors.

  • Brain stem tumors account for 2.0% of all tumors and 3.6% of all malignant tumors.

  • The cranial nerves and the spinal cord/cauda equina account for 10.0% of all tumors.

  • The pituitary and craniopharyngeal duct account for 17.0% of all tumors.

  • For malignant tumors, frontal (23.6%), temporal (17.4%), parietal (10.6%), and occipital (2.8%) account for 54.4% of tumors.

  • For non-malignant tumors, 53.0% of all tumors occur in the meninges.

The distribution by brain and other CNS histologies is shown in Fig. 9a .

Fig. 9a.

Distribution a of All Primary Brain and Other CNS Tumors by CBTRUS Histology Groupings and Histology (N=368,117), CBTRUS Statistical Report: NPCR and SEER, 2009-2013.

Fig. 9a.

Distribution a of All Primary Brain and Other CNS Tumors by CBTRUS Histology Groupings and Histology (N=368,117), CBTRUS Statistical Report: NPCR and SEER, 2009-2013.

  • The most frequently reported histology overall is meningioma (36.6%), followed by tumors of the pituitary (15.9%) and glioblastoma (14.9%).

  • Tumors of the pituitary and nerve sheath tumors combined account for slightly less than one-fourth of all tumors (24.1%), the vast majority of which are non-malignant.

The distribution of malignant and non-malignant brain and other CNS tumors by histology are shown in Figs. 9b and 9c , respectively, as well as in Table 7 .

Table 7.

Distribution and Five-Year Total, Annual Average Total a , and Average Annual Age-Adjusted Incidence Rates b of Brain and Other Central Nervous System Tumors by Major Histology Groupings, Histology, and Behavior, CBTRUS Statistical Report: NPCR and SEER, 2009-2013

 Total Malignant Non-Malignant 
Histology 5-year total Annual average % of All Tumors Median Age Rate (95% CI) 5-year total Annual average Rate (95% CI) 5-year total Annual average Rate (95% CI) 
Tumors of Neuroepithelial Tissue 107,732 21,546 29.3% 56.0 6.60 (6.56-6.64) 100,084 20,017 6.10 (6.07-6.14) 7,648 1,530 0.50 (0.49-0.51) 
Pilocytic astrocytoma 5,106 1,021 1.4% 12.0 0.35 (0.34-0.36) 5,106 1,021 0.35 (0.34-0.36) -- -- -- -- 
Diffuse astrocytoma 8,081 1,616 2.2% 48.0 0.51 (0.50-0.52) 8,080 1,616 0.51 (0.50-0.52) -- -- -- -- 
Anaplastic astrocytoma 6,245 1,249 1.7% 53.0 0.39 (0.38-0.40) 6,245 1,249 0.39 (0.38-0.40) -- -- -- -- 
Unique astrocytoma variants 1,070 214 0.3% 23.0 0.07 (0.07-0.07) 713 143 0.05 (0.04-0.05) 357 71 0.02 (0.02-0.03) 
Glioblastoma 54,980 10,996 14.9% 64.0 3.20 (3.17-3.22) 54,980 10,996 3.20 (3.17-3.22) -- -- -- -- 
Oligodendroglioma 3,852 770 1.0% 43.0 0.25 (0.24-0.26) 3,852 770 0.25 (0.24-0.26) -- -- -- -- 
Anaplastic oligodendroglioma 1,677 335 0.5% 50.0 0.10 (0.10-0.11) 1,676 335 0.10 (0.10-0.11) -- -- -- -- 
Oligoastrocytic tumors 3,179 636 0.9% 41.0 0.20 (0.20-0.21) 3,178 636 0.20 (0.20-0.21) -- -- -- -- 
Ependymal tumors 6,780 1,356 1.8% 44.0 0.43 (0.42-0.44) 4,124 825 0.26 (0.26-0.27) 2,656 531 0.17 (0.16-0.17) 
Glioma malignant, NOS 7,221 1,444 2.0% 36.0 0.47 (0.46-0.48) 7,221 1,444 0.47 (0.46-0.48) -- -- -- -- 
Choroid plexus tumors 784 157 0.2% 20.0 0.05 (0.05-0.06) 112 22 0.01 (0.01-0.01) 672 134 0.04 (0.04-0.05) 
Other neuroepithelial tumors 95 19 0.0% 32.0 0.01 (0.01-0.01) 60 12 0.00 (0.00-0.01) 35 0.00 (0.00-0.00) 
Neuronal and mixed neuronal-glial tumors 4,367 873 1.2% 27.0 0.29 (0.28-0.29) 860 172 0.05 (0.05-0.06) 3,507 701 0.23 (0.23-0.24) 
Tumors of the pineal region 686 137 0.2% 34.0 0.04 (0.04-0.05) 381 76 0.03 (0.02-0.03) 305 61 0.02 (0.02-0.02) 
Embryonal tumors 3,609 722 1.0% 9.0 0.25 (0.24-0.25) 3,496 699 0.24 (0.23-0.25) 113 23 0.01 (0.01-0.01) 
Tumors of Cranial and Spinal Nerves 30,384 6,077 8.3% 56.0 1.83 (1.80-1.85) 226 45 0.01 (0.01-0.02) 30,158 6,032 1.81 (1.79-1.83) 
Nerve sheath tumors 30,360 6,072 8.2% 56.0 1.82 (1.80-1.85) 226 45 0.01 (0.01-0.02) 30,134 6,027 1.81 (1.79-1.83) 
Other tumors of cranial and spinal nerves 24 0.0% 54.5 0.00 (0.00-0.00) -- -- -- -- 24 0.00 (0.00-0.00) 
Tumors of Meninges 139,205 27,841 37.8% 65.0 8.30 (8.26-8.35) 2,464 493 0.15 (0.14-0.15) 136,741 27,348 8.16 (8.11-8.20) 
Meningioma 134,835 26,967 36.6% 66.0 8.03 (7.99-8.07) 1,711 342 0.10 (0.10-0.11) 133,124 26,625 7.93 (7.89-7.97) 
Mesenchymal tumors 1,302 260 0.4% 48.0 0.08 (0.08-0.09) 403 81 0.03 (0.02-0.03) 899 180 0.06 (0.05-0.06) 
Primary melanocytic lesions 136 27 0.0% 58.0 0.01 (0.01-0.01) 90 18 0.01 (0.00-0.01) 46 0.00 (0.00-0.00) 
Other neoplasms related to the meninges 2,932 586 0.8% 49.0 0.18 (0.18-0.19) 260 52 0.02 (0.01-0.02) 2,672 534 0.17 (0.16-0.17) 
Lymphomas and Hematopoietic Neoplasms 7,415 1,483 2.0% 65.0 0.44 (0.43-0.45) 7,390 1,478 0.44 (0.43-0.45) 25 5 0.00 (0.00-0.00) 
Lymphoma 7,160 1,432 1.9% 66.0 0.43 (0.42-0.44) 7,160 1,432 0.43 (0.42-0.44) -- -- -- -- 
Other hematopoietic neoplasms 255 51 0.1% 50.0 0.02 (0.01-0.02) 230 46 0.01 (0.01-0.02) 25 0.00 (0.00-0.00) 
Germ Cell Tumors and Cysts 1,469 294 0.4% 16.0 0.10 (0.09-0.10) 997 199 0.07 (0.06-0.07) 472 94 0.03 (0.03-0.03) 
Germ cell tumors, cysts and heterotopias 1,469 294 0.4% 16.0 0.10 (0.09-0.10) 997 199 0.07 (0.06-0.07) 472 94 0.03 (0.03-0.03) 
Tumors of Sellar Region 61,597 12,319 16.7% 51.0 3.85 (3.82-3.88) 158 32 0.01 (0.01-0.01) 61,439 12,288 3.84 (3.81-3.87) 
Tumors of the pituitary 58,666 11,733 15.9% 51.0 3.66 (3.63-3.69) 151 30 0.01 (0.01-0.01) 58,515 11,703 3.65 (3.62-3.68) 
Craniopharyngioma 2,931 586 0.8% 43.0 0.19 (0.18-0.19) -- -- -- -- 2,924 585 0.19 (0.18-0.19) 
Unclassified Tumors 20,315 4,063 5.5% 62.0 1.24 (1.22-1.26) 6,587 1,317 0.39 (0.38-0.40) 13,728 2,746 0.85 (0.83-0.86) 
Hemangioma 5,869 1,174 1.6% 50.0 0.37 (0.36-0.38) 18 0.00 (0.00-0.00) 5,851 1,170 0.37 (0.36-0.37) 
Neoplasm, unspecified 14,356 2,871 3.9% 69.0 0.87 (0.85-0.88) 6,542 1,308 0.39 (0.38-0.40) 7,814 1,563 0.48 (0.47-0.49) 
All other 90 18 0.0% 58.0 0.01 (0.00-0.01) 27 0.00 (0.00-0.00) 63 13 0.00 (0.00-0.00) 
TOTALc 368,117 73,623 100.0% 59.0 22.36 (22.29-22.44) 117,906 23,581 7.18 (7.14-7.22) 250,211 50,042 15.18 (15.12-15.25) 
 Total Malignant Non-Malignant 
Histology 5-year total Annual average % of All Tumors Median Age Rate (95% CI) 5-year total Annual average Rate (95% CI) 5-year total Annual average Rate (95% CI) 
Tumors of Neuroepithelial Tissue 107,732 21,546 29.3% 56.0 6.60 (6.56-6.64) 100,084 20,017 6.10 (6.07-6.14) 7,648 1,530 0.50 (0.49-0.51) 
Pilocytic astrocytoma 5,106 1,021 1.4% 12.0 0.35 (0.34-0.36) 5,106 1,021 0.35 (0.34-0.36) -- -- -- -- 
Diffuse astrocytoma 8,081 1,616 2.2% 48.0 0.51 (0.50-0.52) 8,080 1,616 0.51 (0.50-0.52) -- -- -- -- 
Anaplastic astrocytoma 6,245 1,249 1.7% 53.0 0.39 (0.38-0.40) 6,245 1,249 0.39 (0.38-0.40) -- -- -- -- 
Unique astrocytoma variants 1,070 214 0.3% 23.0 0.07 (0.07-0.07) 713 143 0.05 (0.04-0.05) 357 71 0.02 (0.02-0.03) 
Glioblastoma 54,980 10,996 14.9% 64.0 3.20 (3.17-3.22) 54,980 10,996 3.20 (3.17-3.22) -- -- -- -- 
Oligodendroglioma 3,852 770 1.0% 43.0 0.25 (0.24-0.26) 3,852 770 0.25 (0.24-0.26) -- -- -- -- 
Anaplastic oligodendroglioma 1,677 335 0.5% 50.0 0.10 (0.10-0.11) 1,676 335 0.10 (0.10-0.11) -- -- -- -- 
Oligoastrocytic tumors 3,179 636 0.9% 41.0 0.20 (0.20-0.21) 3,178 636 0.20 (0.20-0.21) -- -- -- -- 
Ependymal tumors 6,780 1,356 1.8% 44.0 0.43 (0.42-0.44) 4,124 825 0.26 (0.26-0.27) 2,656 531 0.17 (0.16-0.17) 
Glioma malignant, NOS 7,221 1,444 2.0% 36.0 0.47 (0.46-0.48) 7,221 1,444 0.47 (0.46-0.48) -- -- -- -- 
Choroid plexus tumors 784 157 0.2% 20.0 0.05 (0.05-0.06) 112 22 0.01 (0.01-0.01) 672 134 0.04 (0.04-0.05) 
Other neuroepithelial tumors 95 19 0.0% 32.0 0.01 (0.01-0.01) 60 12 0.00 (0.00-0.01) 35 0.00 (0.00-0.00) 
Neuronal and mixed neuronal-glial tumors 4,367 873 1.2% 27.0 0.29 (0.28-0.29) 860 172 0.05 (0.05-0.06) 3,507 701 0.23 (0.23-0.24) 
Tumors of the pineal region 686 137 0.2% 34.0 0.04 (0.04-0.05) 381 76 0.03 (0.02-0.03) 305 61 0.02 (0.02-0.02) 
Embryonal tumors 3,609 722 1.0% 9.0 0.25 (0.24-0.25) 3,496 699 0.24 (0.23-0.25) 113 23 0.01 (0.01-0.01) 
Tumors of Cranial and Spinal Nerves 30,384 6,077 8.3% 56.0 1.83 (1.80-1.85) 226 45 0.01 (0.01-0.02) 30,158 6,032 1.81 (1.79-1.83) 
Nerve sheath tumors 30,360 6,072 8.2% 56.0 1.82 (1.80-1.85) 226 45 0.01 (0.01-0.02) 30,134 6,027 1.81 (1.79-1.83) 
Other tumors of cranial and spinal nerves 24 0.0% 54.5 0.00 (0.00-0.00) -- -- -- -- 24 0.00 (0.00-0.00) 
Tumors of Meninges 139,205 27,841 37.8% 65.0 8.30 (8.26-8.35) 2,464 493 0.15 (0.14-0.15) 136,741 27,348 8.16 (8.11-8.20) 
Meningioma 134,835 26,967 36.6% 66.0 8.03 (7.99-8.07) 1,711 342 0.10 (0.10-0.11) 133,124 26,625 7.93 (7.89-7.97) 
Mesenchymal tumors 1,302 260 0.4% 48.0 0.08 (0.08-0.09) 403 81 0.03 (0.02-0.03) 899 180 0.06 (0.05-0.06) 
Primary melanocytic lesions 136 27 0.0% 58.0 0.01 (0.01-0.01) 90 18 0.01 (0.00-0.01) 46 0.00 (0.00-0.00) 
Other neoplasms related to the meninges 2,932 586 0.8% 49.0 0.18 (0.18-0.19) 260 52 0.02 (0.01-0.02) 2,672 534 0.17 (0.16-0.17) 
Lymphomas and Hematopoietic Neoplasms 7,415 1,483 2.0% 65.0 0.44 (0.43-0.45) 7,390 1,478 0.44 (0.43-0.45) 25 5 0.00 (0.00-0.00) 
Lymphoma 7,160 1,432 1.9% 66.0 0.43 (0.42-0.44) 7,160 1,432 0.43 (0.42-0.44) -- -- -- -- 
Other hematopoietic neoplasms 255 51 0.1% 50.0 0.02 (0.01-0.02) 230 46 0.01 (0.01-0.02) 25 0.00 (0.00-0.00) 
Germ Cell Tumors and Cysts 1,469 294 0.4% 16.0 0.10 (0.09-0.10) 997 199 0.07 (0.06-0.07) 472 94 0.03 (0.03-0.03) 
Germ cell tumors, cysts and heterotopias 1,469 294 0.4% 16.0 0.10 (0.09-0.10) 997 199 0.07 (0.06-0.07) 472 94 0.03 (0.03-0.03) 
Tumors of Sellar Region 61,597 12,319 16.7% 51.0 3.85 (3.82-3.88) 158 32 0.01 (0.01-0.01) 61,439 12,288 3.84 (3.81-3.87) 
Tumors of the pituitary 58,666 11,733 15.9% 51.0 3.66 (3.63-3.69) 151 30 0.01 (0.01-0.01) 58,515 11,703 3.65 (3.62-3.68) 
Craniopharyngioma 2,931 586 0.8% 43.0 0.19 (0.18-0.19) -- -- -- -- 2,924 585 0.19 (0.18-0.19) 
Unclassified Tumors 20,315 4,063 5.5% 62.0 1.24 (1.22-1.26) 6,587 1,317 0.39 (0.38-0.40) 13,728 2,746 0.85 (0.83-0.86) 
Hemangioma 5,869 1,174 1.6% 50.0 0.37 (0.36-0.38) 18 0.00 (0.00-0.00) 5,851 1,170 0.37 (0.36-0.37) 
Neoplasm, unspecified 14,356 2,871 3.9% 69.0 0.87 (0.85-0.88) 6,542 1,308 0.39 (0.38-0.40) 7,814 1,563 0.48 (0.47-0.49) 
All other 90 18 0.0% 58.0 0.01 (0.00-0.01) 27 0.00 (0.00-0.00) 63 13 0.00 (0.00-0.00) 
TOTALc 368,117 73,623 100.0% 59.0 22.36 (22.29-22.44) 117,906 23,581 7.18 (7.14-7.22) 250,211 50,042 15.18 (15.12-15.25) 

a Annual average cases are calculated by dividing the five-year total by five.

b Rates are per 100,000 and are age-adjusted to the 2000 US standard population.

c Refers to all brain and other CNS tumors including histologies not presented in this table.

- Counts are not presented when fewer than 16 cases were reported in the five year period for the specific histology category. The suppressed cases are included in the counts for totals.

Abbreviations: CBTRUS, Central Brain Tumor Registry of the United States; NPCR, National Program of Cancer Registries; SEER, Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results program; CI, confidence interval; NOS, not otherwise specified.

Fig. 9b.

Distribution a of Malignant Primary Brain and Other CNS Tumors by CBTRUS Histology Groupings and Histology (N=117,906), CBTRUS Statistical Report: NPCR and SEER, 2009-2013.

Fig. 9b.

Distribution a of Malignant Primary Brain and Other CNS Tumors by CBTRUS Histology Groupings and Histology (N=117,906), CBTRUS Statistical Report: NPCR and SEER, 2009-2013.

Fig. 9c.

Distribution a of Non-Malignant Primary Brain and Other CNS Tumors by CBTRUS Histology Groupings and Histology (N=250,211), CBTRUS Statistical Report: NPCR and SEER, 2009-2013.

Fig. 9c.

Distribution a of Non-Malignant Primary Brain and Other CNS Tumors by CBTRUS Histology Groupings and Histology (N=250,211), CBTRUS Statistical Report: NPCR and SEER, 2009-2013.

  • The most common of all malignant CNS tumors is glioblastoma (46.6%).

  • The most common of all non-malignant tumors is meningioma (53.2%).

  • The most common non-malignant nerve sheath tumor (based on multiple sites in the brain and CNS) is vestibular schwannomas (defined by histology code 9560, also formerly called acoustic neuromas) (94.8%).

The broad category glioma represents approximately 24.7% of all primary brain and other CNS tumors ( Fig. 9a ) and 74.6% of malignant tumors ( Fig. 9b ). The distribution of gliomas by histology and site are shown in Figs. 10 and 11 , respectively.

Fig. 10.

Distribution a of Primary Brain and Other CNS Gliomas b by Histology Subtypes (N=99,165), CBTRUS Statistical Report: NPCR and SEER, 2009-2013.

Fig. 10.

Distribution a of Primary Brain and Other CNS Gliomas b by Histology Subtypes (N=99,165), CBTRUS Statistical Report: NPCR and SEER, 2009-2013.

Fig. 11.

Distribution of Primary Brain and Other CNS Gliomas a by Site (N=99,165), CBTRUS Statistical Report: NPCR and SEER, 2009-2013.

Fig. 11.

Distribution of Primary Brain and Other CNS Gliomas a by Site (N=99,165), CBTRUS Statistical Report: NPCR and SEER, 2009-2013.

  • Glioblastoma accounts for the majority of gliomas (55.4%).

  • Other astrocytomas and glioblastoma combined account for about 74.9% of all gliomas.

  • The majority of gliomas occur in the frontal, temporal, parietal, and occipital lobes combined (61.0%). Only a very small proportion of gliomas occur outside the brain.

The distribution of reported tumors with histologically confirmed diagnosis from 2011 to 2013 is listed by histology and reported WHO grade in Table 8 . The WHO Classification of Tumours of the Central Nervous System designates a grading system for most histologic types, which correlates with predicted prognosis and malignancy of tumor. There are many reasons that this information may not be included in the patients record. 17 It is not possible to conclusively determine WHO grade, which is based on the appearance of tumor cells, when a tumor is radiographically confirmed only. Some tumor types (including tumors of the pituitary and lymphomas) are not assigned a grade within the WHO system. This information may also be assigned but not included in the pathology report.

Table 8.

Distribution of Histologically Confirmed Brain and Other Central Nervous System Tumors by WHO Grade and Major Histology Groupings, CBTRUS Statistical Report: NPCR and SEER, 2011-2013

Histology Number of newly diagnosed tumors Histologically Confirmed Complete WHO grade Informationa Assigned Grade 
Grade I Grade II Grade III Grade IV 
Tumors of Neuroepithelial Tissue 64,808 74.9% 83.6% 11.0% 14.8% 14.0% 60.2% 
Pilocytic astrocytoma 3,078 79.1% 84.5% 92.6% 6.2% 0.8% 0.5% 
Diffuse astrocytoma 4,523 79.2% 86.0% 4.2% 58.1% 22.7% 15.0% 
Anaplastic astrocytoma 3,867 92.8% 93.3% 0.1% 0.9% 90.2% 8.7% 
Unique astrocytoma variants 653 62.8% 78.2% 26.1% 54.4% 15.4% 4.2% 
Glioblastoma 33,631 79.1% 84.9% 0.2% 0.2% 1.0% 98.7% 
Oligodendroglioma 2,176 88.7% 92.4% 1.6% 84.5% 6.9% 6.9% 
Anaplastic oligodendroglioma 1,023 94.0% 94.8% 0.2% 3.0% 87.5% 9.3% 
Oligoastrocytic tumors 1,851 94.7% 95.2% 0.9% 51.6% 39.3% 8.3% 
Ependymal tumors 4,027 76.0% 83.5% 35.0% 50.7% 13.7% 0.5% 
Glioma malignant, NOS 4,320 16.0% 49.5% 24.2% 26.8% 22.1% 26.8% 
Choroid plexus tumors 469 63.8% 72.6% 67.6% 17.7% 14.1% 0.7% 
Other neuroepithelial tumors 57 40.4% 41.8% 87.0% 60.9% 17.4% 13.0% 
Neuronal and mixed neuronal-glial tumors 2,613 57.8% 61.6% 79.3% 15.8% 4.1% 0.8% 
Tumors of the pineal region 440 51.4% 68.5% 23.5% 22.6% 16.8% 37.2% 
Embryonal tumors 2,080 71.2% 72.5% 1.4% 0.1% 1.0% 97.5% 
Tumors of Cranial and Spinal Nerves 18,512 16.1% 30.6% 98.9% 0.5% 0.3% 0.3% 
Nerve sheath tumors 18,498 16.1% 30.7% 98.9% 0.5% 0.3% 0.3% 
Other tumors of cranial and spinal nerves -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 
Tumors of Meninges 83,598 33.6% 75.9% 81.1% 16.7% 2.0% 0.2% 
Meningioma 80,984 33.3% 77.6% 81.3% 16.9% 1.7% 0.1% 
Mesenchymal tumors 788 34.6% 48.7% 8.8% 49.1% 37.4% 4.8% 
Primary melanocytic lesions 75 10.7% 11.6% 62.5% 12.5% 12.5% 12.5% 
Other neoplasms related to the meninges 1,751 45.5% 49.5% 99.1% 0.6% 0.1% 0.1% 
Lymphomas and Hematopoietic Neoplasms 4,428 3.8% 4.0% 100.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 
Lymphoma 4,279 3.9% 4.1% 100.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 
Other hemopoietic neoplasms 149 0.7% 0.7% 100.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 
Germ Cell Tumors and Cysts 846 2.7% 3.2% 21.7% 13.0% 17.4% 47.8% 
Germ cell tumors, cysts and heterotopias 846 2.7% 3.2% 21.7% 13.0% 17.4% 47.8% 
Tumors of Sellar Region 37,374 3.7% 7.1% 95.9% 2.5% 0.4% 1.3% 
Tumors of the pituitary 35,639 2.3% 4.6% 94.1% 3.2% 0.5% 2.2% 
Craniopharyngioma 1,735 31.6% 37.5% 98.5% 1.3% 0.2% 0.0% 
Unclassified Tumors 12,195 1.1% 6.3% 66.7% 7.4% 12.6% 13.3% 
Hemangioma 3,737 0.9% 3.1% 93.9% 0.0% 3.0% 3.0% 
Neoplasm, unspecified 8,393 1.1% 8.9% 57.3% 10.4% 15.6% 16.7% 
All other 65 9.2% 19.4% 66.7% 0.0% 16.7% 16.7% 
TOTAL 221,761 36.7% 61.9% 40.1% 14.7% 9.1% 36.1% 
Histology Number of newly diagnosed tumors Histologically Confirmed Complete WHO grade Informationa Assigned Grade 
Grade I Grade II Grade III Grade IV 
Tumors of Neuroepithelial Tissue 64,808 74.9% 83.6% 11.0% 14.8% 14.0% 60.2% 
Pilocytic astrocytoma 3,078 79.1% 84.5% 92.6% 6.2% 0.8% 0.5% 
Diffuse astrocytoma 4,523 79.2% 86.0% 4.2% 58.1% 22.7% 15.0% 
Anaplastic astrocytoma 3,867 92.8% 93.3% 0.1% 0.9% 90.2% 8.7% 
Unique astrocytoma variants 653 62.8% 78.2% 26.1% 54.4% 15.4% 4.2% 
Glioblastoma 33,631 79.1% 84.9% 0.2% 0.2% 1.0% 98.7% 
Oligodendroglioma 2,176 88.7% 92.4% 1.6% 84.5% 6.9% 6.9% 
Anaplastic oligodendroglioma 1,023 94.0% 94.8% 0.2% 3.0% 87.5% 9.3% 
Oligoastrocytic tumors 1,851 94.7% 95.2% 0.9% 51.6% 39.3% 8.3% 
Ependymal tumors 4,027 76.0% 83.5% 35.0% 50.7% 13.7% 0.5% 
Glioma malignant, NOS 4,320 16.0% 49.5% 24.2% 26.8% 22.1% 26.8% 
Choroid plexus tumors 469 63.8% 72.6% 67.6% 17.7% 14.1% 0.7% 
Other neuroepithelial tumors 57 40.4% 41.8% 87.0% 60.9% 17.4% 13.0% 
Neuronal and mixed neuronal-glial tumors 2,613 57.8% 61.6% 79.3% 15.8% 4.1% 0.8% 
Tumors of the pineal region 440 51.4% 68.5% 23.5% 22.6% 16.8% 37.2% 
Embryonal tumors 2,080 71.2% 72.5% 1.4% 0.1% 1.0% 97.5% 
Tumors of Cranial and Spinal Nerves 18,512 16.1% 30.6% 98.9% 0.5% 0.3% 0.3% 
Nerve sheath tumors 18,498 16.1% 30.7% 98.9% 0.5% 0.3% 0.3% 
Other tumors of cranial and spinal nerves -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 
Tumors of Meninges 83,598 33.6% 75.9% 81.1% 16.7% 2.0% 0.2% 
Meningioma 80,984 33.3% 77.6% 81.3% 16.9% 1.7% 0.1% 
Mesenchymal tumors 788 34.6% 48.7% 8.8% 49.1% 37.4% 4.8% 
Primary melanocytic lesions 75 10.7% 11.6% 62.5% 12.5% 12.5% 12.5% 
Other neoplasms related to the meninges 1,751 45.5% 49.5% 99.1% 0.6% 0.1% 0.1% 
Lymphomas and Hematopoietic Neoplasms 4,428 3.8% 4.0% 100.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 
Lymphoma 4,279 3.9% 4.1% 100.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 
Other hemopoietic neoplasms 149 0.7% 0.7% 100.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 
Germ Cell Tumors and Cysts 846 2.7% 3.2% 21.7% 13.0% 17.4% 47.8% 
Germ cell tumors, cysts and heterotopias 846 2.7% 3.2% 21.7% 13.0% 17.4% 47.8% 
Tumors of Sellar Region 37,374 3.7% 7.1% 95.9% 2.5% 0.4% 1.3% 
Tumors of the pituitary 35,639 2.3% 4.6% 94.1% 3.2% 0.5% 2.2% 
Craniopharyngioma 1,735 31.6% 37.5% 98.5% 1.3% 0.2% 0.0% 
Unclassified Tumors 12,195 1.1% 6.3% 66.7% 7.4% 12.6% 13.3% 
Hemangioma 3,737 0.9% 3.1% 93.9% 0.0% 3.0% 3.0% 
Neoplasm, unspecified 8,393 1.1% 8.9% 57.3% 10.4% 15.6% 16.7% 
All other 65 9.2% 19.4% 66.7% 0.0% 16.7% 16.7% 
TOTAL 221,761 36.7% 61.9% 40.1% 14.7% 9.1% 36.1% 

a Completeness is defined as having an assigned code that corresponds with a WHO grade as defined by the American Joint Commission on Cancer’s Collaborative Staging schema,

Abbreviations: CBTRUS, Central Brain Tumor Registry of the United States; CNS, central nervous system; NPCR, National Program of Cancer Registries; SEER, Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results program; WHO, World Health Organization.

  • Overall, 61.9% of tumors had complete WHO grade inform ation, but there was substantial variation by histology.

  • The histologic types with the highest WHO grade completeness were anaplastic oligodendroglioma (94.8%) and oligoastrocytic tumors, (95.2%).

Incidence Rates by Site and Sex

Incidence counts and average annual age-adjusted rates for brain and other CNS tumors by site and sex are provided in Table 9 .

Table 9.

Five-Year Total, Annual Average Total a , and Average Annual Age-Adjusted Incidence Rates b for Brain and Other Central Nervous System Tumor by Site c and Sex, CBTRUS Statistical Report: NPCR and SEER, 2009-2013

 Total Male Female 
ICD-O-3 Code Site 5-year total Annual average Rate 95% CI 5-year total Annual average Rate 95% CI 5-year total Annual average Rate 95% CI 
C71.0 Cerebrum 6,453 1,291 0.40 (0.39-0.41) 3,397 679 0.44 (0.42-0.45) 3,056 611 0.36 (0.35-0.38) 
C71.1-C71.4 Frontal, temporal, parietal, and occipital lobes of the brain 71,451 14,290 4.31 (4.28-4.34) 39,610 7,922 5.09 (5.04-5.14) 31,841 6,368 3.63 (3.59-3.68) 
 C71.1 - Frontal lobe 30,848 6,170 1.88 (1.86-1.90 )  16,338 3,268 2.11 (2.07-2.14 )  14,510 2,902 1.67 (1.65-1.70 )  
 C71.2 - Temporal lobe 22,974 4,595 1.38 (1.36-1.40 )  13,600 2,720 1.74 (1.71-1.77 )  9,374 1,875 1.07 (1.05-1.09 )  
 C71.3 - Parietal lobe 13,803 2,761 0.82 (0.81-0.84 )  7,543 1,509 0.97 (0.94-0.99 )  6,260 1,252 0.70 (0.68-0.72 )  
 C71.4 - Occipital lobe 3,826 765 0.23 (0.22-0.24 )  2,129 426 0.27 (0.26-0.29 )  1,697 339 0.19 (0.18-0.20 )  
C71.5 Ventricle 4,027 805 0.26 (0.25-0.27) 2,215 443 0.29 (0.28-0.30) 1,812 362 0.23 (0.22-0.24) 
C71.6 Cerebellum 9,075 1,815 0.59 (0.58-0.60) 4,874 975 0.65 (0.63-0.67) 4,201 840 0.54 (0.52-0.56) 
C71.7 Brain stem 5,572 1,114 0.37 (0.36-0.38 3,003 601 0.40 (0.38-0.41) 2,569 514 0.34 (0.32-0.35) 
C71.8-C71.9 Other brain 32,956 6,591 1.99 (1.97-2.01) 17,209 3,442 2.25 (2.21-2.28) 15,747 3,149 1.77 (1.74-1.80) 
C72.0-C72.1 Spinal cord and cauda equina 11,104 2,221 0.69 (0.68-0.70) 5,697 1,139 0.73 (0.71-0.75) 5,407 1,081 0.65 (0.63-0.67) 
C72.2-C72.5 Cranial nerves 25,421 5,084 1.53 (1.51-1.55) 11,930 2,386 1.49 (1.47-1.52) 13,491 2,698 1.56 (1.54-1.59) 
C72.8-C72.9 Other nervous system 2,292 458 0.14 (0.14-0.15) 1,180 236 0.15 (0.14-0.16) 1,112 222 0.13 (0.12-0.14) 
C70.0-C70.9 Meninges (cerebral & spinal) 134,786 26,957 8.03 (7.98-8.07) 36,172 7,234 4.82 (4.77-4.87) 98,614 19,723 10.83 (10.76-10.90) 
C75.1-C75.2 Pituitary and craniopharyngeal duct 62,696 12,539 3.92 (3.89-3.95) 28,237 5,647 3.63 (3.58-3.67) 34,459 6,892 4.29 (4.24-4.33) 
C75.3 Pineal 1,614 323 0.11 (0.10-0.11) 899 180 0.12 (0.11-0.13) 715 143 0.09 (0.08-0.10) 
C30.0 d Olfactory tumors of the nasal cavity 670 134 0.04 (0.04-0.04) 393 79 0.05 (0.04-0.05) 277 55 0.03 (0.03-0.04) 
TOTAL  368,117 73,623 22.36 (22.29-22.44) 154,816 30,963 20.10 (20.00-20.20) 213,301 42,660 24.46 (24.36-24.57) 
 Total Male Female 
ICD-O-3 Code Site 5-year total Annual average Rate 95% CI 5-year total Annual average Rate 95% CI 5-year total Annual average Rate 95% CI 
C71.0 Cerebrum 6,453 1,291 0.40 (0.39-0.41) 3,397 679 0.44 (0.42-0.45) 3,056 611 0.36 (0.35-0.38) 
C71.1-C71.4 Frontal, temporal, parietal, and occipital lobes of the brain 71,451 14,290 4.31 (4.28-4.34) 39,610 7,922 5.09 (5.04-5.14) 31,841 6,368 3.63 (3.59-3.68) 
 C71.1 - Frontal lobe 30,848 6,170 1.88 (1.86-1.90 )  16,338 3,268 2.11 (2.07-2.14 )  14,510 2,902 1.67 (1.65-1.70 )  
 C71.2 - Temporal lobe 22,974 4,595 1.38 (1.36-1.40 )  13,600 2,720 1.74 (1.71-1.77 )  9,374 1,875 1.07 (1.05-1.09 )  
 C71.3 - Parietal lobe 13,803 2,761 0.82 (0.81-0.84 )  7,543 1,509 0.97 (0.94-0.99 )  6,260 1,252 0.70 (0.68-0.72 )  
 C71.4 - Occipital lobe 3,826 765 0.23 (0.22-0.24 )  2,129 426 0.27 (0.26-0.29 )  1,697 339 0.19 (0.18-0.20 )  
C71.5 Ventricle 4,027 805 0.26 (0.25-0.27) 2,215 443 0.29 (0.28-0.30) 1,812 362 0.23 (0.22-0.24) 
C71.6 Cerebellum 9,075 1,815 0.59 (0.58-0.60) 4,874 975 0.65 (0.63-0.67) 4,201 840 0.54 (0.52-0.56) 
C71.7 Brain stem 5,572 1,114 0.37 (0.36-0.38 3,003 601 0.40 (0.38-0.41) 2,569 514 0.34 (0.32-0.35) 
C71.8-C71.9 Other brain 32,956 6,591 1.99 (1.97-2.01) 17,209 3,442 2.25 (2.21-2.28) 15,747 3,149 1.77 (1.74-1.80) 
C72.0-C72.1 Spinal cord and cauda equina 11,104 2,221 0.69 (0.68-0.70) 5,697 1,139 0.73 (0.71-0.75) 5,407 1,081 0.65 (0.63-0.67) 
C72.2-C72.5 Cranial nerves 25,421 5,084 1.53 (1.51-1.55) 11,930 2,386 1.49 (1.47-1.52) 13,491 2,698 1.56 (1.54-1.59) 
C72.8-C72.9 Other nervous system 2,292 458 0.14 (0.14-0.15) 1,180 236 0.15 (0.14-0.16) 1,112 222 0.13 (0.12-0.14) 
C70.0-C70.9 Meninges (cerebral & spinal) 134,786 26,957 8.03 (7.98-8.07) 36,172 7,234 4.82 (4.77-4.87) 98,614 19,723 10.83 (10.76-10.90) 
C75.1-C75.2 Pituitary and craniopharyngeal duct 62,696 12,539 3.92 (3.89-3.95) 28,237 5,647 3.63 (3.58-3.67) 34,459 6,892 4.29 (4.24-4.33) 
C75.3 Pineal 1,614 323 0.11 (0.10-0.11) 899 180 0.12 (0.11-0.13) 715 143 0.09 (0.08-0.10) 
C30.0 d Olfactory tumors of the nasal cavity 670 134 0.04 (0.04-0.04) 393 79 0.05 (0.04-0.05) 277 55 0.03 (0.03-0.04) 
TOTAL  368,117 73,623 22.36 (22.29-22.44) 154,816 30,963 20.10 (20.00-20.20) 213,301 42,660 24.46 (24.36-24.57) 

a Annual average cases are calculated by dividing the five-year total by five.

b Rates are per 100,000 and are age adjusted to the 2000 US standard population.

c The sites referred to in this table are loosely based on the categories and site codes defined in the SEER site/histology validation list.

d ICD-O-3 histology codes 9522-9523 only.

Abbreviations: CBTRUS, Central Brain Tumor Registry of the United States; NPCR, National Program of Cancer Registries; SEER, Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results program; CI, confidence interval.

  • Incidence rates were highest for tumors located in the meninges (8.03 per 100,000 population).

  • Incidence rates were lowest for olfactory tumors of the nasal cavity (0.04 per 100,000 population).

  • Incidence rates were higher in females than in males for tumors located in the meninges, pituitary and craniopharyngeal duct, and cranial nerves.

  • Males had higher incidence rates of tumors located in the frontal lobe, occipital lobe, temporal lobe, parietal lobe, cerebrum, ventricle, cerebellum, brain stem, other brain, spinal cord and cauda equina, other nervous system, pineal, and olfactory tumors of the nasal cavity compared to females.

Incidence Rates by Major Histology Groupings and Specific Histologies

Incidence rates of all primary brain and other CNS tumors by major histology groupings and specific histologies are provided in Table 3 .

  • Among CBTRUS major histology groupings, incidence rates are highest for tumors of the meninges (8.30 per 100,000 population), followed by tumors of the neuroepithelial tissue (6.60 per 100,000 population), tumors of the sellar region (3.85 per 100,000 population), and tumors of the cranial and spinal nerves (1.83 per 100,000 population).

  • Among CBTRUS specific histology groupings, incidence rates are highest for meningiomas (8.03 per 100,000 population), tumors of the pituitary (3.66 per 100,000 population), glioblastomas (3.20 per 100,000 population), and nerve sheath tumors (1.82 per 100,000 population).

Incidence Rates by Behavior and Histology

Brain and other CNS tumor incidence rates by behavior (malignant and non-malignant) and by major histologies are presented in Table 7 .

  • For malignant tumors, the incidence rate is highest for glioblastoma (3.20 per 100,000 population), followed by diffuse astrocytoma (0.51 per 100,000 population) and lymphoma (0.43 per 100,000 population).

  • For non-malignant tumors, the incidence rate is highest for meningioma (7.93 per 100,000 population), followed by tumors of the pituitary (3.65 per 100,000 population), and nerve sheath tumors (1.81 per 100,000 population).

Incidence Rates by Sex and Histology

Incidence rates by sex and histology are presented in Table 3 . Incidence rates for all primary brain and other CNS tumors combined are higher among females (24.46 per 100,000 population) than among males (20.10 per 100,000 population).

  • The incidence rate of tumors of neuroepithelial tissue is higher in males (7.75 per 100,000 population) than in females (5.60 per 100,000 population).

  • The incidence rate of tumors of meninges is higher in females (11.11 per 100,000 population) than in males (5.09 per 100,000 population).

Incidence rate ratios (male:female) for selected histologies and histology groupings are shown in Fig. 12 .

Fig. 12.

Incidence Rate Ratios by Sex (Males:Females) for Selected CBTRUS Histology Groupings and Histology, CBTRUS Statistical Report: NPCR and SEER, 2009-2013.

Fig. 12.

Incidence Rate Ratios by Sex (Males:Females) for Selected CBTRUS Histology Groupings and Histology, CBTRUS Statistical Report: NPCR and SEER, 2009-2013.

  • Incidence was higher in males for many histologies, such as germ cell tumors (p<0.0001), most glial tumors, lymphomas (p<0.0001), and embryonal tumors (p<0.0001).

  • In addition to non-malignant (p<0.0001) and malignant (p=0.0013) meningiomas, tumors of the pituitary (p<0.0001) were also more common in females than in males.

Incidence Rates by Race and Histology

Incidence rates by race and histology are shown in Table 10 .

Table 10.

Five-Year Total, Annual Average Total a , and Average Annual Age-Adjusted Incidence Rates b for Brain and Other Central Nervous System Tumors by Major Histology Groupings, Histology, and Race c , CBTRUS Statistical Report: NPCR and SEER, 2009-2013

 White Black AIAN API 
Histology 5-year total Annual average Rate 95% CI 5-year total Annual average Rate 95% CI 5-year total Annual average Rate 95% CI 5-year total Annual average Rate 95% CI 
Tumors of Neuroepithelial Tissue 94,661 18,932 7.13 (7.08-7.17) 7,972 1,594 4.01 (3.92-4.10) 561 112 3.30 (3.01-3.61) 3,355 671 4.10 (3.96-4.25) 
Pilocytic astrocytoma 4,168 834 0.37 (0.36-0.39) 589 118 0.26 (0.24-0.28) 35 0.15 (0.10-0.21) 232 46 0.28 (0.24-0.32) 
Diffuse astrocytoma 7,079 1,416 0.56 (0.54-0.57) 599 120 0.29 (0.27-0.32) 60 12 0.32 (0.24-0.42) 257 51 0.31 (0.27-0.35) 
Anaplastic astrocytoma 5,537 1,107 0.42 (0.41-0.44) 403 81 0.21 (0.19-0.23) 37 0.20 (0.14-0.28) 199 40 0.24 (0.21-0.28) 
Unique astrocytoma variants 825 165 0.07 (0.06-0.07) 154 31 0.07 (0.06-0.08) -- -- -- -- 59 12 0.07 (0.05-0.09) 
Glioblastoma 49,749 9,950 3.45 (3.42-3.48) 3,306 661 1.79 (1.73-1.86) 201 40 1.48 (1.27-1.72) 1,259 252 1.62 (1.53-1.72) 
Oligodendroglioma 3,425 685 0.28 (0.27-0.29) 224 45 0.11 (0.10-0.13) 26 0.14 (0.09-0.20) 131 26 0.15 (0.12-0.18) 
Anaplastic oligodendroglioma 1,481 296 0.12 (0.11-0.12) 87 17 0.04 (0.03-0.05) -- -- -- -- 77 15 0.09 (0.07-0.11) 
Oligoastrocytic tumors 2,812 562 0.23 (0.22-0.24) 185 37 0.09 (0.08-0.11) 17 0.09 (0.05-0.14) 113 23 0.13 (0.10-0.15) 
Ependymal tumors 5,803 1,161 0.47 (0.45-0.48) 560 112 0.27 (0.25-0.29) 52 10 0.27 (0.20-0.36) 271 54 0.31 (0.27-0.35) 
Glioma malignant, NOS 5,999 1,200 0.49 (0.48-0.50) 788 158 0.38 (0.36-0.41) 45 10 0.24 (0.17-0.33) 298 60 0.37 (0.33-0.42) 
Choroid plexus tumors 661 132 0.06 (0.05-0.06) 67 13 0.03 (0.02-0.04) -- -- -- -- 31 0.04 (0.02-0.05) 
Other neuroepithelial tumors 78 16 0.01 (0.01-0.01) -- -- -- -- -- -- 0.00 (0.00-0.03) -- -- -- -- 
Neuronal and mixed neuronal-glial tumors 3,619 724 0.31 (0.30-0.32) 454 91 0.21 (0.19-0.23) 27 0.14 (0.09-0.21) 206 41 0.24 (0.21-0.27) 
Tumors of the pineal region 525 105 0.04 (0.04-0.05) 123 25 0.06 (0.05-0.07) -- -- -- -- 25 0.03 (0.02-0.04) 
Embryonal tumors 2,900 580 0.26 (0.25-0.27) 423 85 0.19 (0.17-0.20) 29 0.12 (0.08-0.18) 192 38 0.23 (0.20-0.26) 
Tumors of Cranial and Spinal Nerves 26,000 5,200 1.92 (1.89-1.94) 1,825 365 0.93 (0.89-0.98) 187 37 1.14 (0.97-1.33) 1,991 398 2.35 (2.25-2.46) 
Nerve sheath tumors 25,982 5,196 1.92 (1.89-1.94) 1,824 365 0.93 (0.89-0.97) 186 37 1.13 (0.97-1.32) 1,988 398 2.35 (2.24-2.46) 
Other tumors of cranial and spinal nerves 18 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 
Tumors of Meninges 113,793 22,759 8.11 (8.06-8.16) 17,251 3,450 9.81 (9.66-9.96) 738 148 5.47 (5.05-5.91) 6,215 1,243 8.22 (8.01-8.43) 
Meningioma 110,168 22,034 7.82 (7.78-7.87) 16,820 3,364 9.60 (9.45-9.75) 706 141 5.29 (4.87-5.73) 5,976 1,195 7.94 (7.74-8.15) 
Mesenchymal tumors 1,081 216 0.08 (0.08-0.09) 118 24 0.06 (0.05-0.07) -- -- -- -- 77 15 0.09 (0.07-0.11) 
Primary melanocytic lesions 121 24 0.01 (0.01-0.01) -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 
Other neoplasms related to the meninges 2,423 485 0.19 (0.18-0.20) 306 61 0.15 (0.14-0.17) 20 0.11 (0.07-0.17) 158 32 0.18 (0.15-0.21) 
Lymphomas and Hematopoietic Neoplasms 6,275 1,255 0.45 (0.44-0.46) 645 129 0.34 (0.31-0.36) 45 9 0.30 (0.22-0.41) 370 74 0.48 (0.43-0.54) 
Lymphoma 6,061 1,212 0.43 (0.42-0.44) 617 123 0.32 (0.30-0.35) 43 0.30 (0.21-0.41) 361 72 0.47 (0.42-0.53) 
Other hematopoietic neoplasms 214 43 0.02 (0.01-0.02) 28 0.01 (0.01-0.02) -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 
Germ Cell Tumors and Cysts 1,163 233 0.10 (0.10-0.11) 151 30 0.07 (0.06-0.08) -- -- -- -- 126 25 0.15 (0.13-0.18) 
Germ cell tumors, cysts and heterotopias 1,163 233 0.10 (0.10-0.11) 151 30 0.07 (0.06-0.08) -- -- -- -- 126 25 0.15 (0.13-0.18) 
Tumors of Sellar Region 45,019 9,004 3.50 (3.47-3.53) 11,832 2366 6.21 (6.10-6.33) 518 104 3.12 (2.84-3.42) 3,478 696 4.11 (3.97-4.25) 
Tumors of the pituitary 42,883 8,577 3.33 (3.30-3.36) 11,257 2251 5.93 (5.82-6.05) 496 99 2.99 (2.72-3.29) 3,320 664 3.92 (3.79-4.06) 
Craniopharyngioma 2,136 427 0.17 (0.17-0.18) 575 115 0.28 (0.26-0.31) 22 0.13 (0.08-0.20) 158 32 0.19 (0.16-0.22) 
Unclassified Tumors 17,126 3,425 1.26 (1.24-1.28) 2,096 419 1.16 (1.11-1.21) 151 30 1.08 (0.89-1.28) 788 158 1.02 (0.95-1.10) 
Hemangioma 4,948 990 0.39 (0.38-0.40) 519 104 0.26 (0.24-0.28) 59 12 0.35 (0.26-0.46) 289 58 0.34 (0.30-0.38) 
Neoplasm, unspecified 12,108 2,422 0.87 (0.86-0.89) 1,562 312 0.90 (0.85-0.94) 91 18 0.71 (0.55-0.88) 496 99 0.68 (0.62-0.74) 
All other 70 14 0.01 (0.00-0.01) -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 
TOTALd 304,037 60,807 22.46 (22.38-22.55) 41,772 8,354 22.52 (22.30-22.75) 2,207 441 14.44 (13.79-15.11) 16,323 3,265 20.44 (20.12-20.76) 
 White Black AIAN API 
Histology 5-year total Annual average Rate 95% CI 5-year total Annual average Rate 95% CI 5-year total Annual average Rate 95% CI 5-year total Annual average Rate 95% CI 
Tumors of Neuroepithelial Tissue 94,661 18,932 7.13 (7.08-7.17) 7,972 1,594 4.01 (3.92-4.10) 561 112 3.30 (3.01-3.61) 3,355 671 4.10 (3.96-4.25) 
Pilocytic astrocytoma 4,168 834 0.37 (0.36-0.39) 589 118 0.26 (0.24-0.28) 35 0.15 (0.10-0.21) 232 46 0.28 (0.24-0.32) 
Diffuse astrocytoma 7,079 1,416 0.56 (0.54-0.57) 599 120 0.29 (0.27-0.32) 60 12 0.32 (0.24-0.42) 257 51 0.31 (0.27-0.35) 
Anaplastic astrocytoma 5,537 1,107 0.42 (0.41-0.44) 403 81 0.21 (0.19-0.23) 37 0.20 (0.14-0.28) 199 40 0.24 (0.21-0.28) 
Unique astrocytoma variants 825 165 0.07 (0.06-0.07) 154 31 0.07 (0.06-0.08) -- -- -- -- 59 12 0.07 (0.05-0.09) 
Glioblastoma 49,749 9,950 3.45 (3.42-3.48) 3,306 661 1.79 (1.73-1.86) 201 40 1.48 (1.27-1.72) 1,259 252 1.62 (1.53-1.72) 
Oligodendroglioma 3,425 685 0.28 (0.27-0.29) 224 45 0.11 (0.10-0.13) 26 0.14 (0.09-0.20) 131 26 0.15 (0.12-0.18) 
Anaplastic oligodendroglioma 1,481 296 0.12 (0.11-0.12) 87 17 0.04 (0.03-0.05) -- -- -- -- 77 15 0.09 (0.07-0.11) 
Oligoastrocytic tumors 2,812 562 0.23 (0.22-0.24) 185 37 0.09 (0.08-0.11) 17 0.09 (0.05-0.14) 113 23 0.13 (0.10-0.15) 
Ependymal tumors 5,803 1,161 0.47 (0.45-0.48) 560 112 0.27 (0.25-0.29) 52 10 0.27 (0.20-0.36) 271 54 0.31 (0.27-0.35) 
Glioma malignant, NOS 5,999 1,200 0.49 (0.48-0.50) 788 158 0.38 (0.36-0.41) 45 10 0.24 (0.17-0.33) 298 60 0.37 (0.33-0.42) 
Choroid plexus tumors 661 132 0.06 (0.05-0.06) 67 13 0.03 (0.02-0.04) -- -- -- -- 31 0.04 (0.02-0.05) 
Other neuroepithelial tumors 78 16 0.01 (0.01-0.01) -- -- -- -- -- -- 0.00 (0.00-0.03) -- -- -- -- 
Neuronal and mixed neuronal-glial tumors 3,619 724 0.31 (0.30-0.32) 454 91 0.21 (0.19-0.23) 27 0.14 (0.09-0.21) 206 41 0.24 (0.21-0.27) 
Tumors of the pineal region 525 105 0.04 (0.04-0.05) 123 25 0.06 (0.05-0.07) -- -- -- -- 25 0.03 (0.02-0.04) 
Embryonal tumors 2,900 580 0.26 (0.25-0.27) 423 85 0.19 (0.17-0.20) 29 0.12 (0.08-0.18) 192 38 0.23 (0.20-0.26) 
Tumors of Cranial and Spinal Nerves 26,000 5,200 1.92 (1.89-1.94) 1,825 365 0.93 (0.89-0.98) 187 37 1.14 (0.97-1.33) 1,991 398 2.35 (2.25-2.46) 
Nerve sheath tumors 25,982 5,196 1.92 (1.89-1.94) 1,824 365 0.93 (0.89-0.97) 186 37 1.13 (0.97-1.32) 1,988 398 2.35 (2.24-2.46) 
Other tumors of cranial and spinal nerves 18 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 
Tumors of Meninges 113,793 22,759 8.11 (8.06-8.16) 17,251 3,450 9.81 (9.66-9.96) 738 148 5.47 (5.05-5.91) 6,215 1,243 8.22 (8.01-8.43) 
Meningioma 110,168 22,034 7.82 (7.78-7.87) 16,820 3,364 9.60 (9.45-9.75) 706 141 5.29 (4.87-5.73) 5,976 1,195 7.94 (7.74-8.15) 
Mesenchymal tumors 1,081 216 0.08 (0.08-0.09) 118 24 0.06 (0.05-0.07) -- -- -- -- 77 15 0.09 (0.07-0.11) 
Primary melanocytic lesions 121 24 0.01 (0.01-0.01) -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 
Other neoplasms related to the meninges 2,423 485 0.19 (0.18-0.20) 306 61 0.15 (0.14-0.17) 20 0.11 (0.07-0.17) 158 32 0.18 (0.15-0.21) 
Lymphomas and Hematopoietic Neoplasms 6,275 1,255 0.45 (0.44-0.46) 645 129 0.34 (0.31-0.36) 45 9 0.30 (0.22-0.41) 370 74 0.48 (0.43-0.54) 
Lymphoma 6,061 1,212 0.43 (0.42-0.44) 617 123 0.32 (0.30-0.35) 43 0.30 (0.21-0.41) 361 72 0.47 (0.42-0.53) 
Other hematopoietic neoplasms 214 43 0.02 (0.01-0.02) 28 0.01 (0.01-0.02) -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 
Germ Cell Tumors and Cysts 1,163 233 0.10 (0.10-0.11) 151 30 0.07 (0.06-0.08) -- -- -- -- 126 25 0.15 (0.13-0.18) 
Germ cell tumors, cysts and heterotopias 1,163 233 0.10 (0.10-0.11) 151 30 0.07 (0.06-0.08) -- -- -- -- 126 25 0.15 (0.13-0.18) 
Tumors of Sellar Region 45,019 9,004 3.50 (3.47-3.53) 11,832 2366 6.21 (6.10-6.33) 518 104 3.12 (2.84-3.42) 3,478 696 4.11 (3.97-4.25) 
Tumors of the pituitary 42,883 8,577 3.33 (3.30-3.36) 11,257 2251 5.93 (5.82-6.05) 496 99 2.99 (2.72-3.29) 3,320 664 3.92 (3.79-4.06) 
Craniopharyngioma 2,136 427 0.17 (0.17-0.18) 575 115 0.28 (0.26-0.31) 22 0.13 (0.08-0.20) 158 32 0.19 (0.16-0.22) 
Unclassified Tumors 17,126 3,425 1.26 (1.24-1.28) 2,096 419 1.16 (1.11-1.21) 151 30 1.08 (0.89-1.28) 788 158 1.02 (0.95-1.10) 
Hemangioma 4,948 990 0.39 (0.38-0.40) 519 104 0.26 (0.24-0.28) 59 12 0.35 (0.26-0.46) 289 58 0.34 (0.30-0.38) 
Neoplasm, unspecified 12,108 2,422 0.87 (0.86-0.89) 1,562 312 0.90 (0.85-0.94) 91 18 0.71 (0.55-0.88) 496 99 0.68 (0.62-0.74) 
All other 70 14 0.01 (0.00-0.01) -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 
TOTALd 304,037 60,807 22.46 (22.38-22.55) 41,772 8,354 22.52 (22.30-22.75) 2,207 441 14.44 (13.79-15.11) 16,323 3,265 20.44 (20.12-20.76) 

a Annual average cases are calculated by dividing the five-year total by five.

b Rates are per 100,000 and are age-adjusted to the 2000 US standard population.

c Individuals with unknown race were excluded (N = 2,176).

d Refers to all brain and other CNS tumors including histologies not presented in this table.

- Counts and rates are not presented when fewer than 16 cases were reported in the five year period for the specific histology category. The suppressed cases are included in the counts and rates for totals.

Abbreviations: CBTRUS, Central Brain Tumor Registry of the United States; NPCR, National Program of Cancer Registries; SEER, Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results program; CI, confidence interval; NOS, not otherwise specified; AIAN, American Indian/Alaskan Native; API, Asian/Pacific Islander.

  • Incidence rates for all primary brain and other CNS tumors combined are lower for race groups AIAN (14.44 per 100,000 population) as compared to Whites (22.46 per 100,000 population), Blacks (22.52 per 100,000 population), and API (20.44 per 100,000 population).

  • Incidence rates of meningioma, tumors of the pituitary, and craniopharyngioma for Blacks exceed those observed for Whites, AIAN, and API.

  • The average annual incidence rate for tumors of the cranial and spinal nerves in the API group is the highest for all racial groups.

Incidence rate ratios (White:Black) for selected histologies are shown in Fig. 13 .

Fig. 13.

Incidence Rate Ratios by Race (Whites:Blacks) for Selected CBTRUS Histology Groupings and Histologies, CBTRUS Statistical Report: NPCR and SEER, 2009-2013.

Fig. 13.

Incidence Rate Ratios by Race (Whites:Blacks) for Selected CBTRUS Histology Groupings and Histologies, CBTRUS Statistical Report: NPCR and SEER, 2009-2013.

  • Incidence rates for glioblastoma (p<0.0001), all other astrocytoma (p<0.0001), oligoastrocytic tumors (p<0.0001), and nerve sheath tumors (p<0.0001) are approximately 2 times greater in Whites than in Blacks.

  • Incidence of oligodendroglioma is approximately 2.5 times greater in Whites than in Blacks (p<0.0001).

  • Incidence rates for pilocytic astrocytoma (p<0.0001), ependymal tumors (p<0.0001), embryonal tumors (p<0.0001), lymphoma (p<0.0001), and germ cell tumors (p<0.0001) are also higher among Whites than among Blacks.

  • Incidence rates for non-malignant (p<0.0001) and malignant (p<0.0001) meningioma and tumors of the pituitary (p<0.0001) are higher among Blacks than among Whites.

Incidence Rates by Hispanic Ethnicity and Histology

Incidence rates by Hispanic ethnicity and histology are shown in Table 11 .

Table 11.

Five-Year Total, Annual Average Total a, and Average Annual Age-Adjusted Incidence Rates b for Brain and Other Central Nervous System Tumor by Major Histology Groupings, Histology, and Hispanic Ethnicity c , CBTRUS Statistical Report: NPCR and SEER, 2009-2013

Histology Hispanic Non-Hispanic 
5-year total Annual average Rate 95% CI 5-year total Annual average Rate 95% CI 
Tumors of Neuroepithelial Tissue 10,068 2,014 5.05 (4.94-5.16) 96,554 19,311 6.82 (6.77-6.86) 
Pilocytic astrocytoma 705 141 0.23 (0.22-0.25) 4,331 866 0.38 (0.37-0.39) 
Diffuse astrocytoma 851 170 0.41 (0.38-0.44) 7,148 1,430 0.53 (0.52-0.54) 
Anaplastic astrocytoma 539 108 0.27 (0.24-0.29) 5,649 1,130 0.40 (0.39-0.41) 
Unique astrocytoma variants 145 29 0.05 (0.00-0.04) 910 182 0.07 (0.07-0.08) 
Glioblastoma 3,784 757 2.42 (2.33-2.50) 50,709 10,142 3.26 (3.23-3.28) 
Oligodendroglioma 376 75 0.17 (0.16-0.19) 3,434 687 0.26 (0.26-0.27) 
Anaplastic oligodendroglioma 170 34 0.08 (0.07-0.10) 1,482 296 0.11 (0.10-0.11) 
Oligoastrocytic tumors 289 58 0.13 (0.11-0.15) 2,853 571 0.22 (0.21-0.23) 
Ependymal tumors 874 175 0.38 (0.35-0.40) 5,815 1,163 0.44 (0.43-0.45) 
Glioma malignant, NOS 843 169 0.37 (0.34-0.40) 6,297 1,259 0.49 (0.48-0.50) 
Choroid plexus tumors 127 25 0.05 (0..04-0.06) 644 129 0.05 (0.05-0.06) 
Other neuroepithelial tumors -- -- -- -- 81 16 0.01 (0.01-0.01) 
Neuronal and mixed neuronal-glial tumors 522 104 0.20 (0.18-0.22) 3,793 759 0.30 (0.29-0.31) 
Tumors of the pineal region 91 18 0.04 (0.03-0.04) 586 117 0.05 (0.04-0.05) 
Embryonal tumors 738 148 0.24 (0.23-0.36) 2,822 564 0.25 (0.24-0.26) 
Tumors of Cranial and Spinal Nerves 2,415 483 1.26 (1.21-1.32) 27,652 5,530 1.90 (1.87-1.92) 
Nerve sheath tumors 2,411 482 1.26 (1.21-1.32) 27,632 5,526 1.89 (1.87-1.92) 
Other tumors of cranial and spinal nerves -- -- -- -- 20 0.00 (0.00-0.00) 
Tumors of Meninges 12,231 2,446 8.05 (7.90-8.21) 125,722 25,144 8.32 (8.27-8.37) 
Meningioma 11,676 2,335 7.79 (7.64-7.94) 121,954 24,391 8.05 (8.00-8.09) 
Mesenchymal tumors 169 34 0.08 (0.07-0.09) 1,118 224 0.08 (0.08-0.09) 
Primary melanocytic lesions -- -- -- -- 120 24 0.01 (0.01-0.01) 
Other neoplasms related to the meninges 372 74 0.18 (0.16-0.20) 2,530 506 0.18 (0.18-0.19) 
Lymphomas and Hematopoietic Neoplasms 773 155 0.48 (0.44-0.51) 6,582 1,316 0.44 (0.43-0.45) 
Lymphoma 728 146 0.46 (0.42-0.49) 6,377 1,275 0.42 (0.41-0.43) 
Other hemopoietic neoplasms 45 0.02 (0.02-0.03) 205 41 0.01 (0.01-0.02) 
Germ Cell Tumors and Cysts 260 52 0.09 (0.08-0.10) 1184 237 0.10 (0.10-0.11) 
Germ cell tumors, cysts and heterotopias 260 52 0.09 (0.08-0.10) 1184 237 0.10 (0.10-0.11) 
Tumors of Sellar Region 8,813 1,763 4.41 (4.31-4.51) 52043 10,409 3.76 (3.73-3.79) 
Tumors of the pituitary 8,371 1,674 4.22 (4.12-4.32) 49597 9,919 3.58 (3.54-3.61) 
Craniopharyngioma 442 88 0.19 (0.17-0.20) 2446 489 0.19 (0.18-0.19) 
Unclassified Tumors 2,192 438 1.29 (1.23-1.35) 17857 3,571 1.23 (1.21-1.25) 
Hemangioma 716 143 0.35 (0.33-0.38) 5104 1,021 0.37 (0.36-0.38) 
Neoplasm, unspecified 1,461 292 0.93 (0.87-0.98) 12679 2,536 0.85 (0.84-0.87) 
All other -- -- -- -- 74 15 0.01 (0.00-0.01) 
TOTALd 36,752 7,350 20.62 (20.39-20.85) 327,594 65,519 22.56 (22.48-22.64) 
Histology Hispanic Non-Hispanic 
5-year total Annual average Rate 95% CI 5-year total Annual average Rate 95% CI 
Tumors of Neuroepithelial Tissue 10,068 2,014 5.05 (4.94-5.16) 96,554 19,311 6.82 (6.77-6.86) 
Pilocytic astrocytoma 705 141 0.23 (0.22-0.25) 4,331 866 0.38 (0.37-0.39) 
Diffuse astrocytoma 851 170 0.41 (0.38-0.44) 7,148 1,430 0.53 (0.52-0.54) 
Anaplastic astrocytoma 539 108 0.27 (0.24-0.29) 5,649 1,130 0.40 (0.39-0.41) 
Unique astrocytoma variants 145 29 0.05 (0.00-0.04) 910 182 0.07 (0.07-0.08) 
Glioblastoma 3,784 757 2.42 (2.33-2.50) 50,709 10,142 3.26 (3.23-3.28) 
Oligodendroglioma 376 75 0.17 (0.16-0.19) 3,434 687 0.26 (0.26-0.27) 
Anaplastic oligodendroglioma 170 34 0.08 (0.07-0.10) 1,482 296 0.11 (0.10-0.11) 
Oligoastrocytic tumors 289 58 0.13 (0.11-0.15) 2,853 571 0.22 (0.21-0.23) 
Ependymal tumors 874 175 0.38 (0.35-0.40) 5,815 1,163 0.44 (0.43-0.45) 
Glioma malignant, NOS 843 169 0.37 (0.34-0.40) 6,297 1,259 0.49 (0.48-0.50) 
Choroid plexus tumors 127 25 0.05 (0..04-0.06) 644 129 0.05 (0.05-0.06) 
Other neuroepithelial tumors -- -- -- -- 81 16 0.01 (0.01-0.01) 
Neuronal and mixed neuronal-glial tumors 522 104 0.20 (0.18-0.22) 3,793 759 0.30 (0.29-0.31) 
Tumors of the pineal region 91 18 0.04 (0.03-0.04) 586 117 0.05 (0.04-0.05) 
Embryonal tumors 738 148 0.24 (0.23-0.36) 2,822 564 0.25 (0.24-0.26) 
Tumors of Cranial and Spinal Nerves 2,415 483 1.26 (1.21-1.32) 27,652 5,530 1.90 (1.87-1.92) 
Nerve sheath tumors 2,411 482 1.26 (1.21-1.32) 27,632 5,526 1.89 (1.87-1.92) 
Other tumors of cranial and spinal nerves -- -- -- -- 20 0.00 (0.00-0.00) 
Tumors of Meninges 12,231 2,446 8.05 (7.90-8.21) 125,722 25,144 8.32 (8.27-8.37) 
Meningioma 11,676 2,335 7.79 (7.64-7.94) 121,954 24,391 8.05 (8.00-8.09) 
Mesenchymal tumors 169 34 0.08 (0.07-0.09) 1,118 224 0.08 (0.08-0.09) 
Primary melanocytic lesions -- -- -- -- 120 24 0.01 (0.01-0.01) 
Other neoplasms related to the meninges 372 74 0.18 (0.16-0.20) 2,530 506 0.18 (0.18-0.19) 
Lymphomas and Hematopoietic Neoplasms 773 155 0.48 (0.44-0.51) 6,582 1,316 0.44 (0.43-0.45) 
Lymphoma 728 146 0.46 (0.42-0.49) 6,377 1,275 0.42 (0.41-0.43) 
Other hemopoietic neoplasms 45 0.02 (0.02-0.03) 205 41 0.01 (0.01-0.02) 
Germ Cell Tumors and Cysts 260 52 0.09 (0.08-0.10) 1184 237 0.10 (0.10-0.11) 
Germ cell tumors, cysts and heterotopias 260 52 0.09 (0.08-0.10) 1184 237 0.10 (0.10-0.11) 
Tumors of Sellar Region 8,813 1,763 4.41 (4.31-4.51) 52043 10,409 3.76 (3.73-3.79) 
Tumors of the pituitary 8,371 1,674 4.22 (4.12-4.32) 49597 9,919 3.58 (3.54-3.61) 
Craniopharyngioma 442 88 0.19 (0.17-0.20) 2446 489 0.19 (0.18-0.19) 
Unclassified Tumors 2,192 438 1.29 (1.23-1.35) 17857 3,571 1.23 (1.21-1.25) 
Hemangioma 716 143 0.35 (0.33-0.38) 5104 1,021 0.37 (0.36-0.38) 
Neoplasm, unspecified 1,461 292 0.93 (0.87-0.98) 12679 2,536 0.85 (0.84-0.87) 
All other -- -- -- -- 74 15 0.01 (0.00-0.01) 
TOTALd 36,752 7,350 20.62 (20.39-20.85) 327,594 65,519 22.56 (22.48-22.64) 

a Annual average cases are calculated by dividing the five-year total by five.

b Rates are per 100,000 and age-adjusted to the 2000 US standard population.

c Hispanic ethnicity is not mutually exclusive of race; Classified using the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries Hispanic Identification Algorithm, version 2 (NHIA v2).

d Refers to all brain and other CNS tumors including histologies not presented in this table.

- Counts and rates are not presented when fewer than 16 cases were reported in the five year period for the specific histology category. The suppressed cases are included in the counts and rates for totals.

Abbreviations: CBTRUS, Central Brain Tumor Registry of the United States; NPCR, National Program of Cancer Registries; SEER, Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results program; CI, confidence interval; NOS, not otherwise specified.

  • The overall incidence rate for primary brain and other CNS tumors is 20.62 per 100,000 population among Hispanics and 22.56 per 100,000 population among non-Hispanics.

  • Tumors of the pituitary, neoplasm unspecified, and other hematopoietic neoplasms are the only histologies that are higher in Hispanics than in non-Hispanics.

Incidence Rates by Age and Histology

The age-adjusted incidence rates by age and histology at diagnosis are presented in Table 12 , Fig. 14 (Age 20+ Years), and Fig. 15 (Age 0–19 Years).

Table 12.

Average Annual Age-Adjusted and Age-Specific Incidence Rates a for Brain and Other Central Nervous System Tumors by Major Histology Groupings, Histology, and Age Group at Diagnosis, CBTRUS Statistical Report: NPCR and SEER, 2009-2013

 Age At Diagnosis 
 0-19 Years 20-34 Years 35-44 Years 45-54 Years 55-64 Years 65-74 Years 75-84 Years 85+ Years 
Histology Rate (95% CI) Rate (95% CI) Rate (95% CI) Rate (95% CI) Rate (95% CI) Rate (95% CI) Rate (95% CI) Rate (95% CI) 
Tumors of Neuroepithelial Tissue 3.74 (3.68-3.80) 3.43 (3.36-3.50) 4.49 (4.40-4.59) 6.90 (6.79-7.01) 11.71 (11.56-11.87) 17.19 (16.94-17.44) 19.66 (19.32-20.00) 12.47 (12.05-12.89) 
Pilocytic astrocytoma 0.88 (0.85-0.91) 0.24 (0.22-0.25) 0.12 (0.11-0.14) 0.09 (0.08-0.10) 0.08 (0.07-0.10) 0.06 (0.04-0.07) 0.07 (0.05-0.09) -- -- 
Diffuse astrocytoma 0.27 (0.25-0.29) 0.50 (0.48-0.53) 0.56 (0.53-0.60) 0.58 (0.55-0.61) 0.77 (0.73-0.81) 0.97 (0.91-1.03) 1.08 (1.00-1.16) 0.60 (0.52-0.70) 
Anaplastic astrocytoma 0.09 (0.08-0.10) 0.30 (0.28-0.31) 0.41 (0.38-0.44) 0.46 (0.44-0.49) 0.65 (0.61-0.68) 0.92 (0.86-9.98) 0.91 (0.84-0.99) 0.42 (0.34-0.50) 
Unique astrocytoma variants 0.11 (0.10-0.12) 0.07 (0.06-0.08) 0.04 (0.03-0.05) 0.04 (0.03-0.05) 0.04 (0.03-0.05) 0.05 (0.04-0.07) 0.07 (0.05-0.10) 0.07 (0.04-0.11) 
Glioblastoma 0.16 (0.15-0.17) 0.42 (0.40-0.45) 1.21 (1.16-1.26) 3.55 (3.47-3.63) 8.11 (7.98-8.24) 13.09 (12.87-13.31) 15.27 (14.97-15.57) 9.16 (8.81-9.52) 
Oligodendroglioma 0.05 (0.05-0.06) 0.31 (0.29-0.33) 0.45 (0.42-0.48) 0.40 (0.37-0.43) 0.31 (0.28-0.33) 0.21 (0.19-0.24) 0.19 (0.16-0.23) 0.10 (0.07-0.15) 
Anaplastic oligodendroglioma 0.01 (0.00-0.01) 0.08 (0.07-0.09) 0.17 (0.15-0.19) 0.18 (0.17-0.20) 0.21 (0.19-0.23) 0.17 (0.14-0.19) 0.11 (0.09-0.14) -- -- 
Oligoastrocytic tumors 0.03 (0.03-0.04) 0.30 (0.28-0.32) 0.33 (0.31-0.36) 0.28 (0.26-0.30) 0.26 (0.24-0.29) 0.21 (0.18-0.24) 0.15 (0.12-0.18) -- -- 
Ependymal tumors 0.29 (0.27-0.30) 0.38 (0.35-0.40) 0.49 (0.46-0.52) 0.62 (0.59-0.66) 0.57 (0.54-0.61) 0.59 (0.55-0.64) 0.44 (0.39-0.49) 0.19 (0.14-0.25) 
Glioma malignant, NOS 0.67 (0.65-0.70) 0.26 (0.24-0.28) 0.27 (0.25-0.29) 0.29 (0.27-0.32) 0.36 (0.34-0.39) 0.60 (0.56-0.65) 1.09 (1.01-1.17) 1.69 (1.54-1.85) 
Choroid plexus tumors 0.10 (0.09-0.11) 0.03 (0.03-0.04) 0.03 (0.02-0.04) 0.04 (0.03-0.05) 0.04 (0.03-0.05) 0.04 (0.03-0.05) 0.05 (0.03-0.07) -- -- 
Other neuroepithelial tumors 0.01 (0.01-0.01) 0.01 (0.00-0.01) 0.01 (0.00-0.01) -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 
Neuronal and mixed neuronal- glial tumors 0.39 (0.37-0.41) 0.32 (0.30-0.34) 0.25 (0.22-0.27) 0.23 (0.21-0.25) 0.22 (0.19-0.24) 0.20 (0.17-0.23) 0.17 (0.14-0.20) 0.06 (0.04-0.10) 
Tumors of the pineal region 0.05 (0.04-0.05) 0.05 (0.04-0.06) 0.05 (0.04-0.06) 0.04 (0.04-0.05) 0.04 (0.03-0.05) 0.04 (0.02-0.05) 0.03 (0.02-0.04) -- -- 
Embryonal tumors 0.64 (0.62-0.67) 0.17 (0.15-0.18) 0.11 (0.10-0.13) 0.08 (0.07-0.09) 0.05 (0.04-0.06) 0.04 (0.03-0.05) 0.03 (0.02-0.05) -- -- 
Tumors of Cranial and Spinal Nerves 0.30 (0.28-0.32) 0.85 (0.81-0.88) 1.86 (1.80-1.92) 2.95 (2.88-3.02) 4.16 (4.06-4.25) 4.75 (4.62-4.88) 3.65 (3.50-3.80) 1.78 (1.62-1.94) 
Nerve sheath tumors 0.30 (0.28-0.32) 0.85 (0.81-0.88) 1.86 (1.80-1.92) 2.94 (2.87-3.02) 4.15 (4.06-4.25) 4.75 (4.62-4.88) 3.65 (3.50-3.80) 1.78 (1.62-1.94) 
Other tumors of cranial and spinal nerves -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 
Tumors of Meninges 0.23 (0.22-0.25) 1.67 (1.62-1.72) 5.29 (5.19-5.39) 9.60 (9.48-9.73) 15.60 (15.42-15.79) 27.24 (26.92-27.55) 40.18 (39.70-40.67) 52.48 (51.63-53.34) 
Meningioma 0.14 (0.13-0.16) 1.42 (1.38-1.46) 4.94 (4.84-5.03) 9.22 (9.10-0.35) 15.13 (14.95-15.31) 26.74 (26.43-27.05) 39.75 (39.27-40.24) 52.28 (51.43-53.14) 
Mesenchymal tumors 0.05 (0.04-0.06) 0.06 (0.05-0.07) 0.10 (0.09-0.11) 0.10 (0.09-0.12) 0.15 (0.13-0.17) 0.14 (0.12-0.16) 0.11 (0.09-0.14) 0.07 (0.04-0.10) 
Primary melanocytic lesions -- -- -- -- -- -- 0.01 (0.01-0.02) 0.02 (0.01-0.02) 0.02 (0.01-0.03) 0.03 (0.02-0.05) -- -- 
Other neoplasms related to the meninges 0.04 (0.03-0.05) 0.18 (0.17-0.20) 0.24 (0.22-0.26) 0.27 (0.25-0.29) 0.31 (0.28-0.33) 0.34 (0.30-0.37) 0.28 (0.24-0.32) 0.12 (0.08-0.17) 
Lymphomas and Hematopoietic Neoplasms 0.03 (0.02-0.03) 0.11 (0.10-0.12) 0.27 (0.25-0.29) 0.43 (0.40-0.46) 0.89 (0.84-0.93) 1.83 (1.75-1.91) 2.40 (2.28-2.53) 1.20 (1.07-1.33) 
Lymphoma 0.01 (0.01-0.02) 0.10 (0.09-0.12) 0.26 (0.24-0.28) 0.42 (0.39-0.44) 0.86 (0.82-0.91) 1.79 (1.71-1.87) 2.38 (2.27-2.51) 1.18 (1.06-1.32) 
Other hematopoietic neoplasms 0.01 (0.01-0.02) 0.01 (0.00-0.01) 0.01 (0.01-0.02) 0.01 (0.01-0.02) 0.02 (0.02-0.03) 0.04 (0.03-0.05) -- -- -- -- 
Germ Cell Tumors and Cysts 0.22 (0.21-0.23) 0.10 (0.09-0.11) 0.05 (0.04-0.06) 0.03 (0.02-0.04) 0.02 (0.01-0.03) 0.03 (0.02-0.04) 0.03 (0.02-0.05) -- -- 
Germ cell tumors, cysts and heterotopias 0.22 (0.21-0.23) 0.10 (0.09-0.11) 0.05 (0.04-0.06) 0.03 (0.02-0.04) 0.02 (0.01-0.03) 0.03 (0.02-0.04) 0.03 (0.02-0.05) -- -- 
Tumors of Sellar Region 0.81 (0.78-0.84) 3.45 (3.39-3.52) 4.71 (4.62-4.81) 5.02 (4.93-5.11) 5.77 (5.66-5.89) 7.78 (7.61-7.95) 7.74 (7.53-7.96) 4.93 (4.67-5.19) 
Tumors of the pituitary 0.61 (0.59-0.61) 3.33 (3.27-3.40) 4.55 (4.46-4.65) 4.80 (4.71-4.9) 5.54 (5.43-5.64) 7.52 (7.35-7.68) 7.52 (7.31-7.73) 4.82 (4.56-5.08) 
Craniopharyngioma 0.20 (0.18-0.21) 0.12 (0.11-0.13) 0.16 (0.15-0.18) 0.22 (0.20-0.24) 0.24 (0.22-0.26) 0.26 (0.23-0.29) 0.22 (0.19-0.26) 0.11 (0.07-0.15) 
Unclassified Tumors 0.33 (0.31-0.35) 0.62 (0.60-0.65) 0.90 (0.86-0.94) 1.13 (1.09-1.18) 1.60 (1.55-1.66) 2.60 (2.51-2.70) 5.21 (5.04-5.39) 11.64 (10.67-11.46) 
Hemangioma 0.12 (0.11-0.13) 0.30 (0.28-0.32) 0.42 (0.39-0.45) 0.48 (0.45-0.51) 0.54 (0.50-0.57) 0.57 (0.52-0.61) 0.57 (0.51-0.63) 0.53 (0.45-0.63) 
Neoplasm, unspecified 0.20 (0.19-0.22) 0.32 (0.30-0.34) 0.48 (0.45-0.51) 0.65 (0.62-0.68) 1.06 (1.01-1.11) 2.02 (1.94-2.11) 4.62 (4.46-4.79) 11.06 (10.67-11.46) 
All other 0.01 (0.00-0.01) -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 0.01 (0.01-0.02) -- -- -- -- 
TOTALb 5.67 (5.59-5.74) 10.23 (10.12-10.35) 17.57 (17.39-17.75) 26.06 (25.85-26.28) 39.76 (39.47-40.05) 61.41 (60.95-61.89) 78.87 (78.18-79.55) 84.52 (83.44-85.61) 
 Age At Diagnosis 
 0-19 Years 20-34 Years 35-44 Years 45-54 Years 55-64 Years 65-74 Years 75-84 Years 85+ Years 
Histology Rate (95% CI) Rate (95% CI) Rate (95% CI) Rate (95% CI) Rate (95% CI) Rate (95% CI) Rate (95% CI) Rate (95% CI) 
Tumors of Neuroepithelial Tissue 3.74 (3.68-3.80) 3.43 (3.36-3.50) 4.49 (4.40-4.59) 6.90 (6.79-7.01) 11.71 (11.56-11.87) 17.19 (16.94-17.44) 19.66 (19.32-20.00) 12.47 (12.05-12.89) 
Pilocytic astrocytoma 0.88 (0.85-0.91) 0.24 (0.22-0.25) 0.12 (0.11-0.14) 0.09 (0.08-0.10) 0.08 (0.07-0.10) 0.06 (0.04-0.07) 0.07 (0.05-0.09) -- -- 
Diffuse astrocytoma 0.27 (0.25-0.29) 0.50 (0.48-0.53) 0.56 (0.53-0.60) 0.58 (0.55-0.61) 0.77 (0.73-0.81) 0.97 (0.91-1.03) 1.08 (1.00-1.16) 0.60 (0.52-0.70) 
Anaplastic astrocytoma 0.09 (0.08-0.10) 0.30 (0.28-0.31) 0.41 (0.38-0.44) 0.46 (0.44-0.49) 0.65 (0.61-0.68) 0.92 (0.86-9.98) 0.91 (0.84-0.99) 0.42 (0.34-0.50) 
Unique astrocytoma variants 0.11 (0.10-0.12) 0.07 (0.06-0.08) 0.04 (0.03-0.05) 0.04 (0.03-0.05) 0.04 (0.03-0.05) 0.05 (0.04-0.07) 0.07 (0.05-0.10) 0.07 (0.04-0.11) 
Glioblastoma 0.16 (0.15-0.17) 0.42 (0.40-0.45) 1.21 (1.16-1.26) 3.55 (3.47-3.63) 8.11 (7.98-8.24) 13.09 (12.87-13.31) 15.27 (14.97-15.57) 9.16 (8.81-9.52) 
Oligodendroglioma 0.05 (0.05-0.06) 0.31 (0.29-0.33) 0.45 (0.42-0.48) 0.40 (0.37-0.43) 0.31 (0.28-0.33) 0.21 (0.19-0.24) 0.19 (0.16-0.23) 0.10 (0.07-0.15) 
Anaplastic oligodendroglioma 0.01 (0.00-0.01) 0.08 (0.07-0.09) 0.17 (0.15-0.19) 0.18 (0.17-0.20) 0.21 (0.19-0.23) 0.17 (0.14-0.19) 0.11 (0.09-0.14) -- -- 
Oligoastrocytic tumors 0.03 (0.03-0.04) 0.30 (0.28-0.32) 0.33 (0.31-0.36) 0.28 (0.26-0.30) 0.26 (0.24-0.29) 0.21 (0.18-0.24) 0.15 (0.12-0.18) -- -- 
Ependymal tumors 0.29 (0.27-0.30) 0.38 (0.35-0.40) 0.49 (0.46-0.52) 0.62 (0.59-0.66) 0.57 (0.54-0.61) 0.59 (0.55-0.64) 0.44 (0.39-0.49) 0.19 (0.14-0.25) 
Glioma malignant, NOS 0.67 (0.65-0.70) 0.26 (0.24-0.28) 0.27 (0.25-0.29) 0.29 (0.27-0.32) 0.36 (0.34-0.39) 0.60 (0.56-0.65) 1.09 (1.01-1.17) 1.69 (1.54-1.85) 
Choroid plexus tumors 0.10 (0.09-0.11) 0.03 (0.03-0.04) 0.03 (0.02-0.04) 0.04 (0.03-0.05) 0.04 (0.03-0.05) 0.04 (0.03-0.05) 0.05 (0.03-0.07) -- -- 
Other neuroepithelial tumors 0.01 (0.01-0.01) 0.01 (0.00-0.01) 0.01 (0.00-0.01) -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 
Neuronal and mixed neuronal- glial tumors 0.39 (0.37-0.41) 0.32 (0.30-0.34) 0.25 (0.22-0.27) 0.23 (0.21-0.25) 0.22 (0.19-0.24) 0.20 (0.17-0.23) 0.17 (0.14-0.20) 0.06 (0.04-0.10) 
Tumors of the pineal region 0.05 (0.04-0.05) 0.05 (0.04-0.06) 0.05 (0.04-0.06) 0.04 (0.04-0.05) 0.04 (0.03-0.05) 0.04 (0.02-0.05) 0.03 (0.02-0.04) -- -- 
Embryonal tumors 0.64 (0.62-0.67) 0.17 (0.15-0.18) 0.11 (0.10-0.13) 0.08 (0.07-0.09) 0.05 (0.04-0.06) 0.04 (0.03-0.05) 0.03 (0.02-0.05) -- -- 
Tumors of Cranial and Spinal Nerves 0.30 (0.28-0.32) 0.85 (0.81-0.88) 1.86 (1.80-1.92) 2.95 (2.88-3.02) 4.16 (4.06-4.25) 4.75 (4.62-4.88) 3.65 (3.50-3.80) 1.78 (1.62-1.94) 
Nerve sheath tumors 0.30 (0.28-0.32) 0.85 (0.81-0.88) 1.86 (1.80-1.92) 2.94 (2.87-3.02) 4.15 (4.06-4.25) 4.75 (4.62-4.88) 3.65 (3.50-3.80) 1.78 (1.62-1.94) 
Other tumors of cranial and spinal nerves -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 
Tumors of Meninges 0.23 (0.22-0.25) 1.67 (1.62-1.72) 5.29 (5.19-5.39) 9.60 (9.48-9.73) 15.60 (15.42-15.79) 27.24 (26.92-27.55) 40.18 (39.70-40.67) 52.48 (51.63-53.34) 
Meningioma 0.14 (0.13-0.16) 1.42 (1.38-1.46) 4.94 (4.84-5.03) 9.22 (9.10-0.35) 15.13 (14.95-15.31) 26.74 (26.43-27.05) 39.75 (39.27-40.24) 52.28 (51.43-53.14) 
Mesenchymal tumors 0.05 (0.04-0.06) 0.06 (0.05-0.07) 0.10 (0.09-0.11) 0.10 (0.09-0.12) 0.15 (0.13-0.17) 0.14 (0.12-0.16) 0.11 (0.09-0.14) 0.07 (0.04-0.10) 
Primary melanocytic lesions -- -- -- -- -- -- 0.01 (0.01-0.02) 0.02 (0.01-0.02) 0.02 (0.01-0.03) 0.03 (0.02-0.05) -- -- 
Other neoplasms related to the meninges 0.04 (0.03-0.05) 0.18 (0.17-0.20) 0.24 (0.22-0.26) 0.27 (0.25-0.29) 0.31 (0.28-0.33) 0.34 (0.30-0.37) 0.28 (0.24-0.32) 0.12 (0.08-0.17) 
Lymphomas and Hematopoietic Neoplasms 0.03 (0.02-0.03) 0.11 (0.10-0.12) 0.27 (0.25-0.29) 0.43 (0.40-0.46) 0.89 (0.84-0.93) 1.83 (1.75-1.91) 2.40 (2.28-2.53) 1.20 (1.07-1.33) 
Lymphoma 0.01 (0.01-0.02) 0.10 (0.09-0.12) 0.26 (0.24-0.28) 0.42 (0.39-0.44) 0.86 (0.82-0.91) 1.79 (1.71-1.87) 2.38 (2.27-2.51) 1.18 (1.06-1.32) 
Other hematopoietic neoplasms 0.01 (0.01-0.02) 0.01 (0.00-0.01) 0.01 (0.01-0.02) 0.01 (0.01-0.02) 0.02 (0.02-0.03) 0.04 (0.03-0.05) -- -- -- -- 
Germ Cell Tumors and Cysts 0.22 (0.21-0.23) 0.10 (0.09-0.11) 0.05 (0.04-0.06) 0.03 (0.02-0.04) 0.02 (0.01-0.03) 0.03 (0.02-0.04) 0.03 (0.02-0.05) -- -- 
Germ cell tumors, cysts and heterotopias 0.22 (0.21-0.23) 0.10 (0.09-0.11) 0.05 (0.04-0.06) 0.03 (0.02-0.04) 0.02 (0.01-0.03) 0.03 (0.02-0.04) 0.03 (0.02-0.05) -- -- 
Tumors of Sellar Region 0.81 (0.78-0.84) 3.45 (3.39-3.52) 4.71 (4.62-4.81) 5.02 (4.93-5.11) 5.77 (5.66-5.89) 7.78 (7.61-7.95) 7.74 (7.53-7.96) 4.93 (4.67-5.19) 
Tumors of the pituitary 0.61 (0.59-0.61) 3.33 (3.27-3.40) 4.55 (4.46-4.65) 4.80 (4.71-4.9) 5.54 (5.43-5.64) 7.52 (7.35-7.68) 7.52 (7.31-7.73) 4.82 (4.56-5.08) 
Craniopharyngioma 0.20 (0.18-0.21) 0.12 (0.11-0.13) 0.16 (0.15-0.18) 0.22 (0.20-0.24) 0.24 (0.22-0.26) 0.26 (0.23-0.29) 0.22 (0.19-0.26) 0.11 (0.07-0.15) 
Unclassified Tumors 0.33 (0.31-0.35) 0.62 (0.60-0.65) 0.90 (0.86-0.94) 1.13 (1.09-1.18) 1.60 (1.55-1.66) 2.60 (2.51-2.70) 5.21 (5.04-5.39) 11.64 (10.67-11.46) 
Hemangioma 0.12 (0.11-0.13) 0.30 (0.28-0.32) 0.42 (0.39-0.45) 0.48 (0.45-0.51) 0.54 (0.50-0.57) 0.57 (0.52-0.61) 0.57 (0.51-0.63) 0.53 (0.45-0.63) 
Neoplasm, unspecified 0.20 (0.19-0.22) 0.32 (0.30-0.34) 0.48 (0.45-0.51) 0.65 (0.62-0.68) 1.06 (1.01-1.11) 2.02 (1.94-2.11) 4.62 (4.46-4.79) 11.06 (10.67-11.46) 
All other 0.01 (0.00-0.01) -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 0.01 (0.01-0.02) -- -- -- -- 
TOTALb 5.67 (5.59-5.74) 10.23 (10.12-10.35) 17.57 (17.39-17.75) 26.06 (25.85-26.28) 39.76 (39.47-40.05) 61.41 (60.95-61.89) 78.87 (78.18-79.55) 84.52 (83.44-85.61) 

a Rates are per 100,000 and age-adjusted to the 2000 US. standard population.

b Refers to all brain and other CNS tumors including histologies not presented in this table.

- Counts and rates are not presented when fewer than 16 cases were reported in the five year period for the specific histology category. The suppressed cases are included in the counts and rates for totals.

Abbreviations: CBTRUS, Central Brain Tumor Registry of the United States; NPCR, National Program of Cancer Registries; SEER, Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results program; CI, confidence interval; NOS, not otherwise specified.

Fig. 14.

Age-Adjusted Incidence Rates a of Brain and Other CNS Tumors by Selected Histologies and Age Groups (Age 20+ Years), CBTRUS Statistical Report: NPCR and SEER, 2009-2013.

Fig. 14.

Age-Adjusted Incidence Rates a of Brain and Other CNS Tumors by Selected Histologies and Age Groups (Age 20+ Years), CBTRUS Statistical Report: NPCR and SEER, 2009-2013.

Fig. 15.

Age-Adjusted Incidence Rates a in Children and Adolescents of Brain and Other CNS Tumors by Selected Histologies and Age Groups (Age 0-19 Years), CBTRUS Statistical Report: NPCR and SEER, 2009-2013.

Fig. 15.

Age-Adjusted Incidence Rates a in Children and Adolescents of Brain and Other CNS Tumors by Selected Histologies and Age Groups (Age 0-19 Years), CBTRUS Statistical Report: NPCR and SEER, 2009-2013.

  • The incidence rate for all brain and other CNS tumors is highest among age 85+ years (84.52 per 100,000 population) and lowest among children and adolescents age 0–19 years (5.67 per 100,000 population).

  • Incidence rates of pilocytic astrocytoma, germ cell tumors, and embryonal tumors are higher in the younger age groups and decrease with advancing age.

  • Incidence rate of meningioma increases with age.

  • Incidence rates decline with increasing age for those age 0–19 years, particularly for the gliomas and embryonal tumors (primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET) and medulloblastoma).

  • After peaking in the 0–9 year age group, incidence rates of pilocytic astrocytoma decreases in the age groups 10–14, and 15–19 years.

  • The incidence of tumors of the pituitary increase substantially between the 10–14 years age-group and 15–19 years age-group.

  • The incidence rate of PNET peaks in the 0–4 years age group.

  • The incidence of medulloblastoma peaks in those age 9 years and younger.

The distribution patterns of histologies within age groups differ substantially as is apparent in Table 13 , which shows the four most common brain and other CNS tumor histologies by age group at diagnosis.

Table 13.

Most Common Primary Brain and Other Central Nervous System Tumors a by Age Group, CBTRUS Statistical Report: NPCR and SEER, 2009-2013

Age (years )  Most Common Histology Second Most Common Histology Third Most Common Histology Fourth Most Common Histology 
Histology Rateb (95% CI) Histology Rate (95% CI) Histology Rate (95% CI) Histology Rate (95% CI) 
0-4 Embryonal Tumors 1.24 (1.17-1.31) Pilocytic Astrocytoma 1.03 (0.96-1.09) Glioma Malignant, NOS 0.93 (0.87-0.99) Ependymal Tumors 0.48 (0.44-0.53) 
5-9 Pilocytic Astrocytoma 1.01 (0.95-1.07) Glioma Malignant, NOS 0.88 (0.82-0.94) Embryonal Tumors 0.72 (0.67-0.77) Neuronal and Mixed Neuronal Glial Tumors 0.31 (0.27-0.34) 
10-14 Pilocytic Astrocytoma 0.86 (0.81-0.92) Glioma Malignant, NOS 0.51 (0.47-0.56) Tumors of the Pituitary 0.49 (0.45-0.54) Neuronal and Mixed Neuronal Glial Tumors 0.47 (0.43-0.51) 
15-19 Tumors of the Pituitary 1.66 (1.58-1.73) Pilocytic Astrocytoma 0.60 (0.55-0.65) Neuronal and Mixed Neuronal Glial Tumors 0.48 (0.44-0.53) Nerve Sheath Tumors 0.35 (0.32-0.39) 
20-34 Tumors of the Pituitary 3.11 (3.1-3.23) Meningioma 1.39 (1.35-1.44) Nerve Sheath Tumors 0.83 (0.80-0.86) Diffuse Astrocytoma 0.49 (0.47-0.52) 
35-44 Meningioma 4.82 (4.72-4.91) Tumors of the Pituitary 4.36 (4.27-4.45) Nerve Sheath Tumors 1.81 (1.75-1.87) Glioblastoma 1.21 (1.16-1.25) 
45-54 Meningioma 9.02 (8.89-9.14) Tumors of the Pituitary 4.64 (4.55-4.73) Glioblastoma 3.54 (3.47-3.62) Nerve Sheath Tumors 2.85 (2.78-2.92) 
55-64 Meningioma 14.77 (14.59-14.95) Glioblastoma 8.08 (7.95-8.21) Tumors of the Pituitary 5.37 (5.27-5.48) Nerve Sheath Tumors 4.01 (3.92-4.1) 
65-74 Meningioma 25.96 (25.66-26.27) Glioblastoma 13.05 (12.84-13.27) Tumors of the Pituitary 7.30 (7.14-7.46) Nerve Sheath Tumors 4.55 (4.43-4.68) 
75-84 Meningioma 38.70 (38.22-39.18) Glioblastoma 15.24 (14.94-15.54) Tumors of the Pituitary 7.32 (7.11-7.53) Neoplasm Unspecified 4.58 (4.42-4.75) 
85+ Meningioma 51.31 (50.47-52.16) Neoplasm Unspecified 10.91 (10.53-11.31) Glioblastoma 9.12 (8.77-9.48) Tumors of the Pituitary 4.69 (4.44-4.95) 
OVERALL Meningioma 7.86 (7.81-7.90) Tumors of the Pituitary 3.49 (3.46-3.52) Glioblastoma 3.20 (3.17-3.22) Nerve Sheath Tumors 1.76 (1.74-1.78) 
Age (years )  Most Common Histology Second Most Common Histology Third Most Common Histology Fourth Most Common Histology 
Histology Rateb (95% CI) Histology Rate (95% CI) Histology Rate (95% CI) Histology Rate (95% CI) 
0-4 Embryonal Tumors 1.24 (1.17-1.31) Pilocytic Astrocytoma 1.03 (0.96-1.09) Glioma Malignant, NOS 0.93 (0.87-0.99) Ependymal Tumors 0.48 (0.44-0.53) 
5-9 Pilocytic Astrocytoma 1.01 (0.95-1.07) Glioma Malignant, NOS 0.88 (0.82-0.94) Embryonal Tumors 0.72 (0.67-0.77) Neuronal and Mixed Neuronal Glial Tumors 0.31 (0.27-0.34) 
10-14 Pilocytic Astrocytoma 0.86 (0.81-0.92) Glioma Malignant, NOS 0.51 (0.47-0.56) Tumors of the Pituitary 0.49 (0.45-0.54) Neuronal and Mixed Neuronal Glial Tumors 0.47 (0.43-0.51) 
15-19 Tumors of the Pituitary 1.66 (1.58-1.73) Pilocytic Astrocytoma 0.60 (0.55-0.65) Neuronal and Mixed Neuronal Glial Tumors 0.48 (0.44-0.53) Nerve Sheath Tumors 0.35 (0.32-0.39) 
20-34 Tumors of the Pituitary 3.11 (3.1-3.23) Meningioma 1.39 (1.35-1.44) Nerve Sheath Tumors 0.83 (0.80-0.86) Diffuse Astrocytoma 0.49 (0.47-0.52) 
35-44 Meningioma 4.82 (4.72-4.91) Tumors of the Pituitary 4.36 (4.27-4.45) Nerve Sheath Tumors 1.81 (1.75-1.87) Glioblastoma 1.21 (1.16-1.25) 
45-54 Meningioma 9.02 (8.89-9.14) Tumors of the Pituitary 4.64 (4.55-4.73) Glioblastoma 3.54 (3.47-3.62) Nerve Sheath Tumors 2.85 (2.78-2.92) 
55-64 Meningioma 14.77 (14.59-14.95) Glioblastoma 8.08 (7.95-8.21) Tumors of the Pituitary 5.37 (5.27-5.48) Nerve Sheath Tumors 4.01 (3.92-4.1) 
65-74 Meningioma 25.96 (25.66-26.27) Glioblastoma 13.05 (12.84-13.27) Tumors of the Pituitary 7.30 (7.14-7.46) Nerve Sheath Tumors 4.55 (4.43-4.68) 
75-84 Meningioma 38.70 (38.22-39.18) Glioblastoma 15.24 (14.94-15.54) Tumors of the Pituitary 7.32 (7.11-7.53) Neoplasm Unspecified 4.58 (4.42-4.75) 
85+ Meningioma 51.31 (50.47-52.16) Neoplasm Unspecified 10.91 (10.53-11.31) Glioblastoma 9.12 (8.77-9.48) Tumors of the Pituitary 4.69 (4.44-4.95) 
OVERALL Meningioma 7.86 (7.81-7.90) Tumors of the Pituitary 3.49 (3.46-3.52) Glioblastoma 3.20 (3.17-3.22) Nerve Sheath Tumors 1.76 (1.74-1.78) 

a Excludes tumors in the histologic grouping Neoplasm, unspecified (ICD-0-3 Codes 8000-8005, 8010 and 8021).

b Rates are per 100,000 and age-adjusted to the 2000 US. standard population.

Abbreviations: CBTRUS, Central Brain Tumor Registry of the United States; NPCR, National Program of Cancer Registries; SEER, Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results program; CI, confidence interval; NOS, not otherwise specified.

Median Age at Diagnosis

The median age at diagnosis for all primary brain and other CNS tumors is 59.0 years ( Table 7 ).

  • The histology-specific median ages range from 9.0 years for embryonal tumors to 69.0 years for neoplasm, unspecified.

  • Pilocytic astrocytoma, choroid plexus tumors, neuronal and mixed neuronal-glial tumors, tumors of the pineal region, embryonal tumors, and germ cell tumors and cysts are histologies with younger median ages at diagnosis.

  • Meningioma and glioblastoma are primarily diagnosed at older ages (median age of 66.0 and 64.0 years, respectively).

Childhood and Adolescence: Incidence and Distribution of Primary Brain and Other CNS Tumors by Site, Histology, Sex, and Age

Distribution of Tumors by Site and Histology in Children and Adolescents (Age 0–19 Years)

Brain and other CNS tumors are the most common form of solid tumors in children, 42,43 and account for the majority of cancer mortality in this age-group. 44 About 6% of the reported brain and other CNS tumors during 2009–2013 occurred in children and adolescents age 0–19 years, and approximately 5% of all these reported tumors occurred in children age 0–14 years. The distribution of brain and other CNS tumors for children and adolescents age 0–19 years by site is shown in Fig. 16a .

Fig. 16a.

Distribution a in Children and Adolescents (Age 0-19 Years) of Primary Brain and CNS Tumors by Site (N=23,522), CBTRUS Statistical Report: NPCR and SEER, 2009-2013.

Fig. 16a.

Distribution a in Children and Adolescents (Age 0-19 Years) of Primary Brain and CNS Tumors by Site (N=23,522), CBTRUS Statistical Report: NPCR and SEER, 2009-2013.

  • The largest percentages of tumors in childhood and adolescence are located in the pituitary and pineal glands (17.7%).

  • A similar proportion of tumors are located within the frontal, temporal, parietal, and occipital lobes of the brain combined (16.8%).

  • Cerebrum, ventricle, brain stem, and cerebellum tumors account for 5.2%, 5.5%, 10.1%, and 15.1% of all brain and other CNS tumors in childhood and adolescence, respectively.

  • Tumors of the meninges represent 2.9% of all tumors in childhood and adolescence.

  • The cranial nerves and the spinal cord and cauda equina account for 6.9% and 4.6% of all brain and other CNS tumors in childhood and adolescence, respectively.

Fig. 16b presents the most common brain and other CNS histologies in children and adolescents age 0–19 years.

Fig. 16b.

Distribution a in Children and Adolescents (Age 0-19 Years) of Primary Brain and Other CNS Tumors by CBTRUS Histology Groupings and Histology (N=23,522), CBTRUS Statistical Report: NPCR and SEER, 2009-2013.

Fig. 16b.

Distribution a in Children and Adolescents (Age 0-19 Years) of Primary Brain and Other CNS Tumors by CBTRUS Histology Groupings and Histology (N=23,522), CBTRUS Statistical Report: NPCR and SEER, 2009-2013.

  • For children and adolescents age 0–19 years, pilocytic astrocytomas, glioma malignant, NOS, and embryonal tumors account for 15.5%, 11.6%, and 10.8%, respectively.

  • Tumors of the pituitary are the most common non-malignant histology, and account for 11.3% of all tumors in this age group.

  • Gliomas account for approximately 47.4% of tumors in children and adolescents age 0–19 years.

  • Medulloblastoma accounts for 64.3% of all embryonal tumors in this age group.

Distribution of Tumors by Site and Histology in Children (Age 0–14 Years)

The distribution of brain and other CNS tumors for children age 0–14 years by site is shown in Fig. 17a .

Fig. 17a.

Distribution a in Children (Age 0-14 Years) of Primary Brain and Other CNS Tumors by Site (N=16,653), CBTRUS Statistical Report: NPCR and SEER, 2009-2013.

Fig. 17a.

Distribution a in Children (Age 0-14 Years) of Primary Brain and Other CNS Tumors by Site (N=16,653), CBTRUS Statistical Report: NPCR and SEER, 2009-2013.

  • Tumors of the cerebellum comprise the largest proportion of tumors (18.0%), followed by other brain (15.0%) and brain stem (12.0%).

Fig. 17b presents the most common brain and other CNS histologies in children age 0–14 years.

Fig. 17b.

Distribution a in Children (Age 0-14 Years) of Primary Brain and Other CNS Tumors by CBTRUS Histology Groupings and Histology (N=16,653), CBTRUS Statistical Report: NPCR and SEER, 2009-2013.

Fig. 17b.

Distribution a in Children (Age 0-14 Years) of Primary Brain and Other CNS Tumors by CBTRUS Histology Groupings and Histology (N=16,653), CBTRUS Statistical Report: NPCR and SEER, 2009-2013.

  • For children age 0–14 years, pilocytic astrocytomas, glioma malignant, NOS, and embryonal tumors account for 18.0%, 14.3%, and 13.8%, respectively.

  • Gliomas account for approximately 53.1% of tumors in children age 0–14 years.

  • Of embryonal tumors, medulloblastoma, atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (ATRT), and primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET) account for 63.7%, 15.4%, and 12.5%, respectively.

Distribution of Tumors by Site and Histology in Adolescents (Age 15–19 Years)

About 2% of all brain and other CNS tumors occurred in adolescents age 15–19 years for a total of 6,869 tumors diagnosed between 2009 and 2013 ( Table 4 ). The distribution of these tumors by site is presented in Fig. 18a .

Fig. 18a.

Distribution a in Adolescents b (Age 15-19 Years) of Primary Brain and Other CNS Tumors by Site (N=6,869), CBTRUS Statistical Report: NPCR and SEER, 2009-2013.

Fig. 18a.

Distribution a in Adolescents b (Age 15-19 Years) of Primary Brain and Other CNS Tumors by Site (N=6,869), CBTRUS Statistical Report: NPCR and SEER, 2009-2013.

  • Approximately 31% of these tumors are diagnosed in the pituitary and craniopharyngeal duct.

  • The frontal lobe, temporal lobe, occipital lobe, and parietal lobe account for 20.3% of tumors in adolescents age 15–19 years.

The distribution of brain and other CNS tumors in adolescents age 15–19 years by histology is presented in Fig. 18b .

Fig. 18b.

Distribution a in Adolescents (Age 15-19 Years) of Primary Brain and Other CNS Tumors by Histology (N=6,869), CBTRUS Statistical Report: NPCR and SEER, 2009-2013.

Fig. 18b.

Distribution a in Adolescents (Age 15-19 Years) of Primary Brain and Other CNS Tumors by Histology (N=6,869), CBTRUS Statistical Report: NPCR and SEER, 2009-2013.

  • The most common histology in adolescents is tumors of the pituitary (27.8%).

  • Gliomas account for approximately 33.8% of tumors in adolescents. Of these gliomas, the histology pilocytic astrocytoma accounts for 9.4% of all tumors in this age group.

Incidence Rates by Histology, Histology Groupings, and Sex in Children and Adolescents (Age 0–19 Years)

The incidence rates of the most common brain and other CNS tumors in children and adolescents by major histology groupings, histology, and sex are shown in Table 14 .

Table 14.

Five-Year Total, Annual Average Total a . and Average Annual Age-Adjusted Incidence Rates b for Children and Adolescents (Age 0-19 Years), Brain and Other Central Nervous System Tumors by Major Histology Groupings, Histology. and Sex, CBTRUS Statistical Report: NPCR and SEER, 2009-2013

 Total Male (Age 0-19 Years )  Female (Age 0-19 Years )  
Histology 5-year total Annual average Rate 95% CI 5-year total Annual average Rate 95% CI 5-year total Annual average Rate 95% CI 
Tumors of Neuroepithelial Tissue 15,363 3,073 3.74 (3.68-3.80) 8,335 1,667 3.96 (3.88-4.05) 7,028 1,406 3.50 (3.42-3.58) 
Pilocytic astrocytoma 3,645 729 0.89 (0.86-0.92) 1,899 380 0.90 (0.86-0.95) 1,746 349 0.87 (0.83-0.91) 
Diffuse astrocytoma 1,083 217 0.26 (0.25-0.28) 575 115 0.27 (0.25-0.30) 508 102 0.25 (0.23-0.28) 
Anaplastic astrocytoma 375 75 0.09 (0.08-0.10) 196 39 0.09 (0.08-0.11) 179 36 0.09 (0.08-0.10) 
Unique astrocytoma variants 461 92 0.11 (0.10-0.12) 262 52 0.12 (0.11-0.14) 199 40 0.10 (0.09-0.11) 
Glioblastoma 692 138 0.17 (0.16-0.18) 394 79 0.19 (0.17-0.21) 298 60 0.15 (0.13-0.17) 
Oligodendroglioma 203 41 0.05 (0.04-0.06) 107 21 0.05 (0.04-0.06) 96 19 0.05 (0.04-0.06) 
Anaplastic oligodendroglioma 28 0.01 (0.00-0.01) -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 
Oligoastrocytic tumors 127 25 0.03 (0.03-0.04) 63 13 0.03 (0.02-0.04) 64 13 0.03 (0.02-0.04) 
Ependymal tumors 1,230 246 0.30 (0.28-0.31) 701 140 0.33 (0.31-0.36) 529 106 0.26 (0.24-0.29) 
Glioma malignant, NOS 2,737 547 0.67 (0.64-0.69) 1,365 273 0.65 (0.62-0.69) 1,372 274 0.69 (0.65-0.72) 
Choroid plexus tumors 390 78 0.09 (0.09-0.10) 220 44 0.10 (0.09-0.12) 170 34 0.08 (0.07-0.10) 
Other neuroepithelial tumors 34 0.01 (0.01-0.01) -- -- -- -- 25 0.01 (0.01-0.02) 
Neuronal and mixed neuronal- glial tumors 1,631 326 0.40 (0.38-0.41) 909 182 0.43 (0.40-0.46) 722 144 0.36 (0.33-0.39) 
Tumors of the pineal region 183 37 0.04 (0.04-0.05) 88 18 0.04 (0.03-0.05) 95 19 0.05 (0.04-0.06) 
Embryonal tumors 2,544 509 0.62 (0.60-0.64) 1,534 307 0.73 (0.70-0.77) 1,010 202 0.50 (0.47-0.54) 
Medulloblastomac 1,642 328 0.40 (0.38-0.42 )  1,040 208 0.50 (0.47-0.53 )  602 120 0.30 (0.28-0.33 )  
Primitive neuroectodermal  tumord 334 67 0.08 (0.07-0.09 )  194 39 0.09 (0.08-0.11 )  140 28 0.07 (0.06-0.08 )  
Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid  tumore 359 72 0.09 (0.08-0.10 )  194 39 0.09 (0.08-0.11 )  165 33 0.08 (0.07-0.10 )  
Other embryonal histologiesf 209 42 0.05 (0.04-0.06 )  106 21 0.05 (0.04-0.06 )  103 21 0.05 (0.04-0.06 )  
Tumors of Cranial and Spinal Nerves 1,218 244 0.29 (0.28-0.31) 624 125 0.29 (0.27-0.32) 594 119 0.29 (0.27-0.32) 
Nerve sheath tumors 1,216 243 0.29 (0.28-0.31) 623 125 0.29 (0.27-0.32) 593 119 0.29 (0.27-0.32) 
Other tumors of cranial and spinal nerves -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 
Tumors of Meninges 1,012 202 0.24 (0.23-0.36) 508 102 0.24 (0.22-0.26) 504 101 0.25 (0.23-0.27) 
Meningioma 615 123 0.15 (0.14-0.16) 296 59 0.14 (0.12-0.15) 319 64 0.16 (0.14-0.17) 
Mesenchymal tumors 210 42 0.05 (0.04-0.06) 108 22 0.05 (0.04-0.06) 102 20 0.05 (0.04-0.06) 
Primary melanocytic lesions -- -- -- -- -- -- 0.00 (0.00-0.01) -- -- -- -- 
Other neoplasms related to the meninges 177 35 0.04 (0.04-0.05) 97 19 0.04 (0.04-0.05) 80 16 0.04 (0.03-0.05) 
Lymphomas and Hematopoietic Neoplasms 120 24 0.03 (0.02-0.03) 76 15 0.04 (0.03-0.05) 44 9 0.02 (0.02-0.03) 
Lymphoma 58 12 0.01 (0.01-0.02) 34 0.02 (0.01-0.02) 24 0.01 (0.01-0.02) 
Other hematopoietic neoplasms 62 12 0.02 (0.01-0.02) 42 0.02 (0.01-0.03) 20 0.01 (0.01-0.02) 
Germ Cell Tumors and Cysts 918 184 0.22 (0.21-0.24) 628 126 0.30 (0.27-0.32) 290 58 0.15 (0.13-0.16) 
Germ cell tumors, cysts and heterotopias 918 184 0.22 (0.21-0.24) 628 126 0.30 (0.27-0.32) 290 58 0.15 (0.13-0.16) 
Tumors of Sellar Region 3,472 694 0.83 (0.80-0.86) 1,101 220 0.52 (0.49-0.55) 2,371 474 1.16 (1.11-1.20) 
Tumors of the pituitary 2,655 531 0.63 (0.60-0.65) 708 142 0.33 (0.31-0.35) 1,947 389 0.94 (0.90-0.99) 
Craniopharyngioma 817 163 0.20 (0.19-0.21) 393 79 0.19 (0.17-0.21) 424 85 0.21 (0.19-0.23) 
Unclassified Tumors 1,419 284 0.34 (0.33-0.36) 722 144 0.34 (0.32-0.37) 697 139 0.34 (0.32-0.37) 
Hemangioma 534 107 0.13 (0.12-0.14) 274 55 0.13 (0.11-0.15) 260 52 0.13 (0.11-0.14) 
Neoplasm, unspecified 862 172 0.21 (0.19-0.22) 436 87 0.21 (0.19-0.23) 426 85 0.21 (0.19-0.23) 
All other 23 0.01 (0.00-0.01) -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 
TOTALg 23,522 4,704 5.70 (5.62-5.77) 11,994 2,399 5.69 (5.59-5.79) 11,528 2,306 5.71 (5.60-5.81) 
 Total Male (Age 0-19 Years )  Female (Age 0-19 Years )  
Histology 5-year total Annual average Rate 95% CI 5-year total Annual average Rate 95% CI 5-year total Annual average Rate 95% CI 
Tumors of Neuroepithelial Tissue 15,363 3,073 3.74 (3.68-3.80) 8,335 1,667 3.96 (3.88-4.05) 7,028 1,406 3.50 (3.42-3.58) 
Pilocytic astrocytoma 3,645 729 0.89 (0.86-0.92) 1,899 380 0.90 (0.86-0.95) 1,746 349 0.87 (0.83-0.91) 
Diffuse astrocytoma 1,083 217 0.26 (0.25-0.28) 575 115 0.27 (0.25-0.30) 508 102 0.25 (0.23-0.28) 
Anaplastic astrocytoma 375 75 0.09 (0.08-0.10) 196 39 0.09 (0.08-0.11) 179 36 0.09 (0.08-0.10) 
Unique astrocytoma variants 461 92 0.11 (0.10-0.12) 262 52 0.12 (0.11-0.14) 199 40 0.10 (0.09-0.11) 
Glioblastoma 692 138 0.17 (0.16-0.18) 394 79 0.19 (0.17-0.21) 298 60 0.15 (0.13-0.17) 
Oligodendroglioma 203 41 0.05 (0.04-0.06) 107 21 0.05 (0.04-0.06) 96 19 0.05 (0.04-0.06) 
Anaplastic oligodendroglioma 28 0.01 (0.00-0.01) -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 
Oligoastrocytic tumors 127 25 0.03 (0.03-0.04) 63 13 0.03 (0.02-0.04) 64 13 0.03 (0.02-0.04) 
Ependymal tumors 1,230 246 0.30 (0.28-0.31) 701 140 0.33 (0.31-0.36) 529 106 0.26 (0.24-0.29) 
Glioma malignant, NOS 2,737 547 0.67 (0.64-0.69) 1,365 273 0.65 (0.62-0.69) 1,372 274 0.69 (0.65-0.72) 
Choroid plexus tumors 390 78 0.09 (0.09-0.10) 220 44 0.10 (0.09-0.12) 170 34 0.08 (0.07-0.10) 
Other neuroepithelial tumors 34 0.01 (0.01-0.01) -- -- -- -- 25 0.01 (0.01-0.02) 
Neuronal and mixed neuronal- glial tumors 1,631 326 0.40 (0.38-0.41) 909 182 0.43 (0.40-0.46) 722 144 0.36 (0.33-0.39) 
Tumors of the pineal region 183 37 0.04 (0.04-0.05) 88 18 0.04 (0.03-0.05) 95 19 0.05 (0.04-0.06) 
Embryonal tumors 2,544 509 0.62 (0.60-0.64) 1,534 307 0.73 (0.70-0.77) 1,010 202 0.50 (0.47-0.54) 
Medulloblastomac 1,642 328 0.40 (0.38-0.42 )  1,040 208 0.50 (0.47-0.53 )  602 120 0.30 (0.28-0.33 )  
Primitive neuroectodermal  tumord 334 67 0.08 (0.07-0.09 )  194 39 0.09 (0.08-0.11 )  140 28 0.07 (0.06-0.08 )  
Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid  tumore 359 72 0.09 (0.08-0.10 )  194 39 0.09 (0.08-0.11 )  165 33 0.08 (0.07-0.10 )  
Other embryonal histologiesf 209 42 0.05 (0.04-0.06 )  106 21 0.05 (0.04-0.06 )  103 21 0.05 (0.04-0.06 )  
Tumors of Cranial and Spinal Nerves 1,218 244 0.29 (0.28-0.31) 624 125 0.29 (0.27-0.32) 594 119 0.29 (0.27-0.32) 
Nerve sheath tumors 1,216 243 0.29 (0.28-0.31) 623 125 0.29 (0.27-0.32) 593 119 0.29 (0.27-0.32) 
Other tumors of cranial and spinal nerves -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 
Tumors of Meninges 1,012 202 0.24 (0.23-0.36) 508 102 0.24 (0.22-0.26) 504 101 0.25 (0.23-0.27) 
Meningioma 615 123 0.15 (0.14-0.16) 296 59 0.14 (0.12-0.15) 319 64 0.16 (0.14-0.17) 
Mesenchymal tumors 210 42 0.05 (0.04-0.06) 108 22 0.05 (0.04-0.06) 102 20 0.05 (0.04-0.06) 
Primary melanocytic lesions -- -- -- -- -- -- 0.00 (0.00-0.01) -- -- -- -- 
Other neoplasms related to the meninges 177 35 0.04 (0.04-0.05) 97 19 0.04 (0.04-0.05) 80 16 0.04 (0.03-0.05) 
Lymphomas and Hematopoietic Neoplasms 120 24 0.03 (0.02-0.03) 76 15 0.04 (0.03-0.05) 44 9 0.02 (0.02-0.03) 
Lymphoma 58 12 0.01 (0.01-0.02) 34 0.02 (0.01-0.02) 24 0.01 (0.01-0.02) 
Other hematopoietic neoplasms 62 12 0.02 (0.01-0.02) 42 0.02 (0.01-0.03) 20 0.01 (0.01-0.02) 
Germ Cell Tumors and Cysts 918 184 0.22 (0.21-0.24) 628 126 0.30 (0.27-0.32) 290 58 0.15 (0.13-0.16) 
Germ cell tumors, cysts and heterotopias 918 184 0.22 (0.21-0.24) 628 126 0.30 (0.27-0.32) 290 58 0.15 (0.13-0.16) 
Tumors of Sellar Region 3,472 694 0.83 (0.80-0.86) 1,101 220 0.52 (0.49-0.55) 2,371 474 1.16 (1.11-1.20) 
Tumors of the pituitary 2,655 531 0.63 (0.60-0.65) 708 142 0.33 (0.31-0.35) 1,947 389 0.94 (0.90-0.99) 
Craniopharyngioma 817 163 0.20 (0.19-0.21) 393 79 0.19 (0.17-0.21) 424 85 0.21 (0.19-0.23) 
Unclassified Tumors 1,419 284 0.34 (0.33-0.36) 722 144 0.34 (0.32-0.37) 697 139 0.34 (0.32-0.37) 
Hemangioma 534 107 0.13 (0.12-0.14) 274 55 0.13 (0.11-0.15) 260 52 0.13 (0.11-0.14) 
Neoplasm, unspecified 862 172 0.21 (0.19-0.22) 436 87 0.21 (0.19-0.23) 426 85 0.21 (0.19-0.23) 
All other 23 0.01 (0.00-0.01) -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 
TOTALg 23,522 4,704 5.70 (5.62-5.77) 11,994 2,399 5.69 (5.59-5.79) 11,528 2,306 5.71 (5.60-5.81) 

a Annual average cases are calculated by dividing the five-year total by five.

b Rates are per 100,000 and are age-adjusted to the 2000 US standard population.

c ICD-O-3 histology codes: 9470/3, 9471/3, 9472/3, 9474/3.

d ICD-O-3 histology code: 9473/3.

e ICD-O-3 histology code: 9508/3.

f ICD-O-3 histology codes: 8963/3, 9364/3, 9480/3, 9490/0, 9490/3, 9500/3, 9501/3, 9502/3.

g Refers to all brain and other CNS tumors including histologies not presented in this table.

- Counts and rates are not presented when fewer than 16 cases were reported in the five year period for the specific histology category. Suppressed cases are included in the total counts and rates.

Abbreviations: CBTRUS, Central Brain Tumor Registry of the United States; NPCR, National Program of Cancer Registries; SEER, Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results program; CI, confidence interval; NOS, not otherwise specified.

  • Average annual incidence rates are highest for tumors of neuroepithelial tissue (3.74 per 100,000 population). Among these tumors, the most common histologies are pilocytic astrocytoma (0.89 per 100,000 population), glioma malignant, NOS (0.67 per 100,000 population), and embryonal tumors (0.62 per 100,000 population).

  • There are notable differences in incidence rates between males and females for ependymal tumors, embryonal tumors, germ cell tumors, and tumors of the pituitary.

Incidence Rates by Histology and Race in Children and Adolescents (Age 0–19 Years)

Table 15 shows incidence rates for brain and other CNS tumors by histology and race for children and adolescents age 0–19 years.

Table 15.

Five-Year Total, Annual Average Total a . and Average Annual Age-Adjusted Incidence Rates b for Children and Adolescents (Age 0-19 Years), Brain and Other Central Nervous System Tumors by Major Histology Groupings and Race c , CBTRUS Statistical Report: NPCR and SEER, 2009-2013

 White
(Age 0-19 Years )  
Black
(Age 0-19 Years )  
American Indian/Alaska Native
(Age 0-19 Years) 
Asian/Pacific Islander
(Age 0-19 Years) 
 5-year total Annual average Rate 95% CI 5-year total Annual average Rate 95% CI 5-year total Annual average Rate 95% CI 5-year total Annual average Rate 95% CI 
Tumors of Neuroepithelial Tissue 12,258 2,452 3.93 (3.86-4.00) 1,982 396 2.90 (2.77-3.03) 143 29 1.89 (1.59-2.22) 829 166 3.52 (3.29-3.77) 
Pilocytic astrocytoma 2,944 589 0.95 (0.91-0.98) 456 91 0.67 (0.61-0.73) 27 0.35 (0.23-0.51) 183 37 0.77 (0.67-0.90) 
Diffuse astrocytoma 858 172 0.27 (0.26-0.29) 146 29 0.21 (0.18-0.25) -- -- -- -- 59 12 0.25 (0.19-0.33) 
Anaplastic astrocytoma 303 61 0.10 (0.09-0.11) 46 0.07 (0.05-0.09) -- -- -- -- 22 0.10 (0.06-0.14) 
Unique astrocytoma variants 337 67 0.11 (0.10-0.12) 84 17 0.12 (0.10-0.15) -- -- -- -- 27 0.12 (0.08-0.17) 
Glioblastoma 532 106 0.17 (0.16-0.18) 92 18 0.13 (0.11-0.16) -- -- -- -- 48 10 0.21 (0.15-0.27) 
Oligodendroglioma 166 33 0.05 (0.04-0.06) 21 0.03 (0.02-0.05) -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --- 
Anaplastic oligodendroglioma 20 0.01 (0.00-0.01) -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 
Oligoastrocytic tumors 99 20 0.03 (0.03-0.04) 20 0.03 (0.02-0.04) -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 
Ependymal tumors 1,011 202 0.32 (0.30-0.34) 134 27 0.19 (0.16-0.23) 17 0.22 (0.13-0.36) 59 12 0.25 (0.19-0.32) 
Glioma malignant, NOS 2,184 437 0.70 (0.67-0.73) 374 75 0.55 (0.50-0.61) 24 0.32 (0.20-0.47) 133 27 0.56 (0.47-0.67) 
Choroid plexus tumors 317 63 0.10 (0.09-0.11) 40 0.06 (0.04-0.08) -- -- -- -- 23 0.09 (0.06-0.14) 
Other neuroepithelial tumors 25 0.01 (0.01-0.01) -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 
Neuronal and mixed neuronal-glial tumors 1,330 266 0.42 (0.40-0.45) 194 39 0.28 (0.24-0.32) -- -- -- -- 86 17 0.37 (0.30-0.46) 
Tumors of the pineal region 118 24 0.04 (0.03-0.05) 52 10 0.08 (0.06-0.10) -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 
Embryonal tumors 2,014 403 0.65 (0.62-0.68) 313 63 0.46 (0.41-0.51) 26 0.34 (0.22-0.50) 159 32 0.67 (0.57-0.78) 
Medulloblastomae 1,313 263 0.42 (0.40-0.45 )  190 38 0.28 (0.24-0.32 )  18 4 0.24 (0.14-0.38 )  100 20 0.42 (0.34-0.51 )  
 PNET e 258 52 0.08 (0.07-0.09 )  52 10 0.07 (0.06-0.10 )  -- -- -- -- 16 3 0.07 (0.04-0.11 )  
 ATRT f 280 56 0.09 (0.08-0.10 )  44 9 0.06 (0.05-0.08 )  -- -- -- -- 28 6 0.12 (0.08-0.17 )  
Other embryonal  histologiesg 163 33 0.05 (0.04-0.06 )  27 5 0.04 (0.03-0.06 )  -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 
Tumors of Cranial and Spinal Nerves 929 186 0.30 (0.28-0.32) 162 32 0.24 (0.20-0.27) -- -- -- -- 98 20 0.42 (0.34-0.51) 
Nerve sheath tumors 927 185 0.30 (0.28-0.32) 162 32 0.24 (0.20-0.27) -- -- -- -- 98 20 0.42 (0.34-0.51) 
Other tumors of cranial and spinal nerves -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 
Tumors of Meninges 791 158 0.25 (0.23-0.27) 144 29 0.21 (0.17-0.24) -- -- -- -- 64 13 0.27 (0.21-0.35) 
Meningioma 470 94 0.15 (0.13-0.16) 98 20 0.14 (0.11-0.17) -- -- -- -- 38 0.16 (0.12-0.22) 
Mesenchymal tumors 173 35 0.06 (0.05-0.06) 18 0.03 (0.02-0.04) -- -- -- -- 17 0.07 (0.04-0.12) 
Primary melanocytic lesions -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 
Other neoplasms related to the meninges 139 28 0.04 (0.04-0.05) 27 0.04 (0.02-0.06) -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 
Lymphomas and Hematopoietic Neoplasms 99 20 0.03 (0.03-0.04) -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 
Lymphoma 45 0.01 (0.01-0.02) -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 
Other hematopoietic neoplasms 54 11 0.02 (0.01-0.02) -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 
Germ Cell Tumors and Cysts 717 143 0.23 (0.21-0.25) 95 19 0.14 (0.11-0.17) -- -- -- -- 96 19 0.42 (0.34-0.51) 
Germ cell tumors, cysts and heterotopias 717 143 0.23 (0.21-0.25) 95 19 0.14 (0.11-0.17) -- -- -- -- 96 19 0.42 (0.34-0.51) 
Tumors of Sellar Region 2,602 520 0.82 (0.79-0.85) 537 107 0.77 (0.70-0.83) 46 9 0.61 (0.45-0.82) 253 51 1.10 (0.97-1.24) 
Tumors of the pituitary 1,991 398 0.62 (0.59-0.65) 398 80 0.56 (0.51-0.62) 38 0.50 (0.36-0.69) 202 40 0.88 (0.76-1.01) 
Craniopharyngioma 611 122 0.20 (0.18-0.21) 139 28 0.21 (0.17-0.24) -- -- -- -- 51 10 0.22 (0.16-0.29) 
Unclassified Tumors 1,126 225 0.36 (0.34-0.38) 159 32 0.23 (0.20-0.27) 21 4 0.28 (0.17-0.43) 104 21 0.45 (0.36-0.54) 
Hemangioma 436 87 0.14 (0.13-0.15) 47 0.07 (0.05-0.09) -- -- -- -- 41 0.18 (0.13-0.24) 
Neoplasm, unspecified 669 134 0.21 (0.20-0.23) 111 22 0.16 (0.13-0.20) -- -- -- -- 62 12 0.27 (0.20-0.34) 
All other 21 0.01 (0.00-0.01) -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 
TOTALh 18,522 3,704 5.92 (5.83-6.00) 3,088 618 4.48 (4.33-4.65) 239 48 3.16 (2.77-3.59) 1,453 291 6.21 (5.90-6.54) 
 White
(Age 0-19 Years )  
Black
(Age 0-19 Years )  
American Indian/Alaska Native
(Age 0-19 Years) 
Asian/Pacific Islander
(Age 0-19 Years) 
 5-year total Annual average Rate 95% CI 5-year total Annual average Rate 95% CI 5-year total Annual average Rate 95% CI 5-year total Annual average Rate 95% CI 
Tumors of Neuroepithelial Tissue 12,258 2,452 3.93 (3.86-4.00) 1,982 396 2.90 (2.77-3.03) 143 29 1.89 (1.59-2.22) 829 166 3.52 (3.29-3.77) 
Pilocytic astrocytoma 2,944 589 0.95 (0.91-0.98) 456 91 0.67 (0.61-0.73) 27 0.35 (0.23-0.51) 183 37 0.77 (0.67-0.90) 
Diffuse astrocytoma 858 172 0.27 (0.26-0.29) 146 29 0.21 (0.18-0.25) -- -- -- -- 59 12 0.25 (0.19-0.33) 
Anaplastic astrocytoma 303 61 0.10 (0.09-0.11) 46 0.07 (0.05-0.09) -- -- -- -- 22 0.10 (0.06-0.14) 
Unique astrocytoma variants 337 67 0.11 (0.10-0.12) 84 17 0.12 (0.10-0.15) -- -- -- -- 27 0.12 (0.08-0.17) 
Glioblastoma 532 106 0.17 (0.16-0.18) 92 18 0.13 (0.11-0.16) -- -- -- -- 48 10 0.21 (0.15-0.27) 
Oligodendroglioma 166 33 0.05 (0.04-0.06) 21 0.03 (0.02-0.05) -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --- 
Anaplastic oligodendroglioma 20 0.01 (0.00-0.01) -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 
Oligoastrocytic tumors 99 20 0.03 (0.03-0.04) 20 0.03 (0.02-0.04) -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 
Ependymal tumors 1,011 202 0.32 (0.30-0.34) 134 27 0.19 (0.16-0.23) 17 0.22 (0.13-0.36) 59 12 0.25 (0.19-0.32) 
Glioma malignant, NOS 2,184 437 0.70 (0.67-0.73) 374 75 0.55 (0.50-0.61) 24 0.32 (0.20-0.47) 133 27 0.56 (0.47-0.67) 
Choroid plexus tumors 317 63 0.10 (0.09-0.11) 40 0.06 (0.04-0.08) -- -- -- -- 23 0.09 (0.06-0.14) 
Other neuroepithelial tumors 25 0.01 (0.01-0.01) -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 
Neuronal and mixed neuronal-glial tumors 1,330 266 0.42 (0.40-0.45) 194 39 0.28 (0.24-0.32) -- -- -- -- 86 17 0.37 (0.30-0.46) 
Tumors of the pineal region 118 24 0.04 (0.03-0.05) 52 10 0.08 (0.06-0.10) -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 
Embryonal tumors 2,014 403 0.65 (0.62-0.68) 313 63 0.46 (0.41-0.51) 26 0.34 (0.22-0.50) 159 32 0.67 (0.57-0.78) 
Medulloblastomae 1,313 263 0.42 (0.40-0.45 )  190 38 0.28 (0.24-0.32 )  18 4 0.24 (0.14-0.38 )  100 20 0.42 (0.34-0.51 )  
 PNET e 258 52 0.08 (0.07-0.09 )  52 10 0.07 (0.06-0.10 )  -- -- -- -- 16 3 0.07 (0.04-0.11 )  
 ATRT f 280 56 0.09 (0.08-0.10 )  44 9 0.06 (0.05-0.08 )  -- -- -- -- 28 6 0.12 (0.08-0.17 )  
Other embryonal  histologiesg 163 33 0.05 (0.04-0.06 )  27 5 0.04 (0.03-0.06 )  -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 
Tumors of Cranial and Spinal Nerves 929 186 0.30 (0.28-0.32) 162 32 0.24 (0.20-0.27) -- -- -- -- 98 20 0.42 (0.34-0.51) 
Nerve sheath tumors 927 185 0.30 (0.28-0.32) 162 32 0.24 (0.20-0.27) -- -- -- -- 98 20 0.42 (0.34-0.51) 
Other tumors of cranial and spinal nerves -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 
Tumors of Meninges 791 158 0.25 (0.23-0.27) 144 29 0.21 (0.17-0.24) -- -- -- -- 64 13 0.27 (0.21-0.35) 
Meningioma 470 94 0.15 (0.13-0.16) 98 20 0.14 (0.11-0.17) -- -- -- -- 38 0.16 (0.12-0.22) 
Mesenchymal tumors 173 35 0.06 (0.05-0.06) 18 0.03 (0.02-0.04) -- -- -- -- 17 0.07 (0.04-0.12) 
Primary melanocytic lesions -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 
Other neoplasms related to the meninges 139 28 0.04 (0.04-0.05) 27 0.04 (0.02-0.06) -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 
Lymphomas and Hematopoietic Neoplasms 99 20 0.03 (0.03-0.04) -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 
Lymphoma 45 0.01 (0.01-0.02) -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 
Other hematopoietic neoplasms 54 11 0.02 (0.01-0.02) -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 
Germ Cell Tumors and Cysts 717 143 0.23 (0.21-0.25) 95 19 0.14 (0.11-0.17) -- -- -- -- 96 19 0.42 (0.34-0.51) 
Germ cell tumors, cysts and heterotopias 717 143 0.23 (0.21-0.25) 95 19 0.14 (0.11-0.17) -- -- -- -- 96 19 0.42 (0.34-0.51) 
Tumors of Sellar Region 2,602 520 0.82 (0.79-0.85) 537 107 0.77 (0.70-0.83) 46 9 0.61 (0.45-0.82) 253 51 1.10 (0.97-1.24) 
Tumors of the pituitary 1,991 398 0.62 (0.59-0.65) 398 80 0.56 (0.51-0.62) 38 0.50 (0.36-0.69) 202 40 0.88 (0.76-1.01) 
Craniopharyngioma 611 122 0.20 (0.18-0.21) 139 28 0.21 (0.17-0.24) -- -- -- -- 51 10 0.22 (0.16-0.29) 
Unclassified Tumors 1,126 225 0.36 (0.34-0.38) 159 32 0.23 (0.20-0.27) 21 4 0.28 (0.17-0.43) 104 21 0.45 (0.36-0.54) 
Hemangioma 436 87 0.14 (0.13-0.15) 47 0.07 (0.05-0.09) -- -- -- -- 41 0.18 (0.13-0.24) 
Neoplasm, unspecified 669 134 0.21 (0.20-0.23) 111 22 0.16 (0.13-0.20) -- -- -- -- 62 12 0.27 (0.20-0.34) 
All other 21 0.01 (0.00-0.01) -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 
TOTALh 18,522 3,704 5.92 (5.83-6.00) 3,088 618 4.48 (4.33-4.65) 239 48 3.16 (2.77-3.59) 1,453 291 6.21 (5.90-6.54) 

a Annual average cases are calculated by dividing the five-year total by five.

b Rates are per 100,000 and are age-adjusted to the 2000 US standard population.

c Individuals with unknown race were excluded (N = 188).

d ICD-O-3 histology codes: 9470/3, 9471/3, 9472/3, 9474/3.

e ICD-O-3 histology code: 9473/3.

f ICD-O-3 histology code: 9508/3.

g ICD-O-3 histology codes: 8963/3, 9364/3, 9480/3, 9490/0, 9490/3, 9500/3, 9501/3, 9502/3.

h Refers to all brain and other CNS tumors including histologies not presented in this table.

- Counts and rates are not presented when fewer than 16 cases were reported in the five year period for the specific histology category. Suppressed cases are included in the total counts and rates.

Abbreviations: ATRT, Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid tumor; CBTRUS, Central Brain Tumor Registry of the United States; NPCR, National Program of Cancer Registries; PNET, Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; SEER, Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results program; CI, confidence interval; NOS, not otherwise specified.

  • Incidence rates are highest among API (6.21 per 100,000 population) as compared to Whites (5.92 per 100,000 population), Blacks (4.48 per 100,000 population), and AIAN (3.16 per 100,000 population).

Incidence Rates by Histology and Hispanic Ethnicity in Children and Adolescents (Age 0–19 Years)

Incidence rates of brain and other CNS tumors for children and adolescents age 0–19 years by Hispanic ethnicity are shown in Table 16 .

Table 16.

Five-Year Total, Annual Average Total a , and Average Annual Age-Adjusted Incidence Rates b for Children and Adolescents (Age 0-19 Years), Brain and Other Central Nervous System Tumors by Major Histology Groupings, Histology, and Hispanic Ethnicity c , CBTRUS Statistical Report: NPCR and SEER, 2009-2013

 Hispanic (Age 0-19 Years )  Non-Hispanic (Age 0-19 Years )  
Histology 5-year total Annual average Rate 95% CI 5-year total Annual average Rate 95% CI 
Tumors of Neuroepithelial Tissue 2,782 556 2.88 (2.77-2.98) 12,475 2,495 3.96 (3.89-4.03) 
Pilocytic astrocytoma 588 118 0.61 (0.56-0.66) 3034 607 0.96 (0.93-1.00) 
Diffuse astrocytoma 159 32 0.17 (0.14-0.20) 914 183 0.29 (0.27-0.31) 
Anaplastic astrocytoma 77 15 0.08 (0.07-0.10) 297 59 0.09 (0.08-0.11) 
Unique astrocytoma variants 96 19 0.10 (0.08-0.12) 362 72 0.11 (0.10-0.13) 
Glioblastoma 156 31 0.17 (0.14-0.19) 531 106 0.17 (0.15-0.18) 
Oligodendroglioma 24 0.03 (0.02-0.04) 177 35 0.05 (0.05-0.06) 
Anaplastic oligodendroglioma -- -- -- -- 24 0.01 (0.00-0.01) 
Oligoastrocytic tumors 17 0.02 (0.01-0.03) 110 22 0.03 (0.03-0.04) 
Ependymal tumors 286 57 0.29 (0.26-0.33) 933 187 0.29 (0.28-0.31) 
Glioma malignant, NOS 462 92 0.47 (0.43-0.52) 2259 452 0.72 (0.69-0.75) 
Choroid plexus tumors 82 16 0.08 (0.07-0.10) 304 61 0.10 (0.09-0.11) 
Other neuroepithelial tumors -- -- -- -- 28 0.01 (0.01-0.01) 
Neuronal and mixed neuronal- glial tumors 259 52 0.28 (0.24-0.31) 1363 273 0.43 (0.40-0.45) 
Tumors of the pineal region 34 0.03 (0.02-0.05) 148 30 0.05 (0.04-0.06) 
Embryonal tumors 532 106 0.54 (0.49-0.58) 1991 398 0.64 (0.61-0.67) 
Medulloblastomad 330 66 0.34 (0.30-0.38 )  1,298 260 0.42 (0.39-0.44 )  
Primitive neuroectodermal tumore 60 12 0.06 (0.05-0.08 )  273 55 0.09 (0.08-0.10 )  
Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumorf 101 20 0.10 (0.08-0.12 )  254 51 0.08 (0.07-0.09 )  
Other embryonal histologiesg 41 8 0.04 (0.03-0.06 )  166 33 0.05 (0.05-0.06 )  
Tumors of Cranial and Spinal Nerves 195 39 0.21 (0.18-0.24) 1018 204 0.32 (0.30-0.34) 
Nerve sheath tumors 195 39 0.21 (0.18-0.24) 1016 203 0.32 (0.30-0.34) 
Other tumors of cranial and spinal nerves -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 
Tumors of Meninges 171 34 0.18 (0.16-0.21) 839 168 0.26 (0.24-0.28) 
Meningioma 93 19 0.10 (0.08-0.12) 520 104 0.16 (0.15-0.17) 
Mesenchymal tumors 37 0.04 (0.03-0.05) 173 35 0.05 (0.05-0.06) 
Primary melanocytic lesions -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 
Other neoplasms related to the meninges 37 0.04 (0.03-0.06) 140 28 0.04 (0.04-0.05) 
Lymphomas and Hematopoietic Neoplasms 29 6 0.03 (0.02-0.04) 88 18 0.03 (0.02-0.03) 
Lymphoma -- -- -- 43 0.01 (0.01-0.02) 
Other hematopoietic neoplasms -- -- -- -- 45 0.01 (0.01-0.02) 
Germ Cell Tumors and Cysts 191 38 0.21 (0.18-0.24) 718 144 0.23 (0.21-0.24) 
Germ cell tumors, cysts and heterotopias 191 38 0.21 (0.18-0.24) 718 144 0.23 (0.21-0.24) 
Tumors of Sellar Region 829 166 0.91 (0.85-0.98) 2619 524 0.80 (0.77-0.83) 
Tumors of the pituitary 634 127 0.70 (0.65-0.76) 2003 401 0.60 (0.58-0.63) 
Craniopharyngioma 195 39 0.21 (0.18-0.24) 616 123 0.20 (0.18-0.21) 
Unclassified Tumors 277 55 0.29 (0.26-0.33) 1125 225 0.35 (0.33-0.37) 
Hemangioma 106 21 0.11 (0.09-0.14) 427 85 0.13 (0.12-0.15) 
Neoplasm, unspecified 164 33 0.18 (0.15-0.20) 682 136 0.21 (0.20-0.23) 
All other -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 
TOTALh 4,474 895 4.71 (4.57-4.85) 18,882 3,776 5.94 (5.86-6.03) 
 Hispanic (Age 0-19 Years )  Non-Hispanic (Age 0-19 Years )  
Histology 5-year total Annual average Rate 95% CI 5-year total Annual average Rate 95% CI 
Tumors of Neuroepithelial Tissue 2,782 556 2.88 (2.77-2.98) 12,475 2,495 3.96 (3.89-4.03) 
Pilocytic astrocytoma 588 118 0.61 (0.56-0.66) 3034 607 0.96 (0.93-1.00) 
Diffuse astrocytoma 159 32 0.17 (0.14-0.20) 914 183 0.29 (0.27-0.31) 
Anaplastic astrocytoma 77 15 0.08 (0.07-0.10) 297 59 0.09 (0.08-0.11) 
Unique astrocytoma variants 96 19 0.10 (0.08-0.12) 362 72 0.11 (0.10-0.13) 
Glioblastoma 156 31 0.17 (0.14-0.19) 531 106 0.17 (0.15-0.18) 
Oligodendroglioma 24 0.03 (0.02-0.04) 177 35 0.05 (0.05-0.06) 
Anaplastic oligodendroglioma -- -- -- -- 24 0.01 (0.00-0.01) 
Oligoastrocytic tumors 17 0.02 (0.01-0.03) 110 22 0.03 (0.03-0.04) 
Ependymal tumors 286 57 0.29 (0.26-0.33) 933 187 0.29 (0.28-0.31) 
Glioma malignant, NOS 462 92 0.47 (0.43-0.52) 2259 452 0.72 (0.69-0.75) 
Choroid plexus tumors 82 16 0.08 (0.07-0.10) 304 61 0.10 (0.09-0.11) 
Other neuroepithelial tumors -- -- -- -- 28 0.01 (0.01-0.01) 
Neuronal and mixed neuronal- glial tumors 259 52 0.28 (0.24-0.31) 1363 273 0.43 (0.40-0.45) 
Tumors of the pineal region 34 0.03 (0.02-0.05) 148 30 0.05 (0.04-0.06) 
Embryonal tumors 532 106 0.54 (0.49-0.58) 1991 398 0.64 (0.61-0.67) 
Medulloblastomad 330 66 0.34 (0.30-0.38 )  1,298 260 0.42 (0.39-0.44 )  
Primitive neuroectodermal tumore 60 12 0.06 (0.05-0.08 )  273 55 0.09 (0.08-0.10 )  
Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumorf 101 20 0.10 (0.08-0.12 )  254 51 0.08 (0.07-0.09 )  
Other embryonal histologiesg 41 8 0.04 (0.03-0.06 )  166 33 0.05 (0.05-0.06 )  
Tumors of Cranial and Spinal Nerves 195 39 0.21 (0.18-0.24) 1018 204 0.32 (0.30-0.34) 
Nerve sheath tumors 195 39 0.21 (0.18-0.24) 1016 203 0.32 (0.30-0.34) 
Other tumors of cranial and spinal nerves -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 
Tumors of Meninges 171 34 0.18 (0.16-0.21) 839 168 0.26 (0.24-0.28) 
Meningioma 93 19 0.10 (0.08-0.12) 520 104 0.16 (0.15-0.17) 
Mesenchymal tumors 37 0.04 (0.03-0.05) 173 35 0.05 (0.05-0.06) 
Primary melanocytic lesions -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 
Other neoplasms related to the meninges 37 0.04 (0.03-0.06) 140 28 0.04 (0.04-0.05) 
Lymphomas and Hematopoietic Neoplasms 29 6 0.03 (0.02-0.04) 88 18 0.03 (0.02-0.03) 
Lymphoma -- -- -- 43 0.01 (0.01-0.02) 
Other hematopoietic neoplasms -- -- -- -- 45 0.01 (0.01-0.02) 
Germ Cell Tumors and Cysts 191 38 0.21 (0.18-0.24) 718 144 0.23 (0.21-0.24) 
Germ cell tumors, cysts and heterotopias 191 38 0.21 (0.18-0.24) 718 144 0.23 (0.21-0.24) 
Tumors of Sellar Region 829 166 0.91 (0.85-0.98) 2619 524 0.80 (0.77-0.83) 
Tumors of the pituitary 634 127 0.70 (0.65-0.76) 2003 401 0.60 (0.58-0.63) 
Craniopharyngioma 195 39 0.21 (0.18-0.24) 616 123 0.20 (0.18-0.21) 
Unclassified Tumors 277 55 0.29 (0.26-0.33) 1125 225 0.35 (0.33-0.37) 
Hemangioma 106 21 0.11 (0.09-0.14) 427 85 0.13 (0.12-0.15) 
Neoplasm, unspecified 164 33 0.18 (0.15-0.20) 682 136 0.21 (0.20-0.23) 
All other -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 
TOTALh 4,474 895 4.71 (4.57-4.85) 18,882 3,776 5.94 (5.86-6.03) 

a Annual average cases are calculated by dividing the five-year total by five.

b Rates are per 100,000 and are age-adjusted to the 2000 US standard population.

c Hispanic ethnicity is not mutually exclusive of race; Classified using the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries Hispanic Identification Algorithm, version 2 (NHIA v2).

d ICD-O-3 histology codes: 9470/3, 9471/3, 9472/3, 9474/3.

e ICD-O-3 histology code: 9473/3.

f ICD-O-3 histology code: 9508/3.

g ICD-O-3 histology codes: 8963/3, 9364/3, 9480/3, 9490/0, 9490/3, 9500/3, 9501/3, 9502/3.

h Refers to all brain and other CNS tumors including histologies not presented in this table.

- Counts and rates are not presented when fewer than 16 cases were reported in the five year period for the specific histology category. The suppressed cases are included in the counts and rates for totals.

Abbreviations: CBTRUS, Central Brain Tumor Registry of the United States; NPCR, National Program of Cancer Registries; SEER, Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results program; CI, confidence interval; NOS, not otherwise specified.

  • Incidence rates for non-Hispanics (5.94 per 100,000 population, 3,776 total tumors) are higher than those for Hispanics (4.71 per 100,000 population, 865 total tumors).

  • The largest differences between non-Hispanics and Hispanics are in incidence rates of tumors of neuroepithelial tissue and tumors of cranial and spinal nerves.

Incidence Rates by Age and Histology in Children and Adolescents (Age 0–19 Years)

The detailed age-adjusted incidence rates for brain and other CNS tumors by histology for childhood age 0–14 years overall, childhood and adolescence age 0–19 years overall, and age groups 0–4 years, 5–9 years, 10–14 years, and 15–19 years are shown in Table 4 .

  • Overall, incidence rates for age groups 0–4 years (5.98 per 100,000 population) and 15–19 years (6.38 per 100,000 population) significantly exceed those observed in age groups 5–9 years (5.12 per 100,000 population) and 10–14 years (5.34 per 100,000 population).

  • Individual histology distributions vary substantially within these age groups.

  • Incidence rates of pilocytic astrocytoma, glioma malignant, NOS, ependymal tumors, choroid plexus tumors, and embryonal tumors decrease with increasing age.

Incidence Rates by Histology Defined by ICCC in Children and Adolescents (Age 0–19 Years)

Table 17 presents the CBTRUS brain and other CNS tumor data for children and adolescents used for this report according to the International Classification of Childhood Cancer (ICCC) grouping system for pediatric cancers (See the CBTRUS website for additional information on this classification scheme: http://www.cbtrus.org ). 19

Table 17.

Five-Year Total, Annual Average Total a . and Age-Adjusted and Age-Specific Incidence Rates b for Children and Adolescents, (Age 0-19 Years), Brain and Other Central Nervous System Tumors: Malignant and Non-Malignant by International Classification of Childhood Cancer (ICCC), c CBTRUS Statistical Report: NPCR and SEER, 2009-2013

 0-14dyears 0-19dyears < 1 year 1-4 years 5-9 years 10-14 years 15-19 years 
ICCC Category 5-year total Annual average Rate 95% CI 5-year total Annual average Rate 95% CI Rate 95% CI Rate 95% CI Rate 95% CI Rate 95% CI Rate 95% CI 
II Lymphomas and reticuloendothelial neoplasms 68 14 0.02 (0.02-0.03) 106 21 0.03 (0.02-0.03) -- -- -- -- 0.03 (0.02-0.04) 0.03 (0.02-0.04) 0.04 (0.02-0.05) 
III CNS and misc. intracranial and intraspinal neoplasms 14,289 2,858 4.69 (4.61-4.77) 19,775 3,955 4.79 (4.72-4.86) 4.79 (4.49-5.11) 5.26 (5.1-5.42) 4.48 (4.35-4.61) 4.45 (4.32-4.58) 5.09 (4.96-5.23) 
III(a) Ependymomas and choroid plexus tumor 1,297 259 0.42 (0.40-0.45) 1,620 324 0.39 (0.37-0.41) 0.92 (0.79-1.07) 0.69 (0.63-0.75) 0.27 (0.24-0.31) 0.28 (0.24-0.31) 0.30 (0.27-0.33) 
III(b) Astrocytomas 5,627 1,125 1.85 (1.80-1.90) 7,044 1,409 1.71 (1.67-1.75) 1.44 (1.28-1.62) 2.25 (2.14-2.35) 1.83 (1.75-1.91) 1.64 (1.56-1.72) 1.32 (1.25-1.39) 
III(c) Intracranial and intraspinal embryonal tumors 2,129 426 0.70 (0.67-0.73) 2,362 472 0.58 (0.55-0.60) 1.12 (0.98-1.28) 1.04 (0.97-1.11) 0.67 (0.62-0.72) 0.39 (0.35-0.43) 0.22 (0.19-0.25) 
III(d) Other gliomas 1,855 371 0.61 (0.58-0.64) 2,343 469 0.57 (0.55-0.59) 0.28 (0.21-0.37) 0.60 (0.55-0.66) 0.72 (0.67-0.77) 0.57 (0.52-0.62) 0.45 (0.41-0.50) 
III(e) Other specified intracranial and intraspinal neoplasms 2,796 559 0.92 (0.89-0.96) 5,545 1,109 1.33 (1.30-1.37) 0.66 (0.55-0.78) 0.53 (0.48-0.58) 0.85 (0.79-0.90) 1.34 (1.27-1.42) 2.55 (2.45-2.64) 
III(f) Unspecified intracranial and intraspinal neoplasms 585 117 0.19 (0.18-0.21) 861 172 0.21 (0.19-0.22) 0.36 (0.28-0.45) 0.15 (0.13-0.18) 0.15 (0.13-0.17) 0.23 (0.20-0.26) 0.26 (0.23-0.29) 
IV Neuroblastoma and other peripheral nervous cell tumors 134 27 0.04 (0.04-0.05) 146 29 0.04 (0.03-0.04) 0.25 (0.19-0.33) 0.07 (0.05-0.09) -- -- -- -- -- -- 
IX Soft tissue and other extraosseous sarcomas 67 13 0.02 (0.02-0.03) 95 19 0.02 (0.02-0.03) -- -- 0.02 (0.01-0.04) 0.02 (0.01-0.03) 0.02 (0.01-0.03) 0.03 (0.02-0.04) 
X(a) Intracranial & intraspinal germ cell tumors 635 127 0.21 (0.19-0.23) 918 184 0.22 (0.21-0.24) 0.41 (0.32-0.51) 0.09 (0.07-0.12) 0.17 (0.14-0.20) 0.30 (0.27-0.34) 0.26 (0.23-0.30) 
All other categories 17 0.01 (0.00-0.01) 23 0.01 (0.00-0.01) -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 
Not classified by ICCC 1,441 288 0.47 (0.45-0.50) 2,457 491 0.59 (0.57-0.62) 0.72 (0.60-0.84) 0.44 (0.39-0.48) 0.40 (0.36-0.44) 0.53 (0.48-0.57) 0.94 (0.89-1.00) 
TOTALd,e 16,653 3,331 5.47 (5.39-5.55) 23,522 4,704 5.70 (5.62-5.77) 6.23 (5.89-6.59) 5.91 (5.75-6.08) 5.12 (4.98-5.26) 5.34 (5.20-5.48) 6.38 (6.23-6.53) 
 0-14dyears 0-19dyears < 1 year 1-4 years 5-9 years 10-14 years 15-19 years 
ICCC Category 5-year total Annual average Rate 95% CI 5-year total Annual average Rate 95% CI Rate 95% CI Rate 95% CI Rate 95% CI Rate 95% CI Rate 95% CI 
II Lymphomas and reticuloendothelial neoplasms 68 14 0.02 (0.02-0.03) 106 21 0.03 (0.02-0.03) -- -- -- -- 0.03 (0.02-0.04) 0.03 (0.02-0.04) 0.04 (0.02-0.05) 
III CNS and misc. intracranial and intraspinal neoplasms 14,289 2,858 4.69 (4.61-4.77) 19,775 3,955 4.79 (4.72-4.86) 4.79 (4.49-5.11) 5.26 (5.1-5.42) 4.48 (4.35-4.61) 4.45 (4.32-4.58) 5.09 (4.96-5.23) 
III(a) Ependymomas and choroid plexus tumor 1,297 259 0.42 (0.40-0.45) 1,620 324 0.39 (0.37-0.41) 0.92 (0.79-1.07) 0.69 (0.63-0.75) 0.27 (0.24-0.31) 0.28 (0.24-0.31) 0.30 (0.27-0.33) 
III(b) Astrocytomas 5,627 1,125 1.85 (1.80-1.90) 7,044 1,409 1.71 (1.67-1.75) 1.44 (1.28-1.62) 2.25 (2.14-2.35) 1.83 (1.75-1.91) 1.64 (1.56-1.72) 1.32 (1.25-1.39) 
III(c) Intracranial and intraspinal embryonal tumors 2,129 426 0.70 (0.67-0.73) 2,362 472 0.58 (0.55-0.60) 1.12 (0.98-1.28) 1.04 (0.97-1.11) 0.67 (0.62-0.72) 0.39 (0.35-0.43) 0.22 (0.19-0.25) 
III(d) Other gliomas 1,855 371 0.61 (0.58-0.64) 2,343 469 0.57 (0.55-0.59) 0.28 (0.21-0.37) 0.60 (0.55-0.66) 0.72 (0.67-0.77) 0.57 (0.52-0.62) 0.45 (0.41-0.50) 
III(e) Other specified intracranial and intraspinal neoplasms 2,796 559 0.92 (0.89-0.96) 5,545 1,109 1.33 (1.30-1.37) 0.66 (0.55-0.78) 0.53 (0.48-0.58) 0.85 (0.79-0.90) 1.34 (1.27-1.42) 2.55 (2.45-2.64) 
III(f) Unspecified intracranial and intraspinal neoplasms 585 117 0.19 (0.18-0.21) 861 172 0.21 (0.19-0.22) 0.36 (0.28-0.45) 0.15 (0.13-0.18) 0.15 (0.13-0.17) 0.23 (0.20-0.26) 0.26 (0.23-0.29) 
IV Neuroblastoma and other peripheral nervous cell tumors 134 27 0.04 (0.04-0.05) 146 29 0.04 (0.03-0.04) 0.25 (0.19-0.33) 0.07 (0.05-0.09) -- -- -- -- -- -- 
IX Soft tissue and other extraosseous sarcomas 67 13 0.02 (0.02-0.03) 95 19 0.02 (0.02-0.03) -- -- 0.02 (0.01-0.04) 0.02 (0.01-0.03) 0.02 (0.01-0.03) 0.03 (0.02-0.04) 
X(a) Intracranial & intraspinal germ cell tumors 635 127 0.21 (0.19-0.23) 918 184 0.22 (0.21-0.24) 0.41 (0.32-0.51) 0.09 (0.07-0.12) 0.17 (0.14-0.20) 0.30 (0.27-0.34) 0.26 (0.23-0.30) 
All other categories 17 0.01 (0.00-0.01) 23 0.01 (0.00-0.01) -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 
Not classified by ICCC 1,441 288 0.47 (0.45-0.50) 2,457 491 0.59 (0.57-0.62) 0.72 (0.60-0.84) 0.44 (0.39-0.48) 0.40 (0.36-0.44) 0.53 (0.48-0.57) 0.94 (0.89-1.00) 
TOTALd,e 16,653 3,331 5.47 (5.39-5.55) 23,522 4,704 5.70 (5.62-5.77) 6.23 (5.89-6.59) 5.91 (5.75-6.08) 5.12 (4.98-5.26) 5.34 (5.20-5.48) 6.38 (6.23-6.53) 

a Annual average cases are calculated by dividing the five-year total by five.

b Rates are per 100,000.

c See the CBTRUS website for additional information on this classification scheme: http://www.cbtrus.org .

d Rates are age adjusted to the 2000U.S. standard population.

e Refers to all brain and other CNS tumors including histologies not presented in this table.

- Counts and rates are not presented when fewer than 16 cases were reported in the five year period for the specific ICCC category. The suppressed cases are included in the counts and rates for totals.

Abbreviations: ICCC, International Classification of Childhood Cancer; CBTRUS, Central Brain Tumor Registry of the United States; NPCR, National Program of Cancer Registries; SEER, Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results program; CI, confidence interval.

Primary Brain and Other CNS Tumors: Estimated Numbers of Expected Cases, Mortality Rates, and Relative Survival

Estimated Numbers of Expected Cases of All Primary Brain and Other CNS Tumors by State

The estimated number of cases of all primary brain and other CNS tumors for 2016 and 2017 by state and behavior are shown in Table 18 . The estimated number of cases of malignant and non-malignant tumors projected using age-adjusted annual CNS tumor incidence rates were generated for 2000–2013 for malignant tumors, and 2006–2013 for non-malignant tumors.

Table 18.

Estimated Number of Cases a,b of Brain and Other Central Nervous System Tumors Overall and by Behavior by State, 2016, 2017

STATE 2016 Estimated New Cases 2017 Estimated New Cases 
All Malignant Non-Malignant All Malignant Non-Malignant 
Alabama 950 410 540 960 420 540 
Alaska 180 60 120 190 60 130 
Arizona 1,660 570 1,090 1,700 590 1,110 
Arkansas 630 270 360 640 280 360 
California 8,460 2,690 5,770 8,610 2,720 5,890 
Colorado 1,540 400 1,140 1,560 400 1,160 
Connecticut 970 300 670 1000 300 700 
Delaware 220 80 140 220 80 140 
District of Columbia 140 -- 100 130 -- 90 
Florida 5,660 1,650 4,010 5,750 1,670 4,080 
Georgia 2,900 730 2,170 3,060 750 2,310 
Hawaii 270 80 190 270 80 190 
Idaho 360 130 230 370 130 240 
Illinois 3,320 1,000 2,320 3,380 1,010 2,370 
Indiana 1,630 550 1,080 1,660 560 1,100 
Iowa 1,020 270 750 1,070 280 790 
Kansas 740 240 500 770 250 520 
Kentucky 1,480 440 1,040 1,520 450 1,070 
Louisiana 1,230 330 900 1,280 330 950 
Maine 300 130 170 300 130 170 
Maryland 1,470 450 1,020 1,520 460 1,060 
Massachusetts 1,600 560 1,040 1,640 560 1,080 
Michigan 2,380 790 1,590 2,390 790 1,600 
Minnesota 1,290 460 830 1,360 470 890 
Mississippi 690 230 460 700 230 470 
Missouri 1,540 490 1,050 1,560 500 1,060 
Montana 250 90 160 250 90 160 
Nebraska 400 160 240 400 160 240 
Nevada 480 170 310 490 170 320 
New Hampshire 330 130 200 340 140 200 
New Jersey 2,570 760 1,810 2,660 760 1,900 
New Mexico 520 140 380 540 140 400 
New York 5,660 1,480 4,180 5,730 1,470 4,260 
North Carolina 2,720 810 1,910 2,810 830 1,980 
North Dakota 150 50 100 160 60 100 
Ohio 2,890 1,000 1,890 2,980 1,010 1,970 
Oklahoma 1100 290 810 1180 300 880 
Oregon 910 380 530 920 390 530 
Pennsylvania 3,890 1,210 2,680 3,950 1,220 2,730 
Rhode Island 200 70 130 190 70 120 
South Carolina 1,320 400 920 1,370 410 960 
South Dakota 230 70 160 230 70 160 
Tennessee 1,910 530 1,380 1,960 540 1,420 
Texas 6,530 1,900 4,630 6,650 1,930 4,720 
Utah 860 210 650 910 220 690 
Vermont 180 60 120 180 60 120 
Virginia 1,720 600 1,120 1,750 610 1,140 
Washington 2,440 630 1,810 2,530 640 1,890 
West Virginia 400 150 250 400 150 250 
Wisconsin 1,730 550 1,180 1,770 550 1,220 
Wyoming 140 50 90 150 50 100 
United States 78,450 25,850 52,600 79,270 26,070 53,200 
STATE 2016 Estimated New Cases 2017 Estimated New Cases 
All Malignant Non-Malignant All Malignant Non-Malignant 
Alabama 950 410 540 960 420 540 
Alaska 180 60 120 190 60 130 
Arizona 1,660 570 1,090 1,700 590 1,110 
Arkansas 630 270 360 640 280 360 
California 8,460 2,690 5,770 8,610 2,720 5,890 
Colorado 1,540 400 1,140 1,560 400 1,160 
Connecticut 970 300 670 1000 300 700 
Delaware 220 80 140 220 80 140 
District of Columbia 140 -- 100 130 -- 90 
Florida 5,660 1,650 4,010 5,750 1,670 4,080 
Georgia 2,900 730 2,170 3,060 750 2,310 
Hawaii 270 80 190 270 80 190 
Idaho 360 130 230 370 130 240 
Illinois 3,320 1,000 2,320 3,380 1,010 2,370 
Indiana 1,630 550 1,080 1,660 560 1,100 
Iowa 1,020 270 750 1,070 280 790 
Kansas 740 240 500 770 250 520 
Kentucky 1,480 440 1,040 1,520 450 1,070 
Louisiana 1,230 330 900 1,280 330 950 
Maine 300 130 170 300 130 170 
Maryland 1,470 450 1,020 1,520 460 1,060 
Massachusetts 1,600 560 1,040 1,640 560 1,080 
Michigan 2,380 790 1,590 2,390 790 1,600 
Minnesota 1,290 460 830 1,360 470 890 
Mississippi 690 230 460 700 230 470 
Missouri 1,540 490 1,050 1,560 500 1,060 
Montana 250 90 160 250 90 160 
Nebraska 400 160 240 400 160 240 
Nevada 480 170 310 490 170 320 
New Hampshire 330 130 200 340 140 200 
New Jersey 2,570 760 1,810 2,660 760 1,900 
New Mexico 520 140 380 540 140 400 
New York 5,660 1,480 4,180 5,730 1,470 4,260 
North Carolina 2,720 810 1,910 2,810 830 1,980 
North Dakota 150 50 100 160 60 100 
Ohio 2,890 1,000 1,890 2,980 1,010 1,970 
Oklahoma 1100 290 810 1180 300 880 
Oregon 910 380 530 920 390 530 
Pennsylvania 3,890 1,210 2,680 3,950 1,220 2,730 
Rhode Island 200 70 130 190 70 120 
South Carolina 1,320 400 920 1,370 410 960 
South Dakota 230 70 160 230 70 160 
Tennessee 1,910 530 1,380 1,960 540 1,420 
Texas 6,530 1,900 4,630 6,650 1,930 4,720 
Utah 860 210 650 910 220 690 
Vermont 180 60 120 180 60 120 
Virginia 1,720 600 1,120 1,750 610 1,140 
Washington 2,440 630 1,810 2,530 640 1,890 
West Virginia 400 150 250 400 150 250 
Wisconsin 1,730 550 1,180 1,770 550 1,220 
Wyoming 140 50 90 150 50 100 
United States 78,450 25,850 52,600 79,270 26,070 53,200 

a Source: Estimation based on CBTRUS NPCR and SEER 2000-2012 data for malignant tumors, and NPCR and SEER 2006-2012 data for non-malignant tumors.

b Rounded to the nearest 10.

- Estimated number is less than 50 and may affect totals.

  • The total number of new cases of primary brain and other CNS tumors for all 50 states and the District of Columbia in 2016 is estimated to be 78,450, with 25,850 malignant and 52,600 non-malignant.

  • For 2017, the estimate is 79,270 new cases of primary brain and other CNS tumors of which 26,070 and 53,200 are expected to be malignant and non-malignant, respectively.

Estimated Number of Expected Cases of All Primary Brain and Other CNS Tumors by Histology, Histology Grouping, and Age

The estimated number of cases of all primary brain and other CNS tumors for 2016 and 2017 by histology are shown in Table 19 .

Table 19.

Estimated Number of Cases a,b of Brain and Other Central Nervous System Tumors Overall and by Behavior by Major Histology Groupings and Histology, 2016, 2017

 2016 Estimated New Cases 2017 Estimated New Cases 
Histology All Malignant Non- Malignant All Malignant Non- Malignant 
Tumors of Neuroepithelial Tissue 22,650 21,020 1,630 22,900 21,250 1,650 
Pilocytic astrocytoma 1,100 1,100 -- 1,120 1,120 -- 
Diffuse astrocytoma 1,180 1,180 -- 1,110 1,110 -- 
Anaplastic astrocytoma 1,330 1,330 -- 1,340 1,340 -- 
Unique astrocytoma variants 240 180 70 250 180 70 
Glioblastoma 12,150 12,150 -- 12,390 12,390 -- 
Oligodendroglioma 690 690 -- 680 680 -- 
Anaplastic oligodendroglioma 390 390 -- 410 410 -- 
Oligoastrocytic tumors 610 610 -- 610 600 -- 
Ependymal tumors 1,410 820 590 1,420 820 600 
Glioma malignant, NOS 1,650 1,650 -- 1,690 1,690 -- 
Choroid plexus tumors 150 -- 130 150 -- 130 
Other neuroepithelial tumors -- -- -- -- -- -- 
Neuronal and mixed neuronal-glial tumors 940 210 740 960 210 750 
Tumors of the pineal region 170 100 70 180 100 80 
Embryonal tumors 600 580 -- 580 560 20 
Tumors of Cranial and Spinal Nerves 6,490 -- 6,450 6,580 -- 6,530 
Nerve sheath tumors 6,480 -- 6,440 6,570 -- 6,530 
Other tumors of cranial and spinal nerves -- -- -- -- -- -- 
Tumors of Meninges 27,990 470 27,520 28,030 460 27,570 
Meningioma 27,080 300 26,780 27,110 290 26,810 
Mesenchymal tumors 280 90 190 280 90 190 
Primary melanocytic lesions -- -- -- -- -- -- 
Other neoplasms related to the meninges 600 50 550 600 50 550 
Lymphomas and Hematopoietic Neoplasms 1,630 1,630 -- 1,660 1,650 -- 
Lymphoma 1,560 1,560 -- 1,590 1,590 -- 
Other hematopoietic neoplasms 70 60 -- 70 70 -- 
Germ Cell Tumors and Cysts 290 210 80 290 210 80 
Germ cell tumors, cysts and heterotopias 290 210 80 290 210 80 
Tumors of Sellar Region 14,370 -- 14,330 14,850 -- 14,820 
Tumors of the pituitary 13,760 -- 13,730 14,230 -- 14,200 
Craniopharyngioma 610 -- 610 610 -- 610 
Unclassified Tumors 5,330 2,660 2,660 5,260 2,630 2,630 
Hemangioma 1,090 -- 1,080 1,050 -- 1,040 
Neoplasm, unspecified 2,970 1,400 1,570 2,980 1,410 1,580 
All other -- -- -- -- -- -- 
TOTAL 78,450 25,850 52,600 79,270 26,070 53,200 
 2016 Estimated New Cases 2017 Estimated New Cases 
Histology All Malignant Non- Malignant All Malignant Non- Malignant 
Tumors of Neuroepithelial Tissue 22,650 21,020 1,630 22,900 21,250 1,650 
Pilocytic astrocytoma 1,100 1,100 -- 1,120 1,120 -- 
Diffuse astrocytoma 1,180 1,180 -- 1,110 1,110 -- 
Anaplastic astrocytoma 1,330 1,330 -- 1,340 1,340 -- 
Unique astrocytoma variants 240 180 70 250 180 70 
Glioblastoma 12,150 12,150 -- 12,390 12,390 -- 
Oligodendroglioma 690 690 -- 680 680 -- 
Anaplastic oligodendroglioma 390 390 -- 410 410 -- 
Oligoastrocytic tumors 610 610 -- 610 600 -- 
Ependymal tumors 1,410 820 590 1,420 820 600 
Glioma malignant, NOS 1,650 1,650 -- 1,690 1,690 -- 
Choroid plexus tumors 150 -- 130 150 -- 130 
Other neuroepithelial tumors -- -- -- -- -- -- 
Neuronal and mixed neuronal-glial tumors 940 210 740 960 210 750 
Tumors of the pineal region 170 100 70 180 100 80 
Embryonal tumors 600 580 -- 580 560 20 
Tumors of Cranial and Spinal Nerves 6,490 -- 6,450 6,580 -- 6,530 
Nerve sheath tumors 6,480 -- 6,440 6,570 -- 6,530 
Other tumors of cranial and spinal nerves -- -- -- -- -- -- 
Tumors of Meninges 27,990 470 27,520 28,030 460 27,570 
Meningioma 27,080 300 26,780 27,110 290 26,810 
Mesenchymal tumors 280 90 190 280 90 190 
Primary melanocytic lesions -- -- -- -- -- -- 
Other neoplasms related to the meninges 600 50 550 600 50 550 
Lymphomas and Hematopoietic Neoplasms 1,630 1,630 -- 1,660 1,650 -- 
Lymphoma 1,560 1,560 -- 1,590 1,590 -- 
Other hematopoietic neoplasms 70 60 -- 70 70 -- 
Germ Cell Tumors and Cysts 290 210 80 290 210 80 
Germ cell tumors, cysts and heterotopias 290 210 80 290 210 80 
Tumors of Sellar Region 14,370 -- 14,330 14,850 -- 14,820 
Tumors of the pituitary 13,760 -- 13,730 14,230 -- 14,200 
Craniopharyngioma 610 -- 610 610 -- 610 
Unclassified Tumors 5,330 2,660 2,660 5,260 2,630 2,630 
Hemangioma 1,090 -- 1,080 1,050 -- 1,040 
Neoplasm, unspecified 2,970 1,400 1,570 2,980 1,410 1,580 
All other -- -- -- -- -- -- 
TOTAL 78,450 25,850 52,600 79,270 26,070 53,200 

a Source: Estimation based on CBTRUS NPCR and SEER 2000-2012 data for malignant tumors, and NPCR and SEER 2006-2012 data for non-malignant tumors.

b Rounded to the nearest 10. Numbers may not add up due to rounding.

–Estimated number is less than 50 and may affect totals.

Abbreviations: CBTRUS, Central Brain Tumor Registry of the United States; NPCR, National Program of Cancer Registries; SEER, Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results program; CI, confidence interval; NOS, not otherwise specified.

  • Meningiomas have the highest number of all estimated new cases, with 27,080 cases projected in 2016 and 27,110 in 2017 . Tumors of the pituitary have the second highest number of all estimated cases, with 13,760 cases in 2016 and 14,230 in 2017.

  • Glioblastoma has the highest number of cases of all malignant tumors, with 12,150 cases projected in 2016 and 12,390 in 2017.

The estimated numbers of cases for 2016 and 2017 by age are presented in Table 20 .

Table 20.

Estimated Number of Cases a,b of Brain and Other Central Nervous System Tumors by Age, Major Histology Groupings, and Histology, 2016, 2017

 2016 Estimated New Cases 2017 Estimated New Cases 
Histology 0-14 15-39 40-64 65+ 0-14 15-39 40-64 65+ 
Tumors of Neuroepithelial Tissue 3,140 3,480 8,690 8,040 3,160 3,480 8,760 8,260 
Pilocytic astrocytoma 790 300 90 -- 810 300 90 -- 
Diffuse astrocytoma 190 390 490 320 180 380 470 310 
Anaplastic astrocytoma 90 340 620 590 90 350 630 660 
Unique astrocytoma variants 90 80 -- -- 90 80 -- -- 
Glioblastoma 170 510 5,390 6,120 180 520 5,470 6,270 
Oligodendroglioma -- 250 320 70 -- 240 310 70 
Anaplastic oligodendroglioma -- 80 200 60 -- 70 200 60 
Oligoastrocytic tumors -- 280 250 70 -- 290 250 70 
Ependymal tumors 250 360 590 240 250 360 590 250 
Glioma malignant, NOS 570 300 320 370 570 310 330 370 
Choroid plexus tumors 70 70 -- -- 70 80 -- -- 
Other neuroepithelial tumors -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 
Neuronal and mixed neuronal- glial tumors 360 300 240 80 360 290 240 80 
Tumors of the pineal region -- 60 60 -- -- 60 60 -- 
Embryonal tumors 460 160 -- -- 450 160 -- -- 
Tumors of Cranial and Spinal Nerves 210 960 3,470 1,950 200 970 3,510 2,010 
Nerve sheath tumors 210 960 3,470 1,940 200 960 3,500 2,000 
Other tumors of cranial and spinal nerves -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 
Tumors of Meninges 240 2,030 11,240 16,240 250 2,050 11,200 16,680 
Meningioma 140 1,770 10,830 16,070 150 1,790 10,790 16,500 
Mesenchymal tumors 60 70 110 50 60 70 110 50 
Primary melanocytic lesions -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 
Other neoplasms related to the meninges -- 190 270 120 50 190 270 120 
Lymphomas and Hematopoietic Neoplasms -- 100 560 840 -- 90 560 850 
Lymphoma -- 80 540 820 -- 80 540 830 
Other hematopoietic neoplasms -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 
Germ Cell Tumors and Cysts 190 110 -- -- 190 100 -- -- 
Germ cell tumors, cysts and heterotopias 190 110 -- -- 190 100 -- -- 
Tumors of Sellar Region 800 3,930 6,390 3,750 820 4,030 6,610 3,910 
Tumors of the pituitary 640 3,800 6,170 3,630 660 3,900 6,390 3,780 
Craniopharyngioma 160 130 220 120 160 130 220 120 
Unclassified Tumors 350 600 1,230 2,060 370 580 1,210 2,120 
Hemangioma 150 280 430 490 170 270 400 560 
Neoplasm, unspecified 180 310 790 1,560 190 310 800 1,550 
All other -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 
TOTAL‡ 4,770 11,110 31,590 32,870 4,830 11,200 31,850 33,820 
 2016 Estimated New Cases 2017 Estimated New Cases 
Histology 0-14 15-39 40-64 65+ 0-14 15-39 40-64 65+ 
Tumors of Neuroepithelial Tissue 3,140 3,480 8,690 8,040 3,160 3,480 8,760 8,260 
Pilocytic astrocytoma 790 300 90 -- 810 300 90 -- 
Diffuse astrocytoma 190 390 490 320 180 380 470 310 
Anaplastic astrocytoma 90 340 620 590 90 350 630 660 
Unique astrocytoma variants 90 80 -- -- 90 80 -- -- 
Glioblastoma 170 510 5,390 6,120 180 520 5,470 6,270 
Oligodendroglioma -- 250 320 70 -- 240 310 70 
Anaplastic oligodendroglioma -- 80 200 60 -- 70 200 60 
Oligoastrocytic tumors -- 280 250 70 -- 290 250 70 
Ependymal tumors 250 360 590 240 250 360 590 250 
Glioma malignant, NOS 570 300 320 370 570 310 330 370 
Choroid plexus tumors 70 70 -- -- 70 80 -- -- 
Other neuroepithelial tumors -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 
Neuronal and mixed neuronal- glial tumors 360 300 240 80 360 290 240 80 
Tumors of the pineal region -- 60 60 -- -- 60 60 -- 
Embryonal tumors 460 160 -- -- 450 160 -- -- 
Tumors of Cranial and Spinal Nerves 210 960 3,470 1,950 200 970 3,510 2,010 
Nerve sheath tumors 210 960 3,470 1,940 200 960 3,500 2,000 
Other tumors of cranial and spinal nerves -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 
Tumors of Meninges 240 2,030 11,240 16,240 250 2,050 11,200 16,680 
Meningioma 140 1,770 10,830 16,070 150 1,790 10,790 16,500 
Mesenchymal tumors 60 70 110 50 60 70 110 50 
Primary melanocytic lesions -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 
Other neoplasms related to the meninges -- 190 270 120 50 190 270 120 
Lymphomas and Hematopoietic Neoplasms -- 100 560 840 -- 90 560 850 
Lymphoma -- 80 540 820 -- 80 540 830 
Other hematopoietic neoplasms -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 
Germ Cell Tumors and Cysts 190 110 -- -- 190 100 -- -- 
Germ cell tumors, cysts and heterotopias 190 110 -- -- 190 100 -- -- 
Tumors of Sellar Region 800 3,930 6,390 3,750 820 4,030 6,610 3,910 
Tumors of the pituitary 640 3,800 6,170 3,630 660 3,900 6,390 3,780 
Craniopharyngioma 160 130 220 120 160 130 220 120 
Unclassified Tumors 350 600 1,230 2,060 370 580 1,210 2,120 
Hemangioma 150 280 430 490 170 270 400 560 
Neoplasm, unspecified 180 310 790 1,560 190 310 800 1,550 
All other -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 
TOTAL‡ 4,770 11,110 31,590 32,870 4,830 11,200 31,850 33,820 

a Source: Estimation based on CBTRUS NPCR and SEER 2006-2013 data.

b Rounded to the nearest 10. Numbers may not add up due to rounding.

– Estimated number is less than 50 and may affect totals.

Abbreviations: CBTRUS, Central Brain Tumor Registry of the United States; NPCR, National Program of Cancer Registries; SEER, Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results program; CI, confidence interval; NOS, not otherwise specified.

  • For 2016, the highest number of new cases is predicted in those age 65+ years, with 32,870 cases. For 2017, the highest number of new cases is estimated to be in those age 65+ years, with 33,820 cases.

  • For 2016 and 2017, children age 0–14 years are estimated to have 4,770 and 4,830 new cases of primary brain and other CNS tumors each year, respectively.

Estimated Mortality Rates for Malignant Brain and Other CNS Tumors by State and Sex

Table 21 and Fig. 19 show average annual age-adjusted mortality rates for primary malignant brain and other CNS tumors in the US during 2009–2013 by state and sex.

Fig. 19.

Average Annual Age-Adjusted Mortality Rates a for Malignant Primary Brain and Other CNS Tumors by Central Cancer Registry, CBTRUS Statistical Report: NCHS, 2009-2013.

Fig. 19.

Average Annual Age-Adjusted Mortality Rates a for Malignant Primary Brain and Other CNS Tumors by Central Cancer Registry, CBTRUS Statistical Report: NCHS, 2009-2013.

Table 21.

Five-Year Total, Average Annual Total a and Average Annual Age-Adjusted Mortality Rates b for Malignant Brain and Other Central Nervous System Cancer Overall and by State and Sex, United States, 2009-2013 bc

 Total Deaths Total Male Deaths Total Female Deaths 
State 5-year total Annual average Rate 95% CI 5-year total Annual average Rate 95% CI 5-year total Annual average Rate 95% CI 
Alabama 1,369 274 5.01 (4.74-5.28) 763 153 6.15 (5.71-6.61) 606 121 4.05 (3.73-4.39) 
Alaska 145 29 4.79 (3.98-5.71) 93 19 6.44 (5.03-8.09) 52 10 3.36 (2.47-4.46) 
Arizona 1,500 300 4.22 (4.00-4.44) 826 165 4.95 (4.61-5.30) 674 135 3.57 (3.30-3.85) 
Arkansas 821 164 4.87 (4.54-5.22) 463 93 6.06 (5.51-6.65) 358 72 3.93 (3.53-4.37) 
California 8,139 1,628 4.29 (4.20-4.38) 4,575 915 5.23 (5.07-5.38) 3,564 713 3.49 (3.37-3.61) 
Colorado 1,155 231 4.50 (4.24-4.78) 654 131 5.47 (5.05-5.93) 501 100 3.68 (3.36-4.02) 
Connecticut 875 175 4.20 (3.92-4.49) 474 95 5.04 (4.59-5.53) 401 80 3.47 (3.13-3.84) 
Delaware 217 43 4.18 (3.63-4.79) 112 22 4.84 (3.97-5.85) 105 21 3.72 (3.02-4.54) 
District of Columbia 97 19 3.28 (2.65-4.01) 53 11 4.21 (3.13-5.55) 44 2.63 (1.90-3.55) 
Florida 5,005 1,001 4.11 (3.99-4.23) 2,823 565 5.05 (4.86-5.24) 2,182 436 3.28 (3.14-3.43) 
Georgia 1,942 388 4.07 (3.89-4.26) 1,103 221 5.12 (4.80-5.44) 839 168 3.23 (3.01-3.46) 
Hawaii 211 42 2.59 (2.24-2.97) 118 24 3.01 (2.48-3.62) 93 19 2.21 (1.77-2.73) 
Idaho 394 79 4.76 (4.30-5.27) 263 53 6.70 (5.90-7.58) 131 26 2.97 (2.48-3.54) 
Illinois 2,842 568 4.13 (3.98-4.29) 1,592 318 5.09 (4.84-5.35) 1,250 250 3.34 (3.16-3.54) 
Indiana 1,594 319 4.51 (4.29-4.74) 907 181 5.56 (5.20-5.95) 687 137 3.62 (3.35-3.91) 
Iowa 902 180 5.13 (4.79-5.48) 517 103 6.35 (5.80-6.93) 385 77 4.04 (3.64-4.49) 
Kansas 802 160 5.13 (4.78-5.51) 460 92 6.39 (5.81-7.01) 342 68 4.05 (3.62-4.52) 
Kentucky 1,149 230 4.71 (4.43-4.99) 618 124 5.45 (5.02-5.91) 531 106 4.06 (3.71-4.43) 
Louisiana 1,034 207 4.28 (4.02-4.55) 572 114 5.26 (4.83-5.73) 462 92 3.46 (3.15-3.80) 
Maine 420 84 4.87 (4.40-5.38) 257 51 6.46 (5.67-7.33) 163 33 3.50 (2.96-4.12) 
Maryland 1,267 253 4.06 (3.84-4.30) 712 142 5.10 (4.72-5.50) 555 111 3.24 (2.97-3.53) 
Massachusetts 1,611 322 4.28 (4.07-4.50) 884 177 5.23 (4.88-5.59) 727 145 3.50 (3.24-3.77) 
Michigan 2,651 530 4.69 (4.51-4.88) 1,485 297 5.69 (5.39-5.99) 1,166 233 3.85 (3.62-4.08) 
Minnesota 1,312 262 4.49 (4.25-4.75) 776 155 5.64 (5.24-6.06) 536 107 3.46 (3.17-3.77) 
Mississippi 766 153 4.78 (4.44-5.14) 398 80 5.64 (5.08-6.24) 368 74 4.15 (3.73-4.60) 
Missouri 1,514 303 4.45 (4.22-4.68) 832 166 5.32 (4.96-5.70) 682 136 3.69 (3.41-3.98) 
Montana 273 55 4.53 (3.99-5.12) 147 29 5.05 (4.24-5.98) 126 25 4.02 (3.32-4.82) 
Nebraska 508 102 5.08 (4.64-5.55) 283 57 6.21 (5.50-6.99) 225 45 4.07 (3.54-4.66) 
Nevada 570 114 4.03 (3.70-4.39) 340 68 4.99 (4.45-5.57) 230 46 3.16 (2.76-3.61) 
New Hampshire 363 73 4.70 (4.22-5.23) 217 43 6.09 (5.28-6.99) 146 29 3.51 (2.95-4.15) 
New Jersey 1,855 371 3.75 (3.57-3.92) 1,040 208 4.71 (4.42-5.01) 815 163 2.96 (2.76-3.18) 
New Mexico 402 80 3.55 (3.20-3.92) 220 44 4.08 (3.55-4.67) 182 36 3.06 (2.62-3.55) 
New York 4,113 823 3.79 (3.67-3.91) 2,213 443 4.58 (4.38-4.78) 1,900 380 3.16 (3.02-3.31) 
North Carolina 2,301 460 4.39 (4.21-4.57) 1,281 256 5.46 (5.16-5.78) 1,020 204 3.52 (3.31-3.75) 
North Dakota 164 33 4.28 (3.64-5.01) 94 19 5.19 (4.18-6.38) 70 14 3.49 (2.70-4.45) 
Ohio 2,953 591 4.46 (4.29-4.62) 1,651 330 5.44 (5.17-5.71) 1,302 260 3.60 (3.41-3.81) 
Oklahoma 942 188 4.53 (4.24-4.83) 528 106 5.46 (5.00-5.96) 414 83 3.67 (3.32-4.05) 
Oregon 1,130 226 5.11 (4.81-5.43) 664 133 6.29 (5.81-6.80) 466 93 4.06 (3.69-4.46) 
Pennsylvania 3,291 658 4.26 (4.11-4.41) 1,799 360 5.13 (4.89-5.37) 1,492 298 3.53 (3.35-3.72) 
Rhode Island 249 50 4.02 (3.53-4.57) 139 28 5.05 (4.22-5.99) 110 22 3.14 (2.57-3.82) 
South Carolina 1,134 227 4.32 (4.06-4.58) 663 133 5.57 (5.14-6.03) 471 94 3.25 (2.96-3.56) 
South Dakota 265 53 5.59 (4.92-6.32) 153 31 6.72 (5.68-7.90) 112 22 4.57 (3.73-5.54) 
Tennessee 1,730 346 4.86 (4.63-5.10) 929 186 5.72 (5.34-6.11) 801 160 4.11 (3.83-4.41) 
Texas 4,931 986 4.07 (3.96-4.19) 2,760 552 4.93 (4.74-5.12) 2,171 434 3.35 (3.21-3.50) 
Utah 517 103 4.34 (3.97-4.74) 299 60 5.27 (4.67-5.91) 218 44 3.51 (3.05-4.01) 
Vermont 207 41 5.38 (4.65-6.19) 122 24 6.66 (5.49-8.02) 85 17 4.22 (3.35-5.28) 
Virginia 1,726 345 3.97 (3.78-4.17) 944 189 4.71 (4.41-5.03) 782 156 3.35 (3.12-3.60) 
Washington 1,866 373 5.05 (4.82-5.29) 1,068 214 6.14 (5.77-6.53) 798 160 4.07 (3.79-4.37) 
West Virginia 504 101 4.22 (3.85-4.62) 281 56 5.00 (4.41-5.64) 223 45 3.54 (3.07-4.06) 
Wisconsin 1,575 315 4.85 (4.61-5.10) 877 175 5.82 (5.43-6.23) 698 140 4.05 (3.75-4.38) 
Wyoming 147 29 4.80 (4.03-5.67) 78 16 5.23 (4.09-6.57) 69 14 4.39 (3.39-5.60) 
United States 73,450 14,690 4.32 (4.28-4.35) 41,120 8,224 5.27 (5.22-5.32) 32,330 6,466 3.51 (3.47-3.55) 
 Total Deaths Total Male Deaths Total Female Deaths 
State 5-year total Annual average Rate 95% CI 5-year total Annual average Rate 95% CI 5-year total Annual average Rate 95% CI 
Alabama 1,369 274 5.01 (4.74-5.28) 763 153 6.15 (5.71-6.61) 606 121 4.05 (3.73-4.39) 
Alaska 145 29 4.79 (3.98-5.71) 93 19 6.44 (5.03-8.09) 52 10 3.36 (2.47-4.46) 
Arizona 1,500 300 4.22 (4.00-4.44) 826 165 4.95 (4.61-5.30) 674 135 3.57 (3.30-3.85) 
Arkansas 821 164 4.87 (4.54-5.22) 463 93 6.06 (5.51-6.65) 358 72 3.93 (3.53-4.37) 
California 8,139 1,628 4.29 (4.20-4.38) 4,575 915 5.23 (5.07-5.38) 3,564 713 3.49 (3.37-3.61) 
Colorado 1,155 231 4.50 (4.24-4.78) 654 131 5.47 (5.05-5.93) 501 100 3.68 (3.36-4.02) 
Connecticut 875 175 4.20 (3.92-4.49) 474 95 5.04 (4.59-5.53) 401 80 3.47 (3.13-3.84) 
Delaware 217 43 4.18 (3.63-4.79) 112 22 4.84 (3.97-5.85) 105 21 3.72 (3.02-4.54) 
District of Columbia 97 19 3.28 (2.65-4.01) 53 11 4.21 (3.13-5.55) 44 2.63 (1.90-3.55) 
Florida 5,005 1,001 4.11 (3.99-4.23) 2,823 565 5.05 (4.86-5.24) 2,182 436 3.28 (3.14-3.43) 
Georgia 1,942 388 4.07 (3.89-4.26) 1,103 221 5.12 (4.80-5.44) 839 168 3.23 (3.01-3.46) 
Hawaii 211 42 2.59 (2.24-2.97) 118 24 3.01 (2.48-3.62) 93 19 2.21 (1.77-2.73) 
Idaho 394 79 4.76 (4.30-5.27) 263 53 6.70 (5.90-7.58) 131 26 2.97 (2.48-3.54) 
Illinois 2,842 568 4.13 (3.98-4.29) 1,592 318 5.09 (4.84-5.35) 1,250 250 3.34 (3.16-3.54) 
Indiana 1,594 319 4.51 (4.29-4.74) 907 181 5.56 (5.20-5.95) 687 137 3.62 (3.35-3.91) 
Iowa 902 180 5.13 (4.79-5.48) 517 103 6.35 (5.80-6.93) 385 77 4.04 (3.64-4.49) 
Kansas 802 160 5.13 (4.78-5.51) 460 92 6.39 (5.81-7.01) 342 68 4.05 (3.62-4.52) 
Kentucky 1,149 230 4.71 (4.43-4.99) 618 124 5.45 (5.02-5.91) 531 106 4.06 (3.71-4.43) 
Louisiana 1,034 207 4.28 (4.02-4.55) 572 114 5.26 (4.83-5.73) 462 92 3.46 (3.15-3.80) 
Maine 420 84 4.87 (4.40-5.38) 257 51 6.46 (5.67-7.33) 163 33 3.50 (2.96-4.12) 
Maryland 1,267 253 4.06 (3.84-4.30) 712 142 5.10 (4.72-5.50) 555 111 3.24 (2.97-3.53) 
Massachusetts 1,611 322 4.28 (4.07-4.50) 884 177 5.23 (4.88-5.59) 727 145 3.50 (3.24-3.77) 
Michigan 2,651 530 4.69 (4.51-4.88) 1,485 297 5.69 (5.39-5.99) 1,166 233 3.85 (3.62-4.08) 
Minnesota 1,312 262 4.49 (4.25-4.75) 776 155 5.64 (5.24-6.06) 536 107 3.46 (3.17-3.77) 
Mississippi 766 153 4.78 (4.44-5.14) 398 80 5.64 (5.08-6.24) 368 74 4.15 (3.73-4.60) 
Missouri 1,514 303 4.45 (4.22-4.68) 832 166 5.32 (4.96-5.70) 682 136 3.69 (3.41-3.98) 
Montana 273 55 4.53 (3.99-5.12) 147 29 5.05 (4.24-5.98) 126 25 4.02 (3.32-4.82) 
Nebraska 508 102 5.08 (4.64-5.55) 283 57 6.21 (5.50-6.99) 225 45 4.07 (3.54-4.66) 
Nevada 570 114 4.03 (3.70-4.39) 340 68 4.99 (4.45-5.57) 230 46 3.16 (2.76-3.61) 
New Hampshire 363 73 4.70 (4.22-5.23) 217 43 6.09 (5.28-6.99) 146 29 3.51 (2.95-4.15) 
New Jersey 1,855 371 3.75 (3.57-3.92) 1,040 208 4.71 (4.42-5.01) 815 163 2.96 (2.76-3.18) 
New Mexico 402 80 3.55 (3.20-3.92) 220 44 4.08 (3.55-4.67) 182 36 3.06 (2.62-3.55) 
New York 4,113 823 3.79 (3.67-3.91) 2,213 443 4.58 (4.38-4.78) 1,900 380 3.16 (3.02-3.31) 
North Carolina 2,301 460 4.39 (4.21-4.57) 1,281 256 5.46 (5.16-5.78) 1,020 204 3.52 (3.31-3.75) 
North Dakota 164 33 4.28 (3.64-5.01) 94 19 5.19 (4.18-6.38) 70 14 3.49 (2.70-4.45) 
Ohio 2,953 591 4.46 (4.29-4.62) 1,651 330 5.44 (5.17-5.71) 1,302 260 3.60 (3.41-3.81) 
Oklahoma 942 188 4.53 (4.24-4.83) 528 106 5.46 (5.00-5.96) 414 83 3.67 (3.32-4.05) 
Oregon 1,130 226 5.11 (4.81-5.43) 664 133 6.29 (5.81-6.80) 466 93 4.06 (3.69-4.46) 
Pennsylvania 3,291 658 4.26 (4.11-4.41) 1,799 360 5.13 (4.89-5.37) 1,492 298 3.53 (3.35-3.72) 
Rhode Island 249 50 4.02 (3.53-4.57) 139 28 5.05 (4.22-5.99) 110 22 3.14 (2.57-3.82) 
South Carolina 1,134 227 4.32 (4.06-4.58) 663 133 5.57 (5.14-6.03) 471 94 3.25 (2.96-3.56) 
South Dakota 265 53 5.59 (4.92-6.32) 153 31 6.72 (5.68-7.90) 112 22 4.57 (3.73-5.54) 
Tennessee 1,730 346 4.86 (4.63-5.10) 929 186 5.72 (5.34-6.11) 801 160 4.11 (3.83-4.41) 
Texas 4,931 986 4.07 (3.96-4.19) 2,760 552 4.93 (4.74-5.12) 2,171 434 3.35 (3.21-3.50) 
Utah 517 103 4.34 (3.97-4.74) 299 60 5.27 (4.67-5.91) 218 44 3.51 (3.05-4.01) 
Vermont 207 41 5.38 (4.65-6.19) 122 24 6.66 (5.49-8.02) 85 17 4.22 (3.35-5.28) 
Virginia 1,726 345 3.97 (3.78-4.17) 944 189 4.71 (4.41-5.03) 782 156 3.35 (3.12-3.60) 
Washington 1,866 373 5.05 (4.82-5.29) 1,068 214 6.14 (5.77-6.53) 798 160 4.07 (3.79-4.37) 
West Virginia 504 101 4.22 (3.85-4.62) 281 56 5.00 (4.41-5.64) 223 45 3.54 (3.07-4.06) 
Wisconsin 1,575 315 4.85 (4.61-5.10) 877 175 5.82 (5.43-6.23) 698 140 4.05 (3.75-4.38) 
Wyoming 147 29 4.80 (4.03-5.67) 78 16 5.23 (4.09-6.57) 69 14 4.39 (3.39-5.60) 
United States 73,450 14,690 4.32 (4.28-4.35) 41,120 8,224 5.27 (5.22-5.32) 32,330 6,466 3.51 (3.47-3.55) 

a Annual average deaths are calculated by dividing the five-year total by five.

b Rates are per 100,000 and are age-adjusted to the 2000 US standard population.

c Estimated by CBTRUS using Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program ( www.seer.cancer.gov ) SEER*Stat Database: Mortality - All COD, Aggregated With State, Total U.S. (1990-2013) <Katrina/Rita Population Adjustment>, National Cancer Institute, DCCPS, Surveillance Research Program, Surveillance Systems Branch, released April 2016. Underlying mortality data provided by NCHS ( www.cdc.gov/nchs ).

- Counts and rates are not presented when fewer than 20 cases were reported for the specific category. The suppressed cases are included in the counts and rates for totals.

Abbreviations: NCHS, National Center for Health Statistics; CI, confidence interval.

  • The aggregate total number of observed deaths is 73,450, for an average annual age-adjusted mortality rate of 4.32 per 100,000 population.

  • There is considerable variation by individual state, which range from a low of 2.59 deaths per 100,000 population to a high of 5.59 deaths per 100,000 population. Rates may vary by state for multiple reasons, including demographic variation and procedures for deciding primary cause of death on a death certificate.

  • Males have higher mortality rate for brain and other CNS tumors than females in the US population, with 5.27 per 100,000 population as compared to 3.51 per 100,000 population.

Relative Survival Rates for Malignant Brain and Other CNS Tumors by Site

Relative survival estimates by site are presented in Table 22 .

Table 22.

One-, Two-, Five-. and Ten-Year Relative Survival Rates a for Malignant Brain and Other Central Nervous System Tumors by Site b , SEER 18 Registries, 2000-2013 c

   1-Year 2-Year 5-Year 10-Year 
ICD-O-3 CODE SITEb Nd 95% CI 95% CI 95% CI 95% CI 
C71.0 Cerebrum 3,429 51.6 (49.8-53.3)  37.6 (35.9-39.3) 28.8 (27.1-30.5)  24.5 (22.7-26.3) 
C71.1 Frontal lobe of the brain 16,739 61.2 (60.5-62.0)  46.4 (45.6-47.2) 34.5 (33.7-35.4)  26.0 (25.1-26.9) 
C71.2 Temporal lobe of the brain 11,906 57.2 (56.3-58.1)  36.0 (35.1-37.0) 23.1 (22.2-23.9)  17.4 (16.5-18.3) 
C71.3 Parietal lobe of the brain 7,726 50.0 (48.8-51.1)  31.1 (30.0-32.2) 19.8 (18.8-20.9)  15.0 (13.9-16.1) 
C71.4 Occipital lobe of the brain 1,947 52.7 (50.4-55.0)  32.1 (29.9-34.3) 21.4 (19.4-23.5)  17.5 (15.4-19.7) 
C71.5 Ventricle 1,287 75.6 (73.1-78.0)  69.3 (66.5-71.8) 62.7 (59.7-65.5)  59.1 (55.8-62.3) 
C71.6 Cerebellum 3,896 85.0 (83.8-86.1)  79.2 (77.8-80.5) 71.3 (69.6-72.8)  66.6 (64.8-68.4) 
C71.7 Brain stem 3,194 70.3 (68.6-71.9)  57.8 (55.9-59.5) 49.6 (47.7-51.5)  44.7 (42.6-46.8) 
C71.8-C71.9 Other brain 15,144 44.2 (43.4-45.1)  31.7 (30.9-32.5) 22.7 (21.9-23.4)  18.3 (17.5-19.1) 
C72.0-C72.1 Spinal cord and cauda equina 2,424 89.8 (88.5-91.0)  85.2 (83.6-86.7) 81.0 (79.1-82.8)  76.9 (74.3-79.2) 
C72.2-C72.5 Cranial nerves 831 96.6 (95.1-97.7)  95.1 (93.3-96.5) 93.4 (91.2-95.1)  91.4 (88.5-93.6) 
C72.8-C72.9 Other nervous system 610 63.0 (58.8-66.8)  54.7 (50.4-58.8) 47.2 (42.6-51.7)  44.8 (39.8-49.8) 
C70.0-C70.9 Meninges (cerebral and spinal) 1,260 81.7 (79.2-83.9)  75.4 (72.6-77.9) 65.2 (61.8-68.4)  58.5 (54.5-62.4) 
C75.1-C75.2 Pituitary and craniopharyngeal duct 278 86.0 (81.0-89.7)  83.9 (78.5-88.1) 74.2 (67.5-79.8)  69.3 (61.5-75.9) 
C75.3 Pineal 749 88.7 (86.2-90.9)  83.0 (79.9-85.6) 77.3 (73.8-80.4)  72.6 (68.2-76.5) 
C30.0 e Olfactory tumors of the nasal cavity 410 90.9 (87.3-93.5)  84.6 (80.2-88.2) 78.2 (72.7-82.7)  63.7 (55.0-71.1) 
All Codes All Sites (Malignant only )  71,830 59.3 (59.0-59.7)  45.1 (44.7-45.5) 34.9 (34.6-35.3)  29.4 (28.9-29.8) 
   1-Year 2-Year 5-Year 10-Year 
ICD-O-3 CODE SITEb Nd 95% CI 95% CI 95% CI 95% CI 
C71.0 Cerebrum 3,429 51.6 (49.8-53.3)  37.6 (35.9-39.3) 28.8 (27.1-30.5)  24.5 (22.7-26.3) 
C71.1 Frontal lobe of the brain 16,739 61.2 (60.5-62.0)  46.4 (45.6-47.2) 34.5 (33.7-35.4)  26.0 (25.1-26.9) 
C71.2 Temporal lobe of the brain 11,906 57.2 (56.3-58.1)  36.0 (35.1-37.0) 23.1 (22.2-23.9)  17.4 (16.5-18.3) 
C71.3 Parietal lobe of the brain 7,726 50.0 (48.8-51.1)  31.1 (30.0-32.2) 19.8 (18.8-20.9)  15.0 (13.9-16.1) 
C71.4 Occipital lobe of the brain 1,947 52.7 (50.4-55.0)  32.1 (29.9-34.3) 21.4 (19.4-23.5)  17.5 (15.4-19.7) 
C71.5 Ventricle 1,287 75.6 (73.1-78.0)  69.3 (66.5-71.8) 62.7 (59.7-65.5)  59.1 (55.8-62.3) 
C71.6 Cerebellum 3,896 85.0 (83.8-86.1)  79.2 (77.8-80.5) 71.3 (69.6-72.8)  66.6 (64.8-68.4) 
C71.7 Brain stem 3,194 70.3 (68.6-71.9)  57.8 (55.9-59.5) 49.6 (47.7-51.5)  44.7 (42.6-46.8) 
C71.8-C71.9 Other brain 15,144 44.2 (43.4-45.1)  31.7 (30.9-32.5) 22.7 (21.9-23.4)  18.3 (17.5-19.1) 
C72.0-C72.1 Spinal cord and cauda equina 2,424 89.8 (88.5-91.0)  85.2 (83.6-86.7) 81.0 (79.1-82.8)  76.9 (74.3-79.2) 
C72.2-C72.5 Cranial nerves 831 96.6 (95.1-97.7)  95.1 (93.3-96.5) 93.4 (91.2-95.1)  91.4 (88.5-93.6) 
C72.8-C72.9 Other nervous system 610 63.0 (58.8-66.8)  54.7 (50.4-58.8) 47.2 (42.6-51.7)  44.8 (39.8-49.8) 
C70.0-C70.9 Meninges (cerebral and spinal) 1,260 81.7 (79.2-83.9)  75.4 (72.6-77.9) 65.2 (61.8-68.4)  58.5 (54.5-62.4) 
C75.1-C75.2 Pituitary and craniopharyngeal duct 278 86.0 (81.0-89.7)  83.9 (78.5-88.1) 74.2 (67.5-79.8)  69.3 (61.5-75.9) 
C75.3 Pineal 749 88.7 (86.2-90.9)  83.0 (79.9-85.6) 77.3 (73.8-80.4)  72.6 (68.2-76.5) 
C30.0 e Olfactory tumors of the nasal cavity 410 90.9 (87.3-93.5)  84.6 (80.2-88.2) 78.2 (72.7-82.7)  63.7 (55.0-71.1) 
All Codes All Sites (Malignant only )  71,830 59.3 (59.0-59.7)  45.1 (44.7-45.5) 34.9 (34.6-35.3)  29.4 (28.9-29.8) 

a The cohort analysis of survival rates was utilized for calculating the survival estimates presented in this table. Long-term cohort-based survival estimates reflect the survival experience of individuals diagnosed over the time period, and they may not necessarily reflect the long-term survival outlook of newly diagnosed cases.

b The sites referred to in this table are loosely based on the categories and site codes defined in the SEER Site/Histology Validation List.

c Estimated by CBTRUS using Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program ( www.seer.cancer.gov ) SEER*Stat Database: Incidence - SEER 18 Regs Research Data + Hurricane Katrina Impacted Louisiana Cases, Nov 2015 Sub (2000-2013) <Katrina/Rita Population Adjustment> - Linked To County Attributes - Total U.S., 1969-2014 Counties, National Cancer Institute, DCCPS, Surveillance Research Program, Surveillance Systems Branch, released April 2016, based on the November 2015 submission.

d Total number of case that occurred within the SEER registries between 2000 and 2013.

e ICD-O-3 histology codes 9522-9523 only.

Abbreviation: SEER, Survival, Epidemiology and End Results; CI, confidence interval.

  • The highest ten-year survival is for tumors occurring in the cranial nerves (91.4%).

  • The lowest ten-year survival is for tumors of the parietal lobe (15.0%).

Survival Rates for Malignant Brain and Other CNS Tumors by Histology and Age

Survival estimates for malignant brain and other CNS tumors by histology and age at diagnosis are presented in Tables 23 and 24 . The one- through ten-year relative survival rates by histology and age group are shown in Table 24 .

Table 23.

One-, Two-, Three-, Four-, Five-. and Ten-Year Relative Survival Rates a,b for Selected Malignant Brain and Other Central Nervous System Tumors by Histology, SEER 18 Registries, 2000-2013 c

  1-Year 2-Year 3-Year 4-Year 5-Year 10-Year 
Histology Nd 95% CI 95% CI 95% CI 95% CI 95% CI 95% CI 
Pilocytic astrocytoma 3,629 98.0 (97.4-98.4)  96.6 (95.9-97.2) 95.5 (94.6-96.2)  94.6 (93.7-95.4) 94.2 (93.2-95.0)  92.0 (90.6-93.1) 
Diffuse astrocytoma 5,781 74.4 (73.2-75.6)  63.6 (62.3-64.9) 57.3 (55.9-58.7)  53.0 (51.6-54.4) 49.7 (48.3-51.2)  39.3 (37.6-40.9) 
Anaplastic astrocytoma 3,791 64.4 (62.8-66.0)  45.9 (44.2-47.6) 37.4 (35.7-39.1)  32.8 (31.1-34.5) 29.7 (28.1-31.5)  20.9 (19.1-22.8) 
Glioblastoma 31,367 39.3 (38.7-39.8)  16.9 (16.4-17.3) 9.9 (9.5-10.2)  7.0 (6.7-7.3) 5.5 (5.2-5.8)  2.9 (2.6-3.2) 
Oligodendroglioma 3,081 94.3 (93.4-95.1)  90.1 (88.8-91.2) 86.8 (85.4-88.1)  83.8 (82.3-85.2) 80.9 (79.2-82.5)  65.0 (62.5-67.4) 
Anaplastic oligodendroglioma 1,300 83.7 (81.4-85.6)  71.5 (68.8-74.0) 65.1 (62.2-67.8)  60.7 (57.7-63.5) 56.7 (53.5-59.6)  42.5 (38.9-46.2) 
Ependymal tumors 2,733 94.3 (93.3-95.2)  90.3 (89.0-91.4) 87.6 (86.2-89.0)  85.6 (84.0-87.1) 84.2 (82.5-85.8)  80.0 (77.7-82.2) 
Oligoastrocytic tumors 2,035 88.8 (87.3-90.2)  79.0 (77.0-80.9) 73.1 (70.9-75.1)  67.8 (65.5-70.0) 63.6 (61.2-66.0)  48.4 (45.2-51.6) 
Glioma malignant, NOS 4,462 65.1 (63.6-66.5)  55.0 (53.4-56.5) 51.6 (50.0-53.2)  49.9 (48.3-51.5) 48.5 (46.9-50.1)  43.5 (41.7-45.4) 
Neuronal and mixed neuronal-glial tumors 526 91.4 (88.4-93.6)  84.8 (81.0-87.9) 80.1 (75.8-83.7)  77.3 (72.8-81.3) 76.7 (72.0-80.8)  63.0 (55.8-69.4) 
Embryonal tumors 2,735 81.4 (79.9-82.9)  71.5 (69.7-73.2) 66.6 (64.7-68.5)  64.0 (62.1-65.9) 61.4 (59.4-63.4)  54.3 (52.0-56.5) 
Medulloblastomae 1,645 89.1 (87.5-90.6 )   82.9 (80.8-84.7 )  78.2 (76.0-80.3 )   75.6 (73.3-77.8 )  73.0 (70.6-75.3 )   64.7 (61.7-67.5 )  
Primitive neuroectodermal tumorf 579 74.6 (70.8-78.0 )   57.6 (53.3-61.7 )  51.6 (47.3-55.8 )   48.3 (43.9-52.5 )  46.3 (41.9-50.5 )   39.7 (35.1-44.2 )  
Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumorg 239 50.1 (43.5-56.4 )   35.5 (29.2-41.8 )  31.6 (25.4-37.9 )   30.9 (24.7-37.3 )  29.3 (23.2-35.8 )   25.8 (19.3-32.8 )  
Other embryonal histologiesh 272 77.2 (71.6-81.8 )   65.4 (59.1-71.0 )  60.8 (54.3-66.6 )   58.2 (51.6-64.3 )  53.5 (46.7-59.9 )   49.9 (42.5-56.8 )  
Meningioma 1,110 81.7 (79.0-84.0)  75.2 (72.2-77.9) 70.6 (67.3-73.6)  67.6 (64.2-70.8) 64.9 (61.2-68.3)  57.1 (52.7-61.2) 
Lymphoma 4,449 52.2 (50.7-53.8)  43.8 (42.2-45.4) 38.6 (37.0-40.1)  35.1 (33.5-36.6) 33.0 (31.4-34.6)  25.6 (23.8-27.5) 
TOTAL: All Malignant Brain and Other Nervous Systemi 66,442 59.2 (58.8-59.6)  45.0 (44.6-45.3) 39.6 (39.2-39.9)  36.7 (36.3-37.1) 34.9 (34.5-35.2)  29.3 (28.9-29.7) 
  1-Year 2-Year 3-Year 4-Year 5-Year 10-Year 
Histology Nd 95% CI 95% CI 95% CI 95% CI 95% CI 95% CI 
Pilocytic astrocytoma 3,629 98.0 (97.4-98.4)  96.6 (95.9-97.2) 95.5 (94.6-96.2)  94.6 (93.7-95.4) 94.2 (93.2-95.0)  92.0 (90.6-93.1) 
Diffuse astrocytoma 5,781 74.4 (73.2-75.6)  63.6 (62.3-64.9) 57.3 (55.9-58.7)  53.0 (51.6-54.4) 49.7 (48.3-51.2)  39.3 (37.6-40.9) 
Anaplastic astrocytoma 3,791 64.4 (62.8-66.0)  45.9 (44.2-47.6) 37.4 (35.7-39.1)  32.8 (31.1-34.5) 29.7 (28.1-31.5)  20.9 (19.1-22.8) 
Glioblastoma 31,367 39.3 (38.7-39.8)  16.9 (16.4-17.3) 9.9 (9.5-10.2)  7.0 (6.7-7.3) 5.5 (5.2-5.8)  2.9 (2.6-3.2) 
Oligodendroglioma 3,081 94.3 (93.4-95.1)  90.1 (88.8-91.2) 86.8 (85.4-88.1)  83.8 (82.3-85.2) 80.9 (79.2-82.5)  65.0 (62.5-67.4) 
Anaplastic oligodendroglioma 1,300 83.7 (81.4-85.6)  71.5 (68.8-74.0) 65.1 (62.2-67.8)  60.7 (57.7-63.5) 56.7 (53.5-59.6)  42.5 (38.9-46.2) 
Ependymal tumors 2,733 94.3 (93.3-95.2)  90.3 (89.0-91.4) 87.6 (86.2-89.0)  85.6 (84.0-87.1) 84.2 (82.5-85.8)  80.0 (77.7-82.2) 
Oligoastrocytic tumors 2,035 88.8 (87.3-90.2)  79.0 (77.0-80.9) 73.1 (70.9-75.1)  67.8 (65.5-70.0) 63.6 (61.2-66.0)  48.4 (45.2-51.6) 
Glioma malignant, NOS 4,462 65.1 (63.6-66.5)  55.0 (53.4-56.5) 51.6 (50.0-53.2)  49.9 (48.3-51.5) 48.5 (46.9-50.1)  43.5 (41.7-45.4) 
Neuronal and mixed neuronal-glial tumors 526 91.4 (88.4-93.6)  84.8 (81.0-87.9) 80.1 (75.8-83.7)  77.3 (72.8-81.3) 76.7 (72.0-80.8)  63.0 (55.8-69.4) 
Embryonal tumors 2,735 81.4 (79.9-82.9)  71.5 (69.7-73.2) 66.6 (64.7-68.5)  64.0 (62.1-65.9) 61.4 (59.4-63.4)  54.3 (52.0-56.5) 
Medulloblastomae 1,645 89.1 (87.5-90.6 )   82.9 (80.8-84.7 )  78.2 (76.0-80.3 )   75.6 (73.3-77.8 )  73.0 (70.6-75.3 )   64.7 (61.7-67.5 )  
Primitive neuroectodermal tumorf 579 74.6 (70.8-78.0 )   57.6 (53.3-61.7 )  51.6 (47.3-55.8 )   48.3 (43.9-52.5 )  46.3 (41.9-50.5 )   39.7 (35.1-44.2 )  
Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumorg 239 50.1 (43.5-56.4 )   35.5 (29.2-41.8 )  31.6 (25.4-37.9 )   30.9 (24.7-37.3 )  29.3 (23.2-35.8 )   25.8 (19.3-32.8 )  
Other embryonal histologiesh 272 77.2 (71.6-81.8 )   65.4 (59.1-71.0 )  60.8 (54.3-66.6 )   58.2 (51.6-64.3 )  53.5 (46.7-59.9 )   49.9 (42.5-56.8 )  
Meningioma 1,110 81.7 (79.0-84.0)  75.2 (72.2-77.9) 70.6 (67.3-73.6)  67.6 (64.2-70.8) 64.9 (61.2-68.3)  57.1 (52.7-61.2) 
Lymphoma 4,449 52.2 (50.7-53.8)  43.8 (42.2-45.4) 38.6 (37.0-40.1)  35.1 (33.5-36.6) 33.0 (31.4-34.6)  25.6 (23.8-27.5) 
TOTAL: All Malignant Brain and Other Nervous Systemi 66,442 59.2 (58.8-59.6)  45.0 (44.6-45.3) 39.6 (39.2-39.9)  36.7 (36.3-37.1) 34.9 (34.5-35.2)  29.3 (28.9-29.7) 

a The cohort analysis of survival rates was utilized for calculating the survival estimates presented in this table. Long-term cohort-based survival estimates reflect the survival experience of individuals diagnosed over the time period, and they may not necessarily reflect the long-term survival outlook of newly diagnosed cases.

b Rates are an estimate of the percentage of patients alive at one, two, five, and ten year, respectively. Rates were not presented for categories with 50 or less cases and were suppressed for rates where less than 16 cases were surviving within a category.

c Estimated by CBTRUS using Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program ( www.seer.cancer.gov ) SEER*Stat Database: Incidence - SEER 18 Regs Research Data + Hurricane Katrina Impacted Louisiana Cases, Nov 2015 Sub (2000-2013) <Katrina/Rita Population Adjustment> - Linked To County Attributes - Total U.S., 1969-2014 Counties, National Cancer Institute, DCCPS, Surveillance Research Program, Surveillance Systems Branch, released April 2016, based on the November 2015 submission.

d Total number of case that occurred within the SEER registries between 2000 and 2013.

e ICD-O-3 histology codes: 9470/3, 9471/3, 9472/3, 9474/3.

f ICD-O-3 histology code: 9473/3.

g ICD-O-3 histology code: 9508/3.

h ICD-O-3 histology codes: 8963/3, 9364/3, 9480/3, 9490/0, 9490/3, 9500/3, 9501/3, 9502/3.

i Includes histologies not listed in this table.

Abbreviation: SEER, Survival, Epidemiology and End Results; CI, confidence interval; NOS, not otherwise specified.

Table 24.

One-, Two-, Five-. and Ten-Year Relative Survival Rates a,b for Selected Malignant Brain and Other Central Nervous System Tumors by Age Groups, SEER 18 Registries, 2000-2013 c

 Age Group (years )   1-Year 2-Year 5-Year 10-Year 
Histology Nd 95% CI 95% CI 95% CI 95% CI 
Pilocytic astrocytoma 0-19 2,627 98.8 (98.2-99.1)  98.4 (97.8-98.8) 96.7 (95.8-97.4)  95.8 (94.6-96.7) 
 20-44 723 96.6 (95.0-97.8)  94.9 (92.9-96.3) 91.8 (89.2-93.8)  85.6 (81.6-88.8) 
 45-54 136 95.8 (90.2-98.2)  86.1 (78.3-91.2) 78.5 (69.1-85.3)  75.1 (64.7-82.8) 
 55-64 84 97.1 (88.0-99.3)  90.8 (80.4-95.9) 82.3 (70.0-89.9)  74.6 (57.6-85.5) 
 65-74 -- -- --  -- -- -- --  -- -- 
 75+ -- -- --  -- -- -- --  -- -- 
Diffuse astrocytoma 0-19 856 93.2 (91.3-94.7)  87.6 (85.1-89.7) 83.9 (81.0-86.3)  82.1 (78.9-84.8) 
 20-44 2,067 93.1 (91.9-94.2)  86.7 (85.1-88.2) 67.8 (65.5-70.0)  49.5 (46.6-52.4) 
 45-54 938 76.9 (73.9-79.5)  62.1 (58.8-65.3) 44.1 (40.5-47.6)  32.0 (27.9-36.1) 
 55-64 812 57.1 (53.6-60.6)  37.4 (33.8-40.9) 22.3 (19.1-25.8)  14.6 (11.1-18.7) 
 65-74 600 42.0 (37.9-46.1)  26.4 (22.7-30.2) 15.0 (11.7-18.6)  10.5 (7.1-14.5) 
 75+ 508 24.9 (21.0-28.9)  12.5 (9.5-16.0) 6.7 (4.1-10.1)  -- -- 
Anaplastic astrocytoma 0-19 292 67.5 (61.7-72.7)  41.4 (35.4-47.4) 28.3 (22.6-34.3)  19.3 (13.6-25.9) 
 20-44 1,250 88.9 (87.0-90.6)  74.7 (72.0-77.2) 54.4 (51.1-57.6)  39.6 (35.8-43.3) 
 45-54 675 73.4 (69.8-76.7)  50.7 (46.6-54.7) 31.5 (27.4-35.6)  22.6 (18.1-27.3) 
 55-64 678 53.7 (49.8-57.5)  30.0 (26.3-33.8) 13.5 (10.6-16.9)  6.6 (3.8-10.4) 
 65-74 518 38.2 (33.8-42.5)  18.7 (15.2-22.5) 8.2 (5.6-11.5)  4.8 (2.6-8.0) 
 75+ 378 18.9 (15.0-23.3)  8.9 (6.0-12.5) -- --  -- -- 
Glioblastoma 0-19 444 59.0 (54.1-63.5)  33.3 (28.6-38.0) 16.8 (13.0-21.1)  12.5 (8.7-17.1) 
 20-44 2,852 69.7 (67.9-71.4)  40.4 (38.5-42.3) 19.1 (17.4-20.7)  10.9 (9.4-12.5) 
 45-54 5,524 56.8 (55.4-58.1)  25.2 (24.0-26.4) 7.6 (6.7-8.4)  3.8 (3.1-4.7) 
 55-64 8,531 45.6 (44.5-46.7)  17.6 (16.7-18.5) 4.6 (4.1-5.2)  2.0 (1.5-2.6) 
 65-74 7,632 28.7 (27.7-29.8)  10.3 (9.6-11.1) 2.4 (2.0-2.9)  1.0 (0.6-1.6) 
 75+ 6,384 12.1 (11.3-13.0)  3.8 (3.3-4.3) 1.1 (0.8-1.5)  -- -- 
Oligodendroglioma 0-19 216 96.2 (92.6-98.1)  94.3 (90.0-96.7) 91.1 (86.0-94.4)  89.0 (83.2-92.8) 
 20-44 1,539 98.6 (97.8-99.1)  96.2 (95.0-97.1) 87.5 (85.5-89.3)  70.2 (66.8-73.3) 
 45-54 703 94.6 (92.5-96.1)  90.0 (87.3-92.2) 80.5 (76.8-83.7)  64.3 (58.9-69.3) 
 55-64 377 88.7 (84.8-91.6)  78.3 (73.3-82.4) 68.1 (62.1-73.4)  50.3 (41.9-58.1) 
 65-74 160 79.6 (72.0-85.3)  72.5 (64.0-79.3) 52.3 (42.4-61.3)  33.5 (21.6-45.8) 
 75+ 86 61.2 (49.0-71.3)  52.2 (39.4-63.5) 41.9 (27.3-55.7)  -- -- 
Anaplastic oligodendroglioma 0-19 -- -- --  -- -- -- --  -- -- 
 20-44 510 94.1 (91.6-95.9)  85.3 (81.8-88.3) 71.2 (66.6-75.4)  54.2 (48.3-59.8) 
 45-54 324 88.4 (84.2-91.6)  77.0 (71.7-81.5) 61.2 (54.8-67.0)  44.5 (36.9-51.8) 
 55-64 268 78.0 (72.3-82.6)  62.5 (56.0-68.3) 46.1 (39.1-52.8)  34.1 (25.9-42.5) 
 65-74 121 54.3 (44.6-62.9)  34.6 (25.6-43.8) 18.3 (10.7-27.5)  -- -- 
 75+ -- -- --  -- -- -- --  -- -- 
Ependymal tumors 0-19 772 94.7 (92.8-96.1)  87.7 (85.0-89.9) 75.6 (71.9-78.8)  67.0 (62.4-71.1) 
 20-44 846 97.3 (95.9-98.2)  95.3 (93.5-96.6) 91.6 (89.1-93.5)  89.4 (86.1-91.9) 
 45-54 507 95.2 (92.8-96.9)  93.0 (90.1-95.0) 89.2 (85.5-92.1)  88.0 (83.7-91.3) 
 55-64 356 92.6 (89.0-95.0)  88.9 (84.7-92.1) 86.2 (80.9-90.1)  85.1 (76.9-90.6) 
 65-74 166 89.4 (82.8-93.5)  82.7 (74.9-88.3) 80.5 (71.9-86.8)  73.5 (55.5-85.1) 
 75+ 86 70.8 (58.5-80.0)  66.6 (53.1-77.0) 53.7 (36.9-67.9)  33.7 (11.5-57.9) 
Oligoastrocytic tumors 0-19 116 94.8 (88.6-97.7)  89.3 (81.8-93.8) 83.7 (74.8-89.7)  77.4 (66.6-85.1) 
 20-44 1,090 96.8 (95.5-97.8)  90.6 (88.6-92.3) 72.8 (69.5-75.7)  54.6 (50.1-58.8) 
 45-54 411 89.4 (85.8-92.1)  78.8 (74.2-82.7) 66.2 (60.6-71.2)  47.1 (39.0-54.7) 
 55-64 229 74.1 (67.7-79.4)  51.1 (44.0-57.7) 35.4 (28.0-42.9)  30.5 (21.8-39.7) 
 65-74 131 67.2 (57.8-74.9)  48.0 (38.2-57.1) 29.2 (19.9-39.1)  15.9 (7.0-28.1) 
 75+ -- -- --  -- -- -- --  -- -- 
Glioma malignant, NOS 0-19 1,690 77.5 (75.4-79.4)  66.7 (64.2-68.9) 63.2 (60.7-65.6)  61.6 (58.9-64.1) 
 20-44 883 88.2 (85.8-90.2)  79.5 (76.5-82.2) 68.3 (64.7-71.7)  54.2 (49.3-58.9) 
 45-54 452 74.5 (70.1-78.4)  60.4 (55.4-65.0) 49.8 (44.5-54.9)  40.9 (34.9-46.9) 
 55-64 372 55.4 (50.1-60.5)  42.5 (37.1-47.8) 32.6 (27.1-38.2)  26.9 (20.5-33.6) 
 65-74 365 38.0 (32.9-43.1)  24.2 (19.7-29.1) 16.5 (12.2-21.3)  13.2 (8.7-18.6) 
 75+ 700 16.9 (14.0-19.9)  12.9 (10.2-15.8) 9.4 (6.7-12.6)  8.5 (4.7-13.7) 
Neuronal and mixed neuronal-glial tumors 0-19 66 93.6 (83.8-97.6)  88.6 (77.4-94.4) 84.9 (72.8-91.9)  84.9 (72.8-91.9) 
 20-44 145 96.4 (91.3-98.6)  90.7 (84.0-94.7) 78.8 (69.7-85.4)  64.7 (51.6-75.1) 
 45-54 125 93.7 (87.2-96.9)  89.4 (81.7-94.0) 82.9 (73.6-89.1)  72.2 (56.4-83.1) 
 55-64 97 90.7 (82.0-95.4)  79.6 (68.5-87.1) 67.1 (54.3-77.1)  51.5 (33.9-66.6) 
 65-74 57 83.6 (70.0-91.4)  80.9 (65.8-89.9) 77.1 (60.1-87.6)  38.8 (9.8-68.0) 
 75+ -- -- --  -- -- -- --  -- -- 
Embryonal tumors 0-19 2,018 80.9 (79.1-82.6)  70.9 (68.8-72.9) 61.8 (59.5-64.1)  55.4 (52.8-58.0) 
 20-44 552 86.4 (83.1-89.1)  79.2 (75.4-82.6) 66.5 (61.9-70.7)  58.4 (53.1-63.3) 
 45-54 84 82.7 (72.3-89.5)  68.6 (56.6-78.0) 56.7 (43.4-68.0)  36.6 (20.0-53.4) 
 55-64 -- -- --  -- -- -- --  -- -- 
 65-74 -- -- --  -- -- -- --  -- -- 
 75+ -- -- --  -- -- -- --  -- -- 
Meningioma 0-19 -- -- --  -- -- -- --  -- -- 
 20-44 139 95.0 (89.5-97.6)  94.4 (88.7-97.3) 87.0 (79.3-92.0)  77.7 (67.9-84.9) 
 45-54 181 92.4 (87.2-95.6)  86.1 (79.7-90.6) 77.4 (69.5-83.4)  69.4 (60.0-77.0) 
 55-64 255 88.3 (83.3-91.8)  81.7 (75.9-86.2) 70.5 (63.4-76.5)  60.2 (51.6-67.8) 
 65-74 238 80.7 (74.6-85.5)  70.2 (63.1-76.1) 53.7 (45.4-61.4)  47.9 (37.2-57.9) 
 75+ 282 61.6 (55.0-67.6)  54.8 (47.6-61.5) 47.3 (38.4-55.7)  37.1 (24.9-49.3) 
Lymphoma 0-19 66 84.5 (73.1-91.4)  78.0 (65.6-86.4) 72.6 (59.5-82.1)  67.4 (53.0-78.3) 
 20-44 755 55.7 (52.0-59.2)  49.5 (45.8-53.1) 43.1 (39.3-46.8)  37.8 (33.6-42.0) 
 45-54 694 61.3 (57.5-64.9)  52.6 (48.6-56.3) 41.2 (37.1-45.2)  31.0 (26.5-35.7) 
 55-64 951 61.3  (58.1-64.4)  52.5 (49.1-55.8) 38.1 (34.5-41.7)  29.7 (25.6-33.9) 
 65-74 1,063 49.8  (46.7-52.9)  40.9 (37.7-44.1) 26.9 (23.7-30.2)  16.9 (13.2-21.1) 
 75+ 920 32.8  (29.6-36.0)  23.2 (20.3-26.3) 15.3 (12.3-18.6)  10.8 (6.7-16.1) 
TOTAL: All Malignant Brain and Other Nervous System Tumorse 0-19 10,406 87.1  (86.4-87.7)  79.9 (79.1-80.7) 73.8 (72.9-74.7)  70.2 (69.1-71.2) 
20-44 14,250 86.3  (85.7-86.9)  75.6 (74.8-76.3) 61.5 (60.6-62.4)  49.5 (48.4-50.6) 
 45-54 11,178 68.9  (68.0-69.8)  48.0 (47.0-49.0) 33.5 (32.5-34.5)  26.3 (25.2-27.4) 
 55-64 13,481 53.5  (52.6-54.4)  31.0 (30.2-31.8) 18.5 (17.7-19.2)  14.1 (13.2-14.9) 
 65-74 11,598 36.2  (35.3-37.1)  20.2 (19.4-21.0) 11.2 (10.5-11.9)  8.0 (7.2-8.8) 
 75+ 10,917 17.7  (17.0-18.5)  10.2 (9.6-10.8) 6.3 (5.7-7.0)  4.2 (3.5-5.1) 
 Age Group (years )   1-Year 2-Year 5-Year 10-Year 
Histology Nd 95% CI 95% CI 95% CI 95% CI 
Pilocytic astrocytoma 0-19 2,627 98.8 (98.2-99.1)  98.4 (97.8-98.8) 96.7 (95.8-97.4)  95.8 (94.6-96.7) 
 20-44 723 96.6 (95.0-97.8)  94.9 (92.9-96.3) 91.8 (89.2-93.8)  85.6 (81.6-88.8) 
 45-54 136 95.8 (90.2-98.2)  86.1 (78.3-91.2) 78.5 (69.1-85.3)  75.1 (64.7-82.8) 
 55-64 84 97.1 (88.0-99.3)  90.8 (80.4-95.9) 82.3 (70.0-89.9)  74.6 (57.6-85.5) 
 65-74 -- -- --  -- -- -- --  -- -- 
 75+ -- -- --  -- -- -- --  -- -- 
Diffuse astrocytoma 0-19 856 93.2 (91.3-94.7)  87.6 (85.1-89.7) 83.9 (81.0-86.3)  82.1 (78.9-84.8) 
 20-44 2,067 93.1 (91.9-94.2)  86.7 (85.1-88.2) 67.8 (65.5-70.0)  49.5 (46.6-52.4) 
 45-54 938 76.9 (73.9-79.5)  62.1 (58.8-65.3) 44.1 (40.5-47.6)  32.0 (27.9-36.1) 
 55-64 812 57.1 (53.6-60.6)  37.4 (33.8-40.9) 22.3 (19.1-25.8)  14.6 (11.1-18.7) 
 65-74 600 42.0 (37.9-46.1)  26.4 (22.7-30.2) 15.0 (11.7-18.6)  10.5 (7.1-14.5) 
 75+ 508 24.9 (21.0-28.9)  12.5 (9.5-16.0) 6.7 (4.1-10.1)  -- -- 
Anaplastic astrocytoma 0-19 292 67.5 (61.7-72.7)  41.4 (35.4-47.4) 28.3 (22.6-34.3)  19.3 (13.6-25.9) 
 20-44 1,250 88.9 (87.0-90.6)  74.7 (72.0-77.2) 54.4 (51.1-57.6)  39.6 (35.8-43.3) 
 45-54 675 73.4 (69.8-76.7)  50.7 (46.6-54.7) 31.5 (27.4-35.6)  22.6 (18.1-27.3) 
 55-64 678 53.7 (49.8-57.5)  30.0 (26.3-33.8) 13.5 (10.6-16.9)  6.6 (3.8-10.4) 
 65-74 518 38.2 (33.8-42.5)  18.7 (15.2-22.5) 8.2 (5.6-11.5)  4.8 (2.6-8.0) 
 75+ 378 18.9 (15.0-23.3)  8.9 (6.0-12.5) -- --  -- -- 
Glioblastoma 0-19 444 59.0 (54.1-63.5)  33.3 (28.6-38.0) 16.8 (13.0-21.1)  12.5 (8.7-17.1) 
 20-44 2,852 69.7 (67.9-71.4)  40.4 (38.5-42.3) 19.1 (17.4-20.7)  10.9 (9.4-12.5) 
 45-54 5,524 56.8 (55.4-58.1)  25.2 (24.0-26.4) 7.6 (6.7-8.4)  3.8 (3.1-4.7) 
 55-64 8,531 45.6 (44.5-46.7)  17.6 (16.7-18.5) 4.6 (4.1-5.2)  2.0 (1.5-2.6) 
 65-74 7,632 28.7 (27.7-29.8)  10.3 (9.6-11.1) 2.4 (2.0-2.9)  1.0 (0.6-1.6) 
 75+ 6,384 12.1 (11.3-13.0)  3.8 (3.3-4.3) 1.1 (0.8-1.5)  -- -- 
Oligodendroglioma 0-19 216 96.2 (92.6-98.1)  94.3 (90.0-96.7) 91.1 (86.0-94.4)  89.0 (83.2-92.8) 
 20-44 1,539 98.6 (97.8-99.1)  96.2 (95.0-97.1) 87.5 (85.5-89.3)  70.2 (66.8-73.3) 
 45-54 703 94.6 (92.5-96.1)  90.0 (87.3-92.2) 80.5 (76.8-83.7)  64.3 (58.9-69.3) 
 55-64 377 88.7 (84.8-91.6)  78.3 (73.3-82.4) 68.1 (62.1-73.4)  50.3 (41.9-58.1) 
 65-74 160 79.6 (72.0-85.3)  72.5 (64.0-79.3) 52.3 (42.4-61.3)  33.5 (21.6-45.8) 
 75+ 86 61.2 (49.0-71.3)  52.2 (39.4-63.5) 41.9 (27.3-55.7)  -- -- 
Anaplastic oligodendroglioma 0-19 -- -- --  -- -- -- --  -- -- 
 20-44 510 94.1 (91.6-95.9)  85.3 (81.8-88.3) 71.2 (66.6-75.4)  54.2 (48.3-59.8) 
 45-54 324 88.4 (84.2-91.6)  77.0 (71.7-81.5) 61.2 (54.8-67.0)  44.5 (36.9-51.8) 
 55-64 268 78.0 (72.3-82.6)  62.5 (56.0-68.3) 46.1 (39.1-52.8)  34.1 (25.9-42.5) 
 65-74 121 54.3 (44.6-62.9)  34.6 (25.6-43.8) 18.3 (10.7-27.5)  -- -- 
 75+ -- -- --  -- -- -- --  -- -- 
Ependymal tumors 0-19 772 94.7 (92.8-96.1)  87.7 (85.0-89.9) 75.6 (71.9-78.8)  67.0 (62.4-71.1) 
 20-44 846 97.3 (95.9-98.2)  95.3 (93.5-96.6) 91.6 (89.1-93.5)  89.4 (86.1-91.9) 
 45-54 507 95.2 (92.8-96.9)  93.0 (90.1-95.0) 89.2 (85.5-92.1)  88.0 (83.7-91.3) 
 55-64 356 92.6 (89.0-95.0)  88.9 (84.7-92.1) 86.2 (80.9-90.1)  85.1 (76.9-90.6) 
 65-74 166 89.4 (82.8-93.5)  82.7 (74.9-88.3) 80.5 (71.9-86.8)  73.5 (55.5-85.1) 
 75+ 86 70.8 (58.5-80.0)  66.6 (53.1-77.0) 53.7 (36.9-67.9)  33.7 (11.5-57.9) 
Oligoastrocytic tumors 0-19 116 94.8 (88.6-97.7)  89.3 (81.8-93.8) 83.7 (74.8-89.7)  77.4 (66.6-85.1) 
 20-44 1,090 96.8 (95.5-97.8)  90.6 (88.6-92.3) 72.8 (69.5-75.7)  54.6 (50.1-58.8) 
 45-54 411 89.4 (85.8-92.1)  78.8 (74.2-82.7) 66.2 (60.6-71.2)  47.1 (39.0-54.7) 
 55-64 229 74.1 (67.7-79.4)  51.1 (44.0-57.7) 35.4 (28.0-42.9)  30.5 (21.8-39.7) 
 65-74 131 67.2 (57.8-74.9)  48.0 (38.2-57.1) 29.2 (19.9-39.1)  15.9 (7.0-28.1) 
 75+ -- -- --  -- -- -- --  -- -- 
Glioma malignant, NOS 0-19 1,690 77.5 (75.4-79.4)  66.7 (64.2-68.9) 63.2 (60.7-65.6)  61.6 (58.9-64.1) 
 20-44 883 88.2 (85.8-90.2)  79.5 (76.5-82.2) 68.3 (64.7-71.7)  54.2 (49.3-58.9) 
 45-54 452 74.5 (70.1-78.4)  60.4 (55.4-65.0) 49.8 (44.5-54.9)  40.9 (34.9-46.9) 
 55-64 372 55.4 (50.1-60.5)  42.5 (37.1-47.8) 32.6 (27.1-38.2)  26.9 (20.5-33.6) 
 65-74 365 38.0 (32.9-43.1)  24.2 (19.7-29.1) 16.5 (12.2-21.3)  13.2 (8.7-18.6) 
 75+ 700 16.9 (14.0-19.9)  12.9 (10.2-15.8) 9.4 (6.7-12.6)  8.5 (4.7-13.7) 
Neuronal and mixed neuronal-glial tumors 0-19 66 93.6 (83.8-97.6)  88.6 (77.4-94.4) 84.9 (72.8-91.9)  84.9 (72.8-91.9) 
 20-44 145 96.4 (91.3-98.6)  90.7 (84.0-94.7) 78.8 (69.7-85.4)  64.7 (51.6-75.1) 
 45-54 125 93.7 (87.2-96.9)  89.4 (81.7-94.0) 82.9 (73.6-89.1)  72.2 (56.4-83.1) 
 55-64 97 90.7 (82.0-95.4)  79.6 (68.5-87.1) 67.1 (54.3-77.1)  51.5 (33.9-66.6) 
 65-74 57 83.6 (70.0-91.4)  80.9 (65.8-89.9) 77.1 (60.1-87.6)  38.8 (9.8-68.0) 
 75+ -- -- --  -- -- -- --  -- -- 
Embryonal tumors 0-19 2,018 80.9 (79.1-82.6)  70.9 (68.8-72.9) 61.8 (59.5-64.1)  55.4 (52.8-58.0) 
 20-44 552 86.4 (83.1-89.1)  79.2 (75.4-82.6) 66.5 (61.9-70.7)  58.4 (53.1-63.3) 
 45-54 84 82.7 (72.3-89.5)  68.6 (56.6-78.0) 56.7 (43.4-68.0)  36.6 (20.0-53.4) 
 55-64 -- -- --  -- -- -- --  -- -- 
 65-74 -- -- --  -- -- -- --  -- -- 
 75+ -- -- --  -- -- -- --  -- -- 
Meningioma 0-19 -- -- --  -- -- -- --  -- -- 
 20-44 139 95.0 (89.5-97.6)  94.4 (88.7-97.3) 87.0 (79.3-92.0)  77.7 (67.9-84.9) 
 45-54 181 92.4 (87.2-95.6)  86.1 (79.7-90.6) 77.4 (69.5-83.4)  69.4 (60.0-77.0) 
 55-64 255 88.3 (83.3-91.8)  81.7 (75.9-86.2) 70.5 (63.4-76.5)  60.2 (51.6-67.8) 
 65-74 238 80.7 (74.6-85.5)  70.2 (63.1-76.1) 53.7 (45.4-61.4)  47.9 (37.2-57.9) 
 75+ 282 61.6 (55.0-67.6)  54.8 (47.6-61.5) 47.3 (38.4-55.7)  37.1 (24.9-49.3) 
Lymphoma 0-19 66 84.5 (73.1-91.4)  78.0 (65.6-86.4) 72.6 (59.5-82.1)  67.4 (53.0-78.3) 
 20-44 755 55.7 (52.0-59.2)  49.5 (45.8-53.1) 43.1 (39.3-46.8)  37.8 (33.6-42.0) 
 45-54 694 61.3 (57.5-64.9)  52.6 (48.6-56.3) 41.2 (37.1-45.2)  31.0 (26.5-35.7) 
 55-64 951 61.3  (58.1-64.4)  52.5 (49.1-55.8) 38.1 (34.5-41.7)  29.7 (25.6-33.9) 
 65-74 1,063 49.8  (46.7-52.9)  40.9 (37.7-44.1) 26.9 (23.7-30.2)  16.9 (13.2-21.1) 
 75+ 920 32.8  (29.6-36.0)  23.2 (20.3-26.3) 15.3 (12.3-18.6)  10.8 (6.7-16.1) 
TOTAL: All Malignant Brain and Other Nervous System Tumorse 0-19 10,406 87.1  (86.4-87.7)  79.9 (79.1-80.7) 73.8 (72.9-74.7)  70.2 (69.1-71.2) 
20-44 14,250 86.3  (85.7-86.9)  75.6 (74.8-76.3) 61.5 (60.6-62.4)  49.5 (48.4-50.6) 
 45-54 11,178 68.9  (68.0-69.8)  48.0 (47.0-49.0) 33.5 (32.5-34.5)  26.3 (25.2-27.4) 
 55-64 13,481 53.5  (52.6-54.4)  31.0 (30.2-31.8) 18.5 (17.7-19.2)  14.1 (13.2-14.9) 
 65-74 11,598 36.2  (35.3-37.1)  20.2 (19.4-21.0) 11.2 (10.5-11.9)  8.0 (7.2-8.8) 
 75+ 10,917 17.7  (17.0-18.5)  10.2 (9.6-10.8) 6.3 (5.7-7.0)  4.2 (3.5-5.1) 

a The cohort analysis of survival rates was utilized for calculating the survival estimates presented in this table. Long-term cohort-based survival estimates reflect the survival experience of individuals diagnosed over the time period, and they may not necessarily reflect the long-term survival outlook of newly diagnosed cases.

b Rates are an estimate of the percentage of patients alive at one, two, five, and ten year, respectively. Rates were not presented for categories with 50 or less cases and were suppressed for rates where less than 16 cases were surviving within a category.

c Estimated by CBTRUS using Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program ( www.seer.cancer.gov ) SEER*Stat Database: Incidence - SEER 18 Regs Research Data + Hurricane Katrina Impacted Louisiana Cases, Nov 2015 Sub (2000-2013) <Katrina/Rita Population Adjustment> - Linked To County Attributes - Total U.S., 1969-2014 Counties, National Cancer Institute, DCCPS, Surveillance Research Program, Surveillance Systems Branch, released April 2016, based on the November 2015 submission.

d Total number of case that occurred within the SEER registries between 2000 and 2013.

e Includes histologies not listed in this table.

Table 25.

Average Annual Age-Adjusted Incidence Rates a,b of Brain and Other Central Nervous System Tumors by Major Histology Groupings, Histology, and NCI Age Groups, CBTRUS Statistical Report: NPCR and SEER, 2009-2013

 Age at Diagnosis 
 Childrenc(0-14 Years) AYAd(15-39 Years) Adults (40+ Years )  
Histology Rate (95% CI) Rate (95% CI) Rate (95% CI) 
Tumors of Neuroepithelial Tissue 4.04 (3.96-4.11) 3.45 (3.40-3.50) 10.49 (10.41-10.56) 
Pilocytic astrocytoma 0.98 (0.95-1.02) 0.28 (0.27-0.30) 0.08 (0.08-0.09) 
Diffuse astrocytoma 0.26 (0.24-0.28) 0.45 (0.43-0.47) 0.68 (0.66-0.70) 
Anaplastic astrocytoma 0.09 (0.08-0.10) 0.29 (0.27-0.30) 0.62 (0.60-0.64) 
Unique astrocytoma variants 0.11 (0.10-0.13) 0.07 (0.07-0.08) 0.05 (0.04-0.05) 
Glioblastoma 0.15 (0.14-0.17) 0.48 (0.46-0.50) 6.95 (6.89-7.01) 
Oligodendroglioma 0.04 (0.03-0.04) 0.29 (0.27-0.30) 0.32 (0.31-0.34) 
Anaplastic oligodendroglioma -- -- 0.09 (0.08-0.09) 0.17 (0.16-0.18) 
Oligoastrocytic tumors 0.02 (0.02-0.03) 0.27 (0.25-0.28) 0.24 (0.23-0.25) 
Ependymal tumors 0.31 (0.29-0.33) 0.37 (0.35-0.38) 0.54 (0.53-0.56) 
Glioma malignant, NOS 0.78 (0.75-0.81) 0.27 (0.26-0.28) 0.47 (0.46-0.49) 
Choroid plexus tumors 0.11 (0.10-0.12) 0.04 (0.03-0.04) 0.03 (0.03-0.04) 
Other neuroepithelial tumors 0.01 (0.01-0.01) 0.01 (0.00-0.01) 0.01 (0.00-0.01) 
Neuronal and mixed neuronal-glial tumors 0.36 (0.34-0.38) 0.33 (0.32-0.35) 0.21 (0.20-0.22) 
Tumors of the pineal region 0.05 (0.04-0.05) 0.05 (0.04-0.06) 0.04 (0.04-0.05) 
Embryonal tumors 0.75 (0.72-0.78) 0.17 (0.16-0.18) 0.06 (0.05-0.07) 
Tumors of Cranial and Spinal Nerves 0.27 (0.25-0.28) 0.94 (0.91-0.97) 3.33 (3.29-3.38) 
Nerve sheath tumors 0.27 (0.25-0.28) 0.94 (0.91-0.97) 3.33 (3.29-3.37) 
Other tumors of cranial and spinal nerves -- -- -- -- 0.00 (0.00-0.00) 
Tumors of Meninges 0.16 (0.15-0.18) 2.03 (1.99-2.08) 17.53 (17.44-17.63) 
Meningioma 0.09 (0.08-0.10) 1.79 (1.75-1.83) 17.14 (17.04-17.24) 
Mesenchymal tumors 0.05 (0.05-0.06) 0.06 (0.06-0.07) 0.11 (0.10-0.12) 
Primary melanocytic lesions -- -- 0.00 (0.00-0.01) 0.01 (0.01-0.02) 
Other neoplasms related to the meninges 0.02 (0.01-0.02) 0.18 (0.17-0.19) 0.27 (0.26-0.28) 
Lymphomas and Hematopoietic Neoplasms 0.03 (0.02-0.03) 0.11 (0.10-0.12) 0.93 (0.90-0.95) 
Lymphoma 0.01 (0.01-0.01) 0.10 (0.09-0.11) 0.91 (0.88-0.93) 
Other hematopoietic neoplasms 0.02 (0.01-0.02) 0.01 (0.01-0.01) 0.02 (0.02-0.02) 
Germ Cell Tumors and Cysts 0.21 (0.19-0.23) 0.12 (0.11-0.13) 0.03 (0.03-0.03) 
Germ cell tumors, cysts and heterotopias 0.21 (0.19-0.23) 0.12 (0.11-0.13) 0.03 (0.03-0.03) 
Tumors of Sellar Region 0.47 (0.44-0.49) 3.42 (3.36-3.47) 5.89 (5.84-5.95) 
Tumors of the pituitary 0.24 (0.23-0.26) 3.29 (3.24-3.34) 5.68 (5.62-5.73) 
Craniopharyngioma 0.22 (0.21-0.24) 0.13 (0.12-0.14) 0.22 (0.21-0.23) 
Unclassified Tumors 0.30 (0.28-0.32) 0.64 (0.62-0.66) 2.20 (2.17-2.24) 
Hemangioma 0.10 (0.09-0.11) 0.32 (0.30-0.33) 0.54 (0.52-0.56) 
Neoplasm, unspecified 0.19 (0.18-0.21) 0.32 (0.31-0.34) 1.65 (1.62-1.68) 
All other 0.01 (0.00-0.01) -- -- 0.01 (0.01-0.01) 
TOTALd 5.47 (5.39-5.55) 10.71 (10.62-10.80) 40.41 (40.26-40.55) 
 Age at Diagnosis 
 Childrenc(0-14 Years) AYAd(15-39 Years) Adults (40+ Years )  
Histology Rate (95% CI) Rate (95% CI) Rate (95% CI) 
Tumors of Neuroepithelial Tissue 4.04 (3.96-4.11) 3.45 (3.40-3.50) 10.49 (10.41-10.56) 
Pilocytic astrocytoma 0.98 (0.95-1.02) 0.28 (0.27-0.30) 0.08 (0.08-0.09) 
Diffuse astrocytoma 0.26 (0.24-0.28) 0.45 (0.43-0.47) 0.68 (0.66-0.70) 
Anaplastic astrocytoma 0.09 (0.08-0.10) 0.29 (0.27-0.30) 0.62 (0.60-0.64) 
Unique astrocytoma variants 0.11 (0.10-0.13) 0.07 (0.07-0.08) 0.05 (0.04-0.05) 
Glioblastoma 0.15 (0.14-0.17) 0.48 (0.46-0.50) 6.95 (6.89-7.01) 
Oligodendroglioma 0.04 (0.03-0.04) 0.29 (0.27-0.30) 0.32 (0.31-0.34) 
Anaplastic oligodendroglioma -- -- 0.09 (0.08-0.09) 0.17 (0.16-0.18) 
Oligoastrocytic tumors 0.02 (0.02-0.03) 0.27 (0.25-0.28) 0.24 (0.23-0.25) 
Ependymal tumors 0.31 (0.29-0.33) 0.37 (0.35-0.38) 0.54 (0.53-0.56) 
Glioma malignant, NOS 0.78 (0.75-0.81) 0.27 (0.26-0.28) 0.47 (0.46-0.49) 
Choroid plexus tumors 0.11 (0.10-0.12) 0.04 (0.03-0.04) 0.03 (0.03-0.04) 
Other neuroepithelial tumors 0.01 (0.01-0.01) 0.01 (0.00-0.01) 0.01 (0.00-0.01) 
Neuronal and mixed neuronal-glial tumors 0.36 (0.34-0.38) 0.33 (0.32-0.35) 0.21 (0.20-0.22) 
Tumors of the pineal region 0.05 (0.04-0.05) 0.05 (0.04-0.06) 0.04 (0.04-0.05) 
Embryonal tumors 0.75 (0.72-0.78) 0.17 (0.16-0.18) 0.06 (0.05-0.07) 
Tumors of Cranial and Spinal Nerves 0.27 (0.25-0.28) 0.94 (0.91-0.97) 3.33 (3.29-3.38) 
Nerve sheath tumors 0.27 (0.25-0.28) 0.94 (0.91-0.97) 3.33 (3.29-3.37) 
Other tumors of cranial and spinal nerves -- -- -- -- 0.00 (0.00-0.00) 
Tumors of Meninges 0.16 (0.15-0.18) 2.03 (1.99-2.08) 17.53 (17.44-17.63) 
Meningioma 0.09 (0.08-0.10) 1.79 (1.75-1.83) 17.14 (17.04-17.24) 
Mesenchymal tumors 0.05 (0.05-0.06) 0.06 (0.06-0.07) 0.11 (0.10-0.12) 
Primary melanocytic lesions -- -- 0.00 (0.00-0.01) 0.01 (0.01-0.02) 
Other neoplasms related to the meninges 0.02 (0.01-0.02) 0.18 (0.17-0.19) 0.27 (0.26-0.28) 
Lymphomas and Hematopoietic Neoplasms 0.03 (0.02-0.03) 0.11 (0.10-0.12) 0.93 (0.90-0.95) 
Lymphoma 0.01 (0.01-0.01) 0.10 (0.09-0.11) 0.91 (0.88-0.93) 
Other hematopoietic neoplasms 0.02 (0.01-0.02) 0.01 (0.01-0.01) 0.02 (0.02-0.02) 
Germ Cell Tumors and Cysts 0.21 (0.19-0.23) 0.12 (0.11-0.13) 0.03 (0.03-0.03) 
Germ cell tumors, cysts and heterotopias 0.21 (0.19-0.23) 0.12 (0.11-0.13) 0.03 (0.03-0.03) 
Tumors of Sellar Region 0.47 (0.44-0.49) 3.42 (3.36-3.47) 5.89 (5.84-5.95) 
Tumors of the pituitary 0.24 (0.23-0.26) 3.29 (3.24-3.34) 5.68 (5.62-5.73) 
Craniopharyngioma 0.22 (0.21-0.24) 0.13 (0.12-0.14) 0.22 (0.21-0.23) 
Unclassified Tumors 0.30 (0.28-0.32) 0.64 (0.62-0.66) 2.20 (2.17-2.24) 
Hemangioma 0.10 (0.09-0.11) 0.32 (0.30-0.33) 0.54 (0.52-0.56) 
Neoplasm, unspecified 0.19 (0.18-0.21) 0.32 (0.31-0.34) 1.65 (1.62-1.68) 
All other 0.01 (0.00-0.01) -- -- 0.01 (0.01-0.01) 
TOTALd 5.47 (5.39-5.55) 10.71 (10.62-10.80) 40.41 (40.26-40.55) 

a Rates are per 100,000 and age-adjusted to the 2000 US. standard population.

b Children as defined by the National Cancer Institute, see: http://www.cancer.gov/researchandfunding/snapshots/pediatric .

c Adolescents and Young Adults (AYA), as defined by the National Cancer Institute, see: http://www.cancer.gov/researchandfunding/snapshots/adolescent-young-adult .

d Refers to all brain and other CNS tumors including histologies not presented in this table.

- Counts and rates are not presented when fewer than 16 cases were reported in the five year period for the specific histology category. The suppressed cases are included in the counts and rates for totals.

Abbreviations: AYA, Adolescents and Young Adults, CBTRUS, Central Brain Tumor Registry of the United States; NPCR, National Program of Cancer Registries; SEER, Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results program; CI, confidence interval; NOS, not otherwise specified.

Table 26.

One-, Two-, Five-. and Ten-Year Relative Survival Rates a,b for Selected Malignant Brain and Other Central Nervous System Tumors by NCI Age Groups, SEER 18 Registries, 2000-2013 c

 Age Group (years )   1-Year 2-Year 5-Year 10-Year 
Histology Nd 95% CI 95% CI 95% CI 95% CI 
Pilocytic astrocytoma  Children e (0-14)  2,173 98.8 (98.3-99.2)  98.5 (97.8-98.9) 97.0 (96.1-97.7)  95.8 (94.5-96.8) 
  AYA f (15-39)  1,083 97.4 (96.2-98.2)  96.2 (94.8-97.2) 93.7 (91.8-95.1)  90.1 (87.4-92.3) 
 Adults (40+) 373 94.7 (91.5-96.7)  86.7 (82.3-90.1) 79.0 (73.4-83.6)  74.5 (67.0-80.5) 
Diffuse astrocytoma  Children d (0-14)  658 92.1 (89.7-94.0)  87.1 (84.2-89.5) 83.4 (80.2-86.2)  81.7 (78.1-84.7) 
  AYA e (15-39)  1,822 94.1 (92.9-95.2)  87.5 (85.8-89.0) 70.6 (68.2-72.9)  53.3 (50.1-56.4) 
 Adults (40+) 3,301 59.8 (58.0-61.5)  45.4 (43.6-47.2) 30.8 (29.1-32.6)  21.8 (19.9-23.8) 
Anaplastic astrocytoma  Children d (0-14)  214 61.1 (54.0-67.5)  35.4 (28.6-42.3) 23.8 (17.7-30.5)  16.8 (11.0-23.7) 
  AYA e (15-39)  1,035 89.9 (87.8-91.6)  75.8 (72.8-78.4) 54.7 (51.1-58.2)  39.9 (35.7-44.1) 
 Adults (40+) 2,542 54.4 (52.3-56.3)  34.6 (32.6-36.6) 19.9 (18.1-21.8)  13.4 (11.5-15.4) 
Glioblastoma  Children d (0-14)  300 52.2 (46.2-57.8)  28.3 (23.0-33.9) 19.6 (14.8-25.0)  16.0 (11-21.7) 
  AYA e (15-39)  1,744 74.2 (72.0-76.2)  47.4 (44.9-49.8) 22.9 (20.7-25.2)  13.6 (11.5-16) 
 Adults (40+) 29,323 37.0 (36.5-37.6)  14.9 (14.4-15.3) 4.30 (4.0-4.6)  2.0 (1.7-2.3) 
Oligodendroglioma  Children d (0-14)  115 94.7 (88.5-97.6)  93.7 (87.3-97.0) 89.8 (82.2-94.2)  89.8 (82.2-94.2) 
  AYA e (15-39)  1,239 98.9 (98.1-99.4)  96.8 (95.6-97.7) 88.9 (86.7-90.8)  72.3 (68.6-75.7) 
 Adults (40+) 1,727 91.0 (89.4-92.3)  85.0 (83.0-86.7) 74.5 (72.0-76.8)  57.6 (54.1-61.0) 
Anaplastic oligodendroglioma  Children d (0-14)  -- -- --  -- -- -- --  -- -- 
  AYA e (15-39)  357 93.1 (89.8-95.4)  85.3 (81.0-88.7) 71.9 (66.3-76.8)  53.8 (46.6-60.5) 
 Adults (40+) 931 79.9 (77.1-82.5)  66.3 (62.9-69.4) 51.0 (47.3-54.6)  38.3 (34.0-42.5) 
Ependymal tumors  Children d (0-14)  646 94.5 (92.4-96.1)  86.9 (83.8-89.4) 73.6 (69.5-77.2)  64.8 (59.8-69.3) 
  AYA e (15-39)  757 96.8 (95.2-97.9)  94.4 (92.3-95.9) 90.1 (87.4-92.3)  87.1 (83.4-89.9) 
 Adults (40+) 1,330 92.7 (91.0-94.1)  89.6 (87.5-91.3) 86.1 (83.6-88.4)  83.8 (80.1-86.9) 
Oligoastrocytic tumors  Children d (0-14)  69 97.1 (88.4-99.3)  90.7 (80.3-95.8) 83.0 (70.2-90.6)  80.4 (66.8-88.9) 
  AYA e (15-39)  887 97.4 (96.0-98.3)  91.2 (89.0-93.0) 75.0 (71.5-78.2)  55.6 (50.7-60.3) 
 Adults (40+) 1,079 81.2 (78.6-83.5)  68.2 (65.1-71.1) 52.9 (49.4-56.3)  40.3 (35.8-44.7) 
Glioma malignant, NOS  Children d (0-14)  1,516 76.1 (73.8-78.2)  64.7 (62.1-67.1) 61.7 (59.1-64.3)  60.1 (57.3-62.7) 
  AYA e (15-39)  843 89.4 (87.0-91.3)  82.3 (79.3-84.8) 71.3 (67.7-74.7)  60.0 (55.1-64.5) 
 Adults (40+) 2,103 47.2 (44.9-49.4)  36.8 (34.6-39.1) 29.4 (27.2-31.7)  24.1 (21.5-26.7) 
Neuronal and mixed neuronal-glial tumors  Children d (0-14)  -- -- --  -- -- -- --  -- -- 
  AYA e (15-39)  133 96.1 (90.8-98.4)  90.2 (83.1-94.4) 79.5 (70.5-86.1)  75.2 (63.3-83.7) 
 Adults (40+) 352 89.4 (85.3-92.4)  81.7 (76.5-85.8) 74.0 (67.6-79.2)  53.6 (43.6-62.6) 
Embryonal tumors  Children d (0-14)  1,819 79.9 (78.0-81.7)  70.1 (67.9-72.3) 61.7 (59.3-64.1)  55.4 (52.6-58.1) 
  AYA e (15-39)  695 87.7 (85.0-90.0)  79.5 (76.1-82.4) 65.1 (60.9-68.9)  57.1 (52.3-61.5) 
 Adults (40+) 221 73.9 (67.3-79.4)  57.9 (50.6-64.5) 46.9 (39.1-54.2)  34.1 (25.7-42.7) 
Meningioma  Children d (0-14)  -- -- --  -- -- -- --  -- -- 
  AYA e (15-39)  90 97.8 (90.9-99.5)  97.8 (90.9-99.5) 88.6 (78.3-94.1)  81.7 (69.2-89.5) 
 Adults (40+) 1,010 80.3 (77.4-82.8)  73.1 (69.8-76.0) 62.6 (58.7-66.2)  54.6 (49.9-59.1) 
Lymphoma  Children d (0-14)  -- -- --  -- -- -- --  -- -- 
  AYA e (15-39)  522 57.2 (52.8-61.4)  52.0 (47.5-56.4) 46.0 (41.4-50.5)  42.0 (37.2-46.8) 
 Adults (40+) 3,889 51.2 (49.6-52.8)  42.3 (40.6-43.9) 30.6 (28.9-32.3)  22.6 (20.6-24.6) 
TOTAL: All Malignant Brain and Other Nervous System Tumorsg Childrend(0-14) 8,443 85.9 (85.1-86.6)  78.6 (77.7-79.5) 73.0 (72.0-74.0)  69.4 (68.3-70.6) 
AYAe(15-39) 12,292 89.4 (88.8-89.9)  80.7 (79.9-81.4) 67.6 (66.7-68.5)  56.3 (55.1-57.5) 
 Adults (40+ )  51,095 47.6 (47.2-48.1)  30.7 (30.3-31.1) 20.3 (19.9-20.7)  15.6 (15.2-16.1) 
 Age Group (years )   1-Year 2-Year 5-Year 10-Year 
Histology Nd 95% CI 95% CI 95% CI 95% CI 
Pilocytic astrocytoma  Children e (0-14)  2,173 98.8 (98.3-99.2)  98.5 (97.8-98.9) 97.0 (96.1-97.7)  95.8 (94.5-96.8) 
  AYA f (15-39)  1,083 97.4 (96.2-98.2)  96.2 (94.8-97.2) 93.7 (91.8-95.1)  90.1 (87.4-92.3) 
 Adults (40+) 373 94.7 (91.5-96.7)  86.7 (82.3-90.1) 79.0 (73.4-83.6)  74.5 (67.0-80.5) 
Diffuse astrocytoma  Children d (0-14)  658 92.1 (89.7-94.0)  87.1 (84.2-89.5) 83.4 (80.2-86.2)  81.7 (78.1-84.7) 
  AYA e (15-39)  1,822 94.1 (92.9-95.2)  87.5 (85.8-89.0) 70.6 (68.2-72.9)  53.3 (50.1-56.4) 
 Adults (40+) 3,301 59.8 (58.0-61.5)  45.4 (43.6-47.2) 30.8 (29.1-32.6)  21.8 (19.9-23.8) 
Anaplastic astrocytoma  Children d (0-14)  214 61.1 (54.0-67.5)  35.4 (28.6-42.3) 23.8 (17.7-30.5)  16.8 (11.0-23.7) 
  AYA e (15-39)  1,035 89.9 (87.8-91.6)  75.8 (72.8-78.4) 54.7 (51.1-58.2)  39.9 (35.7-44.1) 
 Adults (40+) 2,542 54.4 (52.3-56.3)  34.6 (32.6-36.6) 19.9 (18.1-21.8)  13.4 (11.5-15.4) 
Glioblastoma  Children d (0-14)  300 52.2 (46.2-57.8)  28.3 (23.0-33.9) 19.6 (14.8-25.0)  16.0 (11-21.7) 
  AYA e (15-39)  1,744 74.2 (72.0-76.2)  47.4 (44.9-49.8) 22.9 (20.7-25.2)  13.6 (11.5-16) 
 Adults (40+) 29,323 37.0 (36.5-37.6)  14.9 (14.4-15.3) 4.30 (4.0-4.6)  2.0 (1.7-2.3) 
Oligodendroglioma  Children d (0-14)  115 94.7 (88.5-97.6)  93.7 (87.3-97.0) 89.8 (82.2-94.2)  89.8 (82.2-94.2) 
  AYA e (15-39)  1,239 98.9 (98.1-99.4)  96.8 (95.6-97.7) 88.9 (86.7-90.8)  72.3 (68.6-75.7) 
 Adults (40+) 1,727 91.0 (89.4-92.3)  85.0 (83.0-86.7) 74.5 (72.0-76.8)  57.6 (54.1-61.0) 
Anaplastic oligodendroglioma  Children d (0-14)  -- -- --  -- -- -- --  -- -- 
  AYA e (15-39)  357 93.1 (89.8-95.4)  85.3 (81.0-88.7) 71.9 (66.3-76.8)  53.8 (46.6-60.5) 
 Adults (40+) 931 79.9 (77.1-82.5)  66.3 (62.9-69.4) 51.0 (47.3-54.6)  38.3 (34.0-42.5) 
Ependymal tumors  Children d (0-14)  646 94.5 (92.4-96.1)  86.9 (83.8-89.4) 73.6 (69.5-77.2)  64.8 (59.8-69.3) 
  AYA e (15-39)  757 96.8 (95.2-97.9)  94.4 (92.3-95.9) 90.1 (87.4-92.3)  87.1 (83.4-89.9) 
 Adults (40+) 1,330 92.7 (91.0-94.1)  89.6 (87.5-91.3) 86.1 (83.6-88.4)  83.8 (80.1-86.9) 
Oligoastrocytic tumors  Children d (0-14)  69 97.1 (88.4-99.3)  90.7 (80.3-95.8) 83.0 (70.2-90.6)  80.4 (66.8-88.9) 
  AYA e (15-39)  887 97.4 (96.0-98.3)  91.2 (89.0-93.0) 75.0 (71.5-78.2)  55.6 (50.7-60.3) 
 Adults (40+) 1,079 81.2 (78.6-83.5)  68.2 (65.1-71.1) 52.9 (49.4-56.3)  40.3 (35.8-44.7) 
Glioma malignant, NOS  Children d (0-14)  1,516 76.1 (73.8-78.2)  64.7 (62.1-67.1) 61.7 (59.1-64.3)  60.1 (57.3-62.7) 
  AYA e (15-39)  843 89.4 (87.0-91.3)  82.3 (79.3-84.8) 71.3 (67.7-74.7)  60.0 (55.1-64.5) 
 Adults (40+) 2,103 47.2 (44.9-49.4)  36.8 (34.6-39.1) 29.4 (27.2-31.7)  24.1 (21.5-26.7) 
Neuronal and mixed neuronal-glial tumors  Children d (0-14)  -- -- --  -- -- -- --  -- -- 
  AYA e (15-39)  133 96.1 (90.8-98.4)  90.2 (83.1-94.4) 79.5 (70.5-86.1)  75.2 (63.3-83.7) 
 Adults (40+) 352 89.4 (85.3-92.4)  81.7 (76.5-85.8) 74.0 (67.6-79.2)  53.6 (43.6-62.6) 
Embryonal tumors  Children d (0-14)  1,819 79.9 (78.0-81.7)  70.1 (67.9-72.3) 61.7 (59.3-64.1)  55.4 (52.6-58.1) 
  AYA e (15-39)  695 87.7 (85.0-90.0)  79.5 (76.1-82.4) 65.1 (60.9-68.9)  57.1 (52.3-61.5) 
 Adults (40+) 221 73.9 (67.3-79.4)  57.9 (50.6-64.5) 46.9 (39.1-54.2)  34.1 (25.7-42.7) 
Meningioma  Children d (0-14)  -- -- --  -- -- -- --  -- -- 
  AYA e (15-39)  90 97.8 (90.9-99.5)  97.8 (90.9-99.5) 88.6 (78.3-94.1)  81.7 (69.2-89.5) 
 Adults (40+) 1,010 80.3 (77.4-82.8)  73.1 (69.8-76.0) 62.6 (58.7-66.2)  54.6 (49.9-59.1) 
Lymphoma  Children d (0-14)  -- -- --  -- -- -- --  -- -- 
  AYA e (15-39)  522 57.2 (52.8-61.4)  52.0 (47.5-56.4) 46.0 (41.4-50.5)  42.0 (37.2-46.8) 
 Adults (40+) 3,889 51.2 (49.6-52.8)  42.3 (40.6-43.9) 30.6 (28.9-32.3)  22.6 (20.6-24.6) 
TOTAL: All Malignant Brain and Other Nervous System Tumorsg Childrend(0-14) 8,443 85.9 (85.1-86.6)  78.6 (77.7-79.5) 73.0 (72.0-74.0)  69.4 (68.3-70.6) 
AYAe(15-39) 12,292 89.4 (88.8-89.9)  80.7 (79.9-81.4) 67.6 (66.7-68.5)  56.3 (55.1-57.5) 
 Adults (40+ )  51,095 47.6 (47.2-48.1)  30.7 (30.3-31.1) 20.3 (19.9-20.7)  15.6 (15.2-16.1) 

a The cohort analysis of survival rates was utilized for calculating the survival estimates presented in this table. Long-term cohort-based survival estimates reflect the survival experience of individuals diagnosed over the time period, and they may not necessarily reflect the long-term survival outlook of newly diagnosed cases.

b Rates are an estimate of the percentage of patients alive at one, two, five, and ten year, respectively. Rates were not presented for categories with 50 or less cases and were suppressed for rates where less than 16 cases were surviving within a category.

c Estimated by CBTRUS using Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program ( www.seer.cancer.gov ) SEER*Stat Database: Incidence - SEER 18 Regs Research Data + Hurricane Katrina Impacted Louisiana Cases, Nov 2015 Sub (2000-2013) <Katrina/Rita Population Adjustment> - Linked To County Attributes - Total U.S., 1969-2014 Counties, National Cancer Institute, DCCPS, Surveillance Research Program, Surveillance Systems Branch, released April 2016, based on the November 2015 submission.

d Total number of case that occurred within the SEER registries between 2000 and 2013.

e Children as defined by the National Cancer Institute, see: http://www.cancer.gov/researchandfunding/snapshots/pediatric .

f Adolescents and Young Adults (AYA), as defined by the National Cancer Institute, see: http://www.cancer.gov/researchandfunding/snapshots/adolescent-young-adult .

g Includes histologies not listed in this table.

Abbreviation: SEER, Survival, Epidemiology and End Results; CI, confidence interval; NOS, not otherwise specified.

  • The estimated five- and ten-year relative survival rates for all malignant brain and other CNS tumors are 34.9% and 29.3%, respectively.

  • There is large variation in survival estimates depending upon tumor histology; five-year survival rates are 94.2% for pilocytic astrocytoma but are 5.5% for glioblastoma.

  • Survival generally decreases with older age at diagnosis; children and young adults generally have better survival outcomes for most histologies.

Survival Rates for Non-Malignant Brain and Other CNS Tumors by Histology and Age

Data on newly diagnosed non-malignant primary brain and other CNS tumors have been collected by central cancer registries in the US since 2004, with incidence and survival data now available for the ten years from 2004 to 2013. Survival statistics for these tumors are reported for the first time in the CBTRUS Statistical Report: Primary Brain and Other Central Nervous System Tumors Diagnosed in the United States in 2009–2013 . Survival estimates for non-malignant brain and other CNS tumors by histology and age at diagnosis are presented in Tables 27 and 28 . The one- through five-year relative survival rates by histology and age group are shown in Table 28 . Histology-specific rates are presented for the CBTRUS histology groupings which contain a substantial number of incident non-malignant tumors.

Table 27.

One-, Two-, Three-, Four-, and Five-Year Relative Survival Rates a,b for Selected Non-Malignant Brain and Other Central Nervous System Tumors by Histology, SEER 18 Registries, 2004-2013 c

  1-Year 2-Year 3-Year 4-Year 5-Year 
Histology Nd 95% CI 95% CI 95% CI 95% CI 95% CI 
Unique astrocytoma variants 217 97.2 (93.6-98.8)  95.6 (91.5-97.8) 94.5 (89.9-97.0)  94.5 (89.9-97.0) 94.5 (89.9-97.0) 
Ependymal tumors 1,333 97.9 (96.8-98.7)  97.6 (96.2-98.5) 97.5 (95.9-98.5)  97.5 (95.9-98.5) 97.5 (95.9-98.5) 
Choroid plexus tumors 389 93.7 (90.5-95.8)  92.8 (89.4-95.2) 91.8 (88.0-94.4)  90.0 (85.8-93.1) 89.3 (84.8-92.6) 
Neuronal and mixed neuronal-glial tumors 1,906 97.3 (96.3-97.9)  96.4 (95.3-97.3) 95.2 (93.9-96.2)  94.1 (92.6-95.3) 93.5 (91.9-94.8) 
Nerve sheath tumors 15,399 99.4 (99.2-99.6)  99.3 (98.9-99.6) 99.3 (98.9-99.6)  99.3 (98.9-99.6) 99.3 (98.9-99.6) 
Meningioma 65,753 92.2 (92.0-92.5)  90.3 (90.0-90.6) 88.9 (88.6-89.3)  87.7 (87.3-88.1) 86.4 (86.0-86.9) 
Mesenchymal tumors 590 96.9 (94.8-98.2)  96.1 (93.5-97.7) 94.5 (91.3-96.5)  93.4 (89.7-95.8) 91.9 (87.6-94.8) 
Other neoplasms related to the meninges 1,507 95.2 (93.8-96.3)  94.4 (92.8-95.7) 93.5 (91.7-94.9)  92.6 (90.6-94.2) 91.6 (89.3-93.5) 
Germ cell tumors, cysts and heterotopias 222 94.6 (90.3-97.1)  94.0 (89.1-96.7) 94.0 (89.1-96.7)  94.0 (89.1-96.7) 94.0 (89.1-96.7) 
Tumors of the pituitary 30,700 97.9 (97.7-98.1)  97.4 (97.1-97.6) 97.1 (96.7-97.4)  96.6 (96.2-96.9) 96.4 (95.9-96.8) 
Craniopharyngioma 1,560 92.1 (90.5-93.4)  89.5 (87.7-91.1) 87.2 (85.1-89.0)  84.7 (82.4-86.8) 83.9 (81.4-86.1) 
Hemangioma 2,238 96.6 (95.5-97.4)  95.6 (94.4-96.6) 95.2 (93.7-96.3)  94.6 (93.0-95.9) 94.3 (92.4-95.7) 
TOTAL: All Non-Malignant Brain and Other Nervous System Tumorsi 125,581 94.2 (94.0-94.3)  92.9 (92.7-93.1) 92.0 (91.8-92.2)  91.1 (90.9-91.4) 90.4 (90.1-90.6) 
  1-Year 2-Year 3-Year 4-Year 5-Year 
Histology Nd 95% CI 95% CI 95% CI 95% CI 95% CI 
Unique astrocytoma variants 217 97.2 (93.6-98.8)  95.6 (91.5-97.8) 94.5 (89.9-97.0)  94.5 (89.9-97.0) 94.5 (89.9-97.0) 
Ependymal tumors 1,333 97.9 (96.8-98.7)  97.6 (96.2-98.5) 97.5 (95.9-98.5)  97.5 (95.9-98.5) 97.5 (95.9-98.5) 
Choroid plexus tumors 389 93.7 (90.5-95.8)  92.8 (89.4-95.2) 91.8 (88.0-94.4)  90.0 (85.8-93.1) 89.3 (84.8-92.6) 
Neuronal and mixed neuronal-glial tumors 1,906 97.3 (96.3-97.9)  96.4 (95.3-97.3) 95.2 (93.9-96.2)  94.1 (92.6-95.3) 93.5 (91.9-94.8) 
Nerve sheath tumors 15,399 99.4 (99.2-99.6)  99.3 (98.9-99.6) 99.3 (98.9-99.6)  99.3 (98.9-99.6) 99.3 (98.9-99.6) 
Meningioma 65,753 92.2 (92.0-92.5)  90.3 (90.0-90.6) 88.9 (88.6-89.3)  87.7 (87.3-88.1) 86.4 (86.0-86.9) 
Mesenchymal tumors 590 96.9 (94.8-98.2)  96.1 (93.5-97.7) 94.5 (91.3-96.5)  93.4 (89.7-95.8) 91.9 (87.6-94.8) 
Other neoplasms related to the meninges 1,507 95.2 (93.8-96.3)  94.4 (92.8-95.7) 93.5 (91.7-94.9)  92.6 (90.6-94.2) 91.6 (89.3-93.5) 
Germ cell tumors, cysts and heterotopias 222 94.6 (90.3-97.1)  94.0 (89.1-96.7) 94.0 (89.1-96.7)  94.0 (89.1-96.7) 94.0 (89.1-96.7) 
Tumors of the pituitary 30,700 97.9 (97.7-98.1)  97.4 (97.1-97.6) 97.1 (96.7-97.4)  96.6 (96.2-96.9) 96.4 (95.9-96.8) 
Craniopharyngioma 1,560 92.1 (90.5-93.4)  89.5 (87.7-91.1) 87.2 (85.1-89.0)  84.7 (82.4-86.8) 83.9 (81.4-86.1) 
Hemangioma 2,238 96.6 (95.5-97.4)  95.6 (94.4-96.6) 95.2 (93.7-96.3)  94.6 (93.0-95.9) 94.3 (92.4-95.7) 
TOTAL: All Non-Malignant Brain and Other Nervous System Tumorsi 125,581 94.2 (94.0-94.3)  92.9 (92.7-93.1) 92.0 (91.8-92.2)  91.1 (90.9-91.4) 90.4 (90.1-90.6) 

a The cohort analysis of survival rates was utilized for calculating the survival estimates presented in this table. Long-term cohort-based survival estimates reflect the survival experience of individuals diagnosed over the time period, and they may not necessarily reflect the long-term survival outlook of newly diagnosed cases.

b Rates are an estimate of the percentage of patients alive at one, two, five, and ten year, respectively. Rates were not presented for categories with 50 or less cases and were suppressed for rates where less than 16 cases were surviving within a category.

c Estimated by CBTRUS using Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program ( www.seer.cancer.gov ) SEER*Stat Database: Incidence - SEER 18 Regs Research Data + Hurricane Katrina Impacted Louisiana Cases, Nov 2015 Sub (2000-2013) <Katrina/Rita Population Adjustment> - Linked To County Attributes - Total U.S., 1969-2014 Counties, National Cancer Institute, DCCPS, Surveillance Research Program, Surveillance Systems Branch, released April 2016, based on the November 2015 submission.

d Total number of case that occurred within the SEER registries between 2000 and 2013.

e ICD-O-3 histology codes: 9470/3, 9471/3, 9472/3, 9474/3.

f ICD-O-3 histology code: 9473/3.

g ICD-O-3 histology code: 9508/3.

h ICD-O-3 histology codes: 8963/3, 9364/3, 9480/3, 9490/0, 9490/3, 9500/3, 9501/3, 9502/3.

i Includes histologies not listed in this table.

Abbreviation: SEER, Survival, Epidemiology and End Results; CI, confidence interval; NOS, not otherwise specified.

Table 28.

One-, Two-, Five- and Ten-Year Relative Survival Rates a,b for Selected Non-Malignant Brain and Other Central Nervous System Tumors by NCI Age Groups, SEER 18 Registries, 2004-2013 c

 Age Group (years )   1-Year 2-Year 5-Year 
Histology Nd 95% CI 95% CI 95% CI 
Unique astrocytoma variants  Children e (0-14)  119 97.4 (91.9-99.2)  97.4 (91.9-99.2) 97.4 (91.9-99.2) 
  AYA f (15-39)  85 96.3 (88.8-98.8)  96.3 (88.8-98.8) 93.3 (84.0-97.3) 
 Adults (40+) -- -- --  -- -- -- -- 
Ependymal tumors  Children e (0-14)  64 100.0 **  100.0 ** 95.0 (80.6-98.8) 
  AYA f (15-39)  435 99.6 (97.7-99.9)  99.1 (97.0-99.7) 98.3 (95.3-99.4) 
 Adults (40+) 837 96.9 (95.2-98.1)  96.7 (94.6-98.0) 96.7 (94.6-98.0) 
Choroid plexus tumors  Children e (0-14)  146 98.8 (93.9-99.8)  98.0 (93.0-99.4) 94.8 (88.3-97.8) 
  AYA f (15-39)  118 98.3 (92.7-99.6)  98.3 (92.7-99.6) 97.2 (90.6-99.2) 
 Adults (40+) 125 83.6 (75.2-89.3)  81.8 (72.8-88.0) 75.0 (63.6-83.3) 
Neuronal and mixed neuronal-glial tumors  Children e (0-14)  579 98.9 (97.6-99.5)  98.5 (97.0-99.3) 97.0 (94.8-98.3) 
AYA f (15-39)  858 98.5 (97.3-99.1)  98.0 (96.6-98.8) 95.3 (93.2-96.8) 
Adults (40+) 472 92.9 (89.9-95.1)  90.9 (87.3-93.5) 85.7 (80.7-89.4) 
Nerve sheath tumors  Children e (0-14)  403 100.0 **  100.0 ** 99.7 (95.2-100) 
  AYA f (15-39)  2,417 99.6 (99.2-99.8)  99.3 (98.7-99.6) 98.9 (98.0-99.3) 
 Adults (40+) 12,639 99.4 (99.1-99.6)  99.3 (98.9-99.6) 99.3 (98.9-99.6) 
Meningioma  Children e (0-14)  135 97.6 (92.6-99.2)  96.6 (91.1-98.8) 96.6 (91.1-98.8) 
  AYA f (15-39)  4,322 98.7 (98.3-99.0)  98.1 (97.6-98.5) 96.5 (95.7-97.2) 
 Adults (40+) 61,501 91.8 (91.5-92.0)  89.7 (89.4-90.1) 85.7 (85.2-86.1) 
Mesenchymal tumors  Children e (0-14)  127 99.3 (91.0-100.0)  98.1 (91.0-99.6) 95.8 (85.0-98.9) 
  AYA f (15-39)  135 97.7 (92.6-99.3)  97.7 (92.6-99.3) 95.0 (86.5-98.2) 
 Adults (40+) 330 95.8 (92.3-97.7)  94.8 (90.6-97.2) 89.6 (83.0-93.8) 
Other neoplasms related to the meninges  Children e (0-14)  -- -- --  -- -- -- -- 
AYA f (15-39)  488 97.3 (95.2-98.4)  96.9 (94.7-98.2) 95.8 (93.1-97.4) 
Adults (40+) 992 94.0 (92.1-95.5)  93.0 (90.8-94.8) 89.4 (86.0-91.9) 
Germ cell tumors, cysts and heterotopias  Children e (0-14)  76 93.0 (83.6-97.1)  93.0 (83.6-97.1) 93.0 (83.6-97.1) 
AYA f (15-39)  77 98.6 (89.4-99.8)  95.2 (85.2-98.5) 95.2 (85.2-98.5) 
Adults (40+) 72 92.5 (81.8-97.0)  92.5 (81.8-97.0) 92.5 (81.8-97.0) 
Tumors of the pituitary  Children e (0-14)  360 99.7 (97.7-100)  99.4 (97.3-99.9) 98.3 (95.1-99.4) 
  AYA f (15-39)  9,331 99.5 (99.4-99.7)  99.4 (99.2-99.6) 99.1 (98.7-99.3) 
 Adults (40+) 21,141 97.1 (96.8-97.4)  96.4 (96.0-96.8) 95.1 (94.5-95.7) 
Craniopharyngioma  Children e (0-14)  385 97.2 (94.9-98.5)  96.3 (93.7-97.9) 92.7 (88.9-95.3) 
  AYA f (15-39)  367 95.1 (92.1-96.9)  93.1 (89.7-95.4) 88.1 (83.4-91.5) 
 Adults (40+) 813 88.3 (85.7-90.5)  84.7 (81.6-87.3) 77.7 (73.6-81.3) 
Hemangioma  Children e (0-14)  144 99.3 (94.0-99.9)  99.3 (94.0-99.9) 99.3 (94.0-99.9) 
  AYA f (15-39)  649 99.8 (98.3-100.0)  99.5 (98.0-99.9) 99.2 (97.2-99.8) 
 Adults (40+) 1,462 94.9 (93.4-96.1)  93.5 (91.7-95.0) 91.5 (88.7-93.7) 
TOTAL: All Non-Malignant Brain and Other Nervous System Tumorsg Childrend(0-14) 2,826 98.3 (97.7-98.7)  97.8 (97.2-98.3) 96.4 (95.4-97.1) 
AYAe(15-39) 20,053 99.0 (98.9-99.2)  98.6 (98.4-98.8) 97.7 (97.4-98.0) 
Adults (40+ )  103,164 93.1 (93.0-93.3)  91.6 (91.4-91.8) 88.8 (88.4-89.1) 
 Age Group (years )   1-Year 2-Year 5-Year 
Histology Nd 95% CI 95% CI 95% CI 
Unique astrocytoma variants  Children e (0-14)  119 97.4 (91.9-99.2)  97.4 (91.9-99.2) 97.4 (91.9-99.2) 
  AYA f (15-39)  85 96.3 (88.8-98.8)  96.3 (88.8-98.8) 93.3 (84.0-97.3) 
 Adults (40+) -- -- --  -- -- -- -- 
Ependymal tumors  Children e (0-14)  64 100.0 **  100.0 ** 95.0 (80.6-98.8) 
  AYA f (15-39)  435 99.6 (97.7-99.9)  99.1 (97.0-99.7) 98.3 (95.3-99.4) 
 Adults (40+) 837 96.9 (95.2-98.1)  96.7 (94.6-98.0) 96.7 (94.6-98.0) 
Choroid plexus tumors  Children e (0-14)  146 98.8 (93.9-99.8)  98.0 (93.0-99.4) 94.8 (88.3-97.8) 
  AYA f (15-39)  118 98.3 (92.7-99.6)  98.3 (92.7-99.6) 97.2 (90.6-99.2) 
 Adults (40+) 125 83.6 (75.2-89.3)  81.8 (72.8-88.0) 75.0 (63.6-83.3) 
Neuronal and mixed neuronal-glial tumors  Children e (0-14)  579 98.9 (97.6-99.5)  98.5 (97.0-99.3) 97.0 (94.8-98.3) 
AYA f (15-39)  858 98.5 (97.3-99.1)  98.0 (96.6-98.8) 95.3 (93.2-96.8) 
Adults (40+) 472 92.9 (89.9-95.1)  90.9 (87.3-93.5) 85.7 (80.7-89.4) 
Nerve sheath tumors  Children e (0-14)  403 100.0 **  100.0 ** 99.7 (95.2-100) 
  AYA f (15-39)  2,417 99.6 (99.2-99.8)  99.3 (98.7-99.6) 98.9 (98.0-99.3) 
 Adults (40+) 12,639 99.4 (99.1-99.6)  99.3 (98.9-99.6) 99.3 (98.9-99.6) 
Meningioma  Children e (0-14)  135 97.6 (92.6-99.2)  96.6 (91.1-98.8) 96.6 (91.1-98.8) 
  AYA f (15-39)  4,322 98.7 (98.3-99.0)  98.1 (97.6-98.5) 96.5 (95.7-97.2) 
 Adults (40+) 61,501 91.8 (91.5-92.0)  89.7 (89.4-90.1) 85.7 (85.2-86.1) 
Mesenchymal tumors  Children e (0-14)  127 99.3 (91.0-100.0)  98.1 (91.0-99.6) 95.8 (85.0-98.9) 
  AYA f (15-39)  135 97.7 (92.6-99.3)  97.7 (92.6-99.3) 95.0 (86.5-98.2) 
 Adults (40+) 330 95.8 (92.3-97.7)  94.8 (90.6-97.2) 89.6 (83.0-93.8) 
Other neoplasms related to the meninges  Children e (0-14)  -- -- --  -- -- -- -- 
AYA f (15-39)  488 97.3 (95.2-98.4)  96.9 (94.7-98.2) 95.8 (93.1-97.4) 
Adults (40+) 992 94.0 (92.1-95.5)  93.0 (90.8-94.8) 89.4 (86.0-91.9) 
Germ cell tumors, cysts and heterotopias  Children e (0-14)  76 93.0 (83.6-97.1)  93.0 (83.6-97.1) 93.0 (83.6-97.1) 
AYA f (15-39)  77 98.6 (89.4-99.8)  95.2 (85.2-98.5) 95.2 (85.2-98.5) 
Adults (40+) 72 92.5 (81.8-97.0)  92.5 (81.8-97.0) 92.5 (81.8-97.0) 
Tumors of the pituitary  Children e (0-14)  360 99.7 (97.7-100)  99.4 (97.3-99.9) 98.3 (95.1-99.4) 
  AYA f (15-39)  9,331 99.5 (99.4-99.7)  99.4 (99.2-99.6) 99.1 (98.7-99.3) 
 Adults (40+) 21,141 97.1 (96.8-97.4)  96.4 (96.0-96.8) 95.1 (94.5-95.7) 
Craniopharyngioma  Children e (0-14)  385 97.2 (94.9-98.5)  96.3 (93.7-97.9) 92.7 (88.9-95.3) 
  AYA f (15-39)  367 95.1 (92.1-96.9)  93.1 (89.7-95.4) 88.1 (83.4-91.5) 
 Adults (40+) 813 88.3 (85.7-90.5)  84.7 (81.6-87.3) 77.7 (73.6-81.3) 
Hemangioma  Children e (0-14)  144 99.3 (94.0-99.9)  99.3 (94.0-99.9) 99.3 (94.0-99.9) 
  AYA f (15-39)  649 99.8 (98.3-100.0)  99.5 (98.0-99.9) 99.2 (97.2-99.8) 
 Adults (40+) 1,462 94.9 (93.4-96.1)  93.5 (91.7-95.0) 91.5 (88.7-93.7) 
TOTAL: All Non-Malignant Brain and Other Nervous System Tumorsg Childrend(0-14) 2,826 98.3 (97.7-98.7)  97.8 (97.2-98.3) 96.4 (95.4-97.1) 
AYAe(15-39) 20,053 99.0 (98.9-99.2)  98.6 (98.4-98.8) 97.7 (97.4-98.0) 
Adults (40+ )  103,164 93.1 (93.0-93.3)  91.6 (91.4-91.8) 88.8 (88.4-89.1) 

**Confidence interval could not be calculated.

a The cohort analysis of survival rates was utilized for calculating the survival estimates presented in this table. Long-term cohort-based survival estimates reflect the survival experience of individuals diagnosed over the time period, and they may not necessarily reflect the long-term survival outlook of newly diagnosed cases.

b Rates are an estimate of the percentage of patients alive at one, two, five, and ten year, respectively. Rates were not presented for categories with 50 or less cases and were suppressed for rates where less than 16 cases were surviving within a category.

c Estimated by CBTRUS using Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program ( www.seer.cancer.gov ) SEER*Stat Database: Incidence - SEER 18 Regs Research Data + Hurricane Katrina Impacted Louisiana Cases, Nov 2015 Sub (2000-2013) <Katrina/Rita Population Adjustment> - Linked To County Attributes - Total U.S., 1969-2014 Counties, National Cancer Institute, DCCPS, Surveillance Research Program, Surveillance Systems Branch, released April 2016, based on the November 2015 submission.

d Total number of case that occurred within the SEER registries between 2000 and 2013.

e Children as defined by the National Cancer Institute, see: http://www.cancer.gov/researchandfunding/snapshots/pediatric .

f Adolescents and Young Adults (AYA), as defined by the National Cancer Institute, see: http://www.cancer.gov/researchandfunding/snapshots/adolescent-young-adult .

g Includes histologies not listed in this table.

Abbreviation: SEER, Survival, Epidemiology and End Results; CI, confidence interval; NOS, not otherwise specified.

  • Overall, 90.4% of persons with a non-malignant tumor survive five years after diagnosis.

  • Five-year survival is lowest in craniopharyngioma and meningioma, which have five-year relative survival of 83.9% and 86.4%, respectively.

  • Five-year survival is highest in nerve sheath tumors and tumors of the pituitary, which have five-year relative survival of 99.3% and 96.4%, respectively.

  • Overall, five-year survival in adolescents and young adults is highest (97.7%) as compared to children (96.4%) and older adults (88.8%).

Descriptive Summary of Spinal Cord Tumors

Although spinal cord tumors account for a relatively small percentage of brain and other CNS tumors, they result in significant morbidity. The most common histologies found in the spinal cord, spinal meninges, and cauda equina are presented in Figs. 20a and 20b for both children (age 0–19 years) and adults (age 20+ years), respectively.

Fig. 20a.

Distribution a of Primary Spinal Cord, Spinal Meninges, and Cauda Equina Tumors in Children and Adolescents (Age 0-19 Years), CBTRUS Histology Groupings and Histology (N=1,307), CBTRUS Statistical Report: NPCR and SEER, 2009-2013.

Fig. 20a.

Distribution a of Primary Spinal Cord, Spinal Meninges, and Cauda Equina Tumors in Children and Adolescents (Age 0-19 Years), CBTRUS Histology Groupings and Histology (N=1,307), CBTRUS Statistical Report: NPCR and SEER, 2009-2013.

Fig. 20b.

Distribution a of Primary Spinal Cord, Spinal Meninges, and Cauda Equina Tumors in Adults (Age 20+ Years), CBTRUS Histology Groupings and Histology (N=16,014) CBTRUS Statistical Report: NPCR and SEER, 2009-2013.

Fig. 20b.

Distribution a of Primary Spinal Cord, Spinal Meninges, and Cauda Equina Tumors in Adults (Age 20+ Years), CBTRUS Histology Groupings and Histology (N=16,014) CBTRUS Statistical Report: NPCR and SEER, 2009-2013.

  • The predominant histology group for those age 0–19 years is ependymal tumors (22.1%) followed by other astrocytomas (19.8%), including glioblastoma.

  • Tumors of meninges (36.7%) account for the largest proportion of spinal cord tumors among those age 20 years and older.

  • Five-year survival after diagnosis with a malignant tumor of the spinal cord and cauda equine is 81.0%, with ten-year survival of 76.9%

Descriptive Summary of Meningioma, Glioblastoma, and Embryonal Tumors

The data in the CBTRUS Statistical Report 2009–2013 are synthesized to describe the three of the most common histologic types: meningioma and glioblastoma for adults, and embryonal tumors for children and adolescents.

Meningioma

  • Meningiomas are the most frequently reported brain and other CNS tumors, accounting for 37.0% of tumors overall ( Fig. 9a ).

  • Non-malignant meningiomas with ICD-O-3 behavior codes /0 (benign) or /1 (uncertain) account for 98.7% of meningiomas reported to CBTRUS ( Table 7 ).

  • Of tumors with documented WHO grade (77.6%, Table 8 ), 81.1% of meningioma were WHO grade I, 16.9% were WHO grade II, and 1.7% were WHO grade III.

  • Meningiomas are most common in adults age 65 years and older ( Table 13 ), and one of the least common in children age 0–14 years ( Table 4 ).

  • Incidence of meningiomas increases with age, with a dramatic increase after age 65 years. Even among the population age 85 years and older, these rates continue to be high ( Table 12 ).

  • Non-malignant meningiomas are 2.27 times more common in females as compared to males ( Fig. 12 ). Incidence rate ratios are lowest between males and females in childhood (where incidence rates for males and females are approx imately equal), and highest from 35–54, where incidence rates are approximately 3 times higher in females.

  • Incidence of meningioma is significantly higher in Blacks than in Whites ( Fig. 13 ).

  • Ten-year relative survival for malignant meningioma is 57.1% ( Table 23 ).

  • Age had a large effect on relative survival after diagnosis with malignant meningioma: 10-year survival was 77.7% for age group 20–44 years, and 37.1% for age 75+ years ( Table 24 ).

Glioblastoma

  • Glioblastoma is the third most frequently reported CNS histology and the most common malignant tumor overall ( Tables 3 and 7 ).

  • Glioblastoma accounts for 14.9% of all primary brain and other CNS tumors ( Fig. 9a ) and 46.6% of primary malignant brain tumors ( Fig. 9b ).

  • Glioblastoma is more common in older adults ( Table 12 ) and is less common in children; these tumors comprise approximately 2.9% of all brain and other CNS tumors reported among age 0–19 years ( Fig. 16b ).

  • Incidence of glioblastoma increases with age, with rates highest in the age 75 to 84 years ( Table 12 ).

  • Glioblastoma is 1.57 times more common in males ( Fig. 12 ).

  • Glioblastoma is about 1.93 times higher among Whites as compared to Blacks ( Fig. 13 ).

  • Relative survival estimates for glioblastoma are quite low; 5.5% of patients survived five years post diagnosis ( Table 23 ). These survival estimates are somewhat higher for the small number of patients who are diagnosed under age 20 years ( Table 24 ).

Embryonal Tumors

  • Embryonal tumors are the most frequently reported brain and other CNS tumor histology grouping in children age 0–4 years, and the second most common tumor type overall in children and adolescents age 0–19 years ( Tables 12 and 13 ).

  • Embryonal tumors account for 13.8% of all primary brain and other CNS tumors in children age 0–14 years ( Fig. 17b ), 10.8% of tumors in children and adolescents age 0–19 years ( Fig. 16b ), and 1.0% of tumors diagnosed overall ( Fig. 8a ).

  • Embryonal tumors within the CBTRUS histologic grouping scheme includes multiple different histologies: primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET) (ICD-O-3 histology code 9473), medulloblastoma (ICD-O-3 histology codes 9470–9472), atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (ATRT) (ICD-O-3 histology code 9508), and several other histologies ( Table 2a ).

  • Incidence of medulloblastoma decreases with age. Incidence was 0.55 per 100,000 population, 0.57 per 100,000 population, 0.32 per 100,000 population, and 0.16 per 100,000 population in children age 0–4, 5–9, and 10–14 years, and adolescents age 15–19 years, respectively ( Table 4 ).

  • Incidence of PNET was 0.18 per 100,000 population, 0.06 per 100,000 population, 0.05 per 100,000 population, and 0.04 per 100,000 population in children age 0–4, 5–9, and 10–14 years, and adolescents age 15–19 years, respectively ( Table 4 ).

  • Incidence of ATRT was 0.32 per 100,000 population and 0.02 per 100,000 population in children age 0–4 and 5–9 years, respectively. There are too few of these cases in older age-groups to report ( Table 4 ).

  • Relative survival estimates for embryonal tumors are low but vary significantly by histology. 10-year survival is 64.7% for med ulloblastoma, 39.7% for PNET, and 25.8% for ATRT ( Table 23 ).

Descriptive Summary of Adolescent and Young Adult Primary Brain and Other CNS Tumors (Age 15–39 Years)

Brain and other CNS tumors are less common in adolescents and young adults (AYA; age 15–39 years) 45 as compared to older adults ( Table 25 ). These tumors are the third most commonly occurring cancer in persons age 15–39 years in the US, and the third most common cause of cancer death. 46

  • There were 54,388 primary brain and other CNS tumors diagnosed in AYA between 2009 and 2013, which is 14.8% of all brain and other CNS tumors ( Fig. 21a-b ).

    Fig. 21a.

    Distribution a in Adolescents and Young Adults b (Age 15-39 Years) of Primary Brain and Other CNS Tumors by Site (N=54,388), CBTRUS Statistical Report: NPCR and SEER, 2009-2013.

    Fig. 21a.

    Distribution a in Adolescents and Young Adults b (Age 15-39 Years) of Primary Brain and Other CNS Tumors by Site (N=54,388), CBTRUS Statistical Report: NPCR and SEER, 2009-2013.

  • The overall incidence rate in this age-group was 10.71 per 100,000 population ( Table 25 ).

  • Tumors of neuroepithelial tissue had the highest incidence (3.45 per 100,000 population), followed by tumors of the sellar region (3.42 per 100,000 population) ( Table 25 ).

  • The most common histology in AYA was tumors of the pituitary (3.29 per 100,000 population), followed by menin gioma (1.79 per 100,000 population) and nerve sheath tumors (0.94 per 100,000 population) ( Table 25 ).

  • The majority of AYA brain and other CNS tumors occurred in the pituitary and craniopharyngeal duct (32.7%), followed by the meninges (16.0%) ( Fig. 21a ).

  • Approximately 19.7% of tumors diagnosed in AYA are located within the frontal, temporal, parietal, and occipital lobes of the brain combined ( Fig. 21a ).

  • Cerebrum, ventricle, cerebellum, and brain stem tumors combined account for about 11.0% of all AYA tumors ( Fig. 21a ).

  • The predominately non-malignant tumors of the pituitary (31.0%), meningioma (15.9%), and nerve sheath (8.6%) represent over half of CNS tumors diagnosed in AYA. ( Fig. 21b ).

    Fig. 21b.

    Distribution a in Ado