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Manuscript preparation instructions

Manuscript Submission
Review of Manuscripts
Types of Articles Published
Cover Letter and Declarations
Manuscript Format
Abbreviations and Acronyms
Figures and Illustrations
Supplementary Material
Page Proofs
Advance Access
Open Access


Submittal of a manuscript to Neuro-Oncology implies that the authors of the paper understand and fully accept the policies of the journal as detailed in these Instructions to Authors. Please read these instructions carefully and follow them strictly to ensure that the review and publication of your paper is as efficient and quick as possible. The editors reserve the right to return manuscripts that are not in accordance with these instructions.

All manuscripts submitted for possible publication, including text, tables, graphics, and supplementary materials, should be submitted online via the journal's online submission system at www.editorialmanager.com/n-o/ . Once you have prepared your manuscript according to the instructions below, please read our instructions on how to submit your manuscript online here . If you have any problems with the submission process or any questions about the guidelines in these instructions, please contact the Neuro-Oncology editorial office by e-mail ( neuonc.editorialoffice@oup.com ).

If your manuscript is thought more appropriate for our sister journal Neuro-Oncology Practice (either before or after peer-review) we may pass it to the editor-in-chief of that Journal for consideration. Authors will be informed in advance if this is the case and may, of course, opt out.


All articles and features, whether invited or not, will undergo peer-review. Papers will normally be reviewed within 3-4 weeks of submission. Authors may suggest appropriate reviewers to whom the manuscript could be assigned or stipulate those reviewers who may have a bias or conflicting interest. Full names and e-mail addresses of suggested reviewers should be provided. Final assignments, however, are at the discretion of the Editor-in-Chief. Manuscripts and illustrations are not returned to the author unless the author requests them. Journal policy dictates that the identity or information leading to the identity of any reviewer is not to be revealed.


The following types of unsolicited articles are published in Neuro-Oncology :

  • Basic and Translational Investigations or Clinical Investigations that report original experimental, translational, clinical, epidemiological, quality-of-life, or other studies relating to neuro-oncology and that are well documented, novel, and significant; included in this group are Phase 1–4 clinical trials reports.
  • Reviews and Editorials that cover subjects of timely interest and importance to cancer researchers. (These are usually written by invitation of the Editor in Chief. Authors wishing to write a review or an editorial should send a letter to the Editor in Chief outlining the proposed article. All reviews that the editors consider suitable, whether invited or not, will be subjected to full peer review.)
  • Letters to the Editor offering considered opinions on manuscripts published in the journal within the last 6 months (correspondence concerning articles that have not been published in Neuro-Oncology will not be considered). Letters containing brief results or technical notes of interest to the neuro-oncology community may also be considered for publication.
  • Case Studies are only rarely published in Neuro-Oncology , and authors are discouraged from submitting them except when the case is of extraordinary importance.
  • Fast-Track Articles constitute a small minority of papers of particular importance that will be considered on a case-by-case basis. Authors should contact the Editor-In-Chief to see whether their paper is eligible. These papers will be peer reviewed within 5 days and if accepted, published online in 4-6 weeks.

The following types of articles typically are solicited by the Editor-in-Chief:

  • Symposia on subjects selected by the Editor-in-Chief
  • Invited Meeting Reports selected and invited by the Editor-in-Chief
  • Book Reviews by invitation of the Editor-in-Chief (if you are interested in reviewing books for Neuro-Oncology , please contact the Editorial Office)

Announcements of scientific meetings and courses of interest to Neuro-Oncology readers should be submitted to Dr. Albert H. Kim .


A cover letter addressed to the editor, uploaded as a separate Word (.doc) file, should include the following statements:

Declare whether 1) your manuscript, or any part of it, has been previously published or submitted concurrently to any other journal, and 2) whether all co-authors have read and approved of its submission to this journal.

NEW : Declare that you agree to pay for full color reproduction (approximately £350/$600/€525 per figure) if you are submitting color figures with your manuscript. Please note that it is not possible to have color online and black and white in print in order to save costs. (Online supplementary figures are free of charge.)


No manuscript will be sent out for review until all items are received. The preferred software for text is Microsoft Word, although manuscripts generated in other word processing programs are acceptable if saved in Rich Text Format. Papers prepared using desktop publishing software are not acceptable. The preferred software for illustrations is described in the Figures & Illustrations section.

The manuscript text (title page, abstract, article text, acknowledgments, reference list, and figure captions), figures, and tables (in .doc, .docx, or .rtf format) should be submitted as separate files. This applies to the original version of the manuscript and any revised versions.

NEW: For the first submission only (not revised papers), a more "author-friendly" submission is possible: the entire manuscript, including, text, tables, figures and supplements (if any) may be uploaded in a single Word file. Note, however, that PDF files are not acceptable. 

Please use short, simple filenames when saving all your documents and avoid special characters, punctuation marks, symbols (such as &), and spaces. Macintosh users must also type the extension at the end of the file name (.doc, .rtf, .jpg, .gif, .tif, .xls, .pdf, .eps, .ppt, .mov, or .qt).

Other helpful hints are: (i) use the TAB key once for paragraph indents; (ii) where possible, use Times New Roman for the text font and Symbol for any Greek and special characters; (iii) use word processing formatting features to indicate Bold , Italic , Greek, Math, superscript, and subscript characters; (iv) please avoid using underline: for cases, use italic; for emphasis, use bold; (v) clearly identify unusual symbols and Greek letters; and (vi) differentiate between the letter O and zero and among capital I, lowercase L, and the number 1.

Footnotes should not be used in the text.

At the time of submission, please also include the files for any supplementary material that should accompany your manuscript.

Double-space the entire manuscript (including references, tables, figure captions, and supplementary materials), leaving at least 1-inch (2.54-cm) margins all around. Manuscripts should conform strictly to journal style. Those not in Neuro-Oncology style (described below) or not written in good idiomatic U.S. English may be returned to the author without review. Terminology and abbreviations not consistent with internationally accepted guidelines should be avoided (see Abbreviations & Acronyms below), as should laboratory jargon.

The pages should be numbered, starting with the title page of the manuscript.

It is recommended that authors spell-check (with the language set to U.S. English) all files before submission. Particularly if English is not your first language, before submitting your manuscript, you may wish to have it edited for language. This may help to ensure that the academic content of your paper is fully understood by journal editors and reviewers. Language editing does not guarantee that your manuscript will be accepted for publication. A list of such services is provided here . Other specialist language editing companies offer similar services. Authors are liable for all costs associated with such services.

Style guides that may be helpful in writing the manuscript are the current editions of the American Medical Association Manual of Style and The ACS Style Guide. Essentials of Writing Biomedical Research Papers , 2nd ed. (M. Zeiger, ed., McGraw Hill, 2000), which addresses the content and format of scientific articles. Authors are urged to proofread and edit their manuscripts carefully before submission. Alterations at the proof stage delay publication and are expensive. Excessive changes at the proof stage not due to printer’s errors will be charged to the authors.

Arrange the sections of text in the following order, and number all pages, beginning with the title page:

  • Title page
  • Abstract and keywords
  • Importance of the Study (except for reviews)
  • Text
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • Captions for all illustrations
  • Tables (these must be submitted as a separate file or files)

Basic format for Basic and Translational Investigations and Clinical Investigations articles

The basic format for basic and translational investigations and clinical investigations, including reports of clinical trials is described here. (Articles with unique formatting requirements such as editorials or review articles are covered below).

Basic and translational investigations and clinical investigations should adhere to the following guidelines:

  • 250-word abstract (maximum)
  • 150-word (maximum) summary entitled "Importance of the Study"
  • 6000-word limit of text and references combined ( i.e. all text in manuscript file)
  • 6 display items (figures and/or tables)
  • 50 references (maximum)

Title page

  • Title, not to exceed 160 characters and spaces
  • Authors’ full names: given name(s) followed by surname
  • Affiliation of each author at the time of the study, including department and institution. If authors are from more than one department or institution, each author’s initials should be placed in parentheses after the applicable address.
  • Running title, not to exceed 50 characters and spaces
  • Name and complete contact information for the corresponding author, including street address, telephone, fax, and e-mail address
  • Footnotes regarding change of address or affiliation, co-first authorship, or new sequence accession numbers
  • Statement (titled “Funding”) detailing any funding that supported the research
  • Statement (titled “Conflict of Interest”) detailing any conflicts of interest for all authors
  • List of any unpublished papers cited (see Unpublished Material under References)
  • If applicable, a statement that the paper being submitted is one of a series
  • Mention of total manuscript word count, including words in abstract, text, references, and figure legends

Any deletions or additions to the author list after acceptance of the paper must be submitted in writing or by email, signed by all authors (including those added or deleted), to the Neuro-Oncology editorial office. Publication of manuscripts will be withheld until all such written approvals are received. Neuro-Oncology accepts no responsibility for such changes.

Similarly, all conflicts of interest (or relationships that would be suspected of constituting conflicts) should be declared and explained at the time of submission and reflect not only current conflicts but those in place at the time the research was conducted. Any changes made to the list of conflicts after the paper is accepted must be submitted in writing, signed by the appropriate authors (that is, the corresponding author and the author for whom the conflict exists), to the Neuro-Oncology editorial office. Publication of manuscripts will be withheld until all such written approvals are received. Neuro-Oncology accepts no responsibility for such changes.


All authors listed on the manuscript should have contributed significantly to the experimental design, its implementation, or analysis and interpretation of the data. All authors should have been involved in the writing of the manuscript at draft and any revision stages, and have read and approved the final version. Any other individuals who contributed to the experiment or the writing of the manuscript should be listed in the Acknowledgment section.

Authorship Requirements . For guidelines on authorship, please refer to the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals, formulated by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors. The cover letter should state that all authors have seen and approved the manuscript.


The abstract should not exceed 250 words. All abstracts, except those accompanying review articles, should be written in structured format:

Background : State the clinical (or other) importance of the work. End with a hypothesis or purpose statement (e.g., “The aim of this study was to determine whether…”).
Methods : Give the materials (or patients) and methods used to answer the research question.
Results : State the study’s findings. Make sure the results correspond to the methods.
Conclusions : In a sentence or two, explain how the findings address the purpose of the study. The conclusions should be supported by the results given.

Because abstracts often appear apart from the text of a paper (e.g., in PubMed or Medline), they should not cite references. Keep nonstandard abbreviations and acronyms to a minimum (no more than five in the abstract), defining them in parentheses at first mention. It is essential that the Abstract clearly states the biological importance of the work described in the paper.


Below the abstract, list up to five keywords that may be used for indexing.

Importance of the Study

All submissions to Neuro-Oncology should include a 150-word (or less) summary entitled "Importance of the Study". This should be placed just after (below) the abstract and keywords and include information regarding the value of the study compared with prior literature as well as future implications. For laboratory studies, a statement addressing the translational significance should be included. There should be no references. The Editors will use this information as part of the evaluation of the paper, and both the editors and peer reviewers will check the accuracy of the information and may ask for revision. This statement will also be published with the manuscript.


Introduction . This section should state the problem or question being addressed and summarize relevant background information to provide context for the research question.

Materials and Methods. The explanation of the experimental methods should be brief but adequate for repetition by qualified investigators. Procedures that have been published previously may be described in brief and be cited with appropriate references. Only new and significant modifications of previously published procedures need complete exposition. The sources and manufacturers of special chemicals or preparations used should be named. Some of the methods details (buffer composition, PCR primers, incubation conditions, etc.) may be placed in a Methods supplement but each method must be mentioned in the main manuscript with enough information so that a reader does not have to consult the supplement to understand the procedures. Reference to the supplement should be made in the main manuscript text where appropriate. NOTE: Your ethics statement(s) must remain in the main manuscript.

For experimental investigations of human or animal subjects, state in the Methods section of the manuscript that an appropriate institutional review board approved the project. Investigators who do not have formal ethics review committees should follow the principles outlined in the "World Medical Association Declaration of Helsinki: Research involving human subjects". For investigations of human subjects, state in the Methods section the manner in which informed consent was obtained from the subjects. Statistical methods should also be clearly and completely described in the Methods section.

NEW: Special Requirements for Pre-clinical Studies:

  1. If cell lines are used, please note that experiments must be repeated in more than one cell line and/or neurosphere line.
  2. Use of standard cell lines is discouraged. If these are used, the results should be validated with neurosphere cultures and patient derived xenografts.
  3. In addition, please include a statement that addresses:
    • Where and when the cell lines were obtained,
    • Whether the cell lines have previously been tested and authenticated (e.g., by a cell bank),
    • The method by which the cell lines were tested and when the cell lines were tested.
  4. For studies of microRNAs or experiments using CRISPR/Cas9:
    • At least two distinct sequences must be utilized, with a scrambled control sequence.
    • For CRISPR two or more edited clones are necessary.
  5. For studies of biomarkers, please follow the REMARK guidelines, available here. (see also PMID: 22675273)
  6. Requirements for image integrity of western blots:
    • Cropped gels must retain important bands, and cropped blots should retain at least 6 bandwidths above and below band of interest.
    • Composite images must be explicit, e.g. lines should be present between lanes.
    • Some image manipulations may be acceptable, but they need to be described in detail.
    • High-contrast gels and blots should be avoided; overexposure may mask additional bands. If used, high-contrast blots should comprise a black line to indicate the borders of the blot.
    • All image acquisition tools and image processing software must be described in Material and Methods.
  7. For genetic studies and sequence data:
    • Microarray data must be provided for peer review in a format that conforms to the Minimum Information About a Microarray Gene Experiment (MIAME) guidelines, available here. Data should be deposited in either of 2 public repositories — GEO or Array Express — and accession numbers should be given in the article.
    • New nucleotide or amino acid sequences must be deposited in GenBank, or outside of the USA in EMBL or the DNA Databank of Japan; accession numbers must appear in the manuscript.
    • Raw sequencing data must be deposited in either GEO or EGA. Guidelines for data protection must be respected.

Results. This section should include a concise summary of the data presented in the tables and illustrations. Excessive elaboration of those data should be avoided. The Results and Discussion sections may be combined if doing so saves space or improves the logical sequence of the material.

Discussion. The data should be interpreted concisely, without repeating material already presented in the Results section. Speculation is permissible, but it must be well founded and clearly identified as speculation.

Funding. Details of all funding sources for the work in question should be given in a separate section entitled "Funding". This should appear before the "Acknowledgments" section. The following rules should be followed: the full official funding agency name should be given (that is, "National Institutes of Health", not "NIH"); grant numbers should be given in brackets; multiple grant numbers should be separated by a comma; agencies should be separated by a semi-colon; no extra wording such as "Funding for this work was provided by ..." should be used; where individuals need to be specified for certain sources of funding, explanatory text should be added after the relevant agency or grant number "to [author initials]" (e.g., "National Institutes of Health (CB5453961 to C.S., DB645473 to M.H.); Funding Agency (hfygr667789).")

Acknowledgments (optional). An Acknowledgments section (not footnotes) should be included, if appropriate, to recognize the following:

  • Special assistance or contributions by non-authors (e.g., supply of materials or editorial support)
  • Previous presentation of the material at a meeting, workshop, or other event

Personal acknowledgments should precede those of institutions or agencies. Please note that acknowledgment of funding bodies and declarations regarding conflict of interest should be given in separate Funding and Conflict of Interest sections on the title page (see above).

References . See "References" for specific instructions.

Figure Captions . Figures should be numbered sequentially with Arabic numerals. Figures may have subparts (A, B, C, etc.); each subpart should be described in the caption. See recent issues of the journal for examples of acceptable styles.

Captions are required for all figures and should be typed, double-spaced, after the list of references. Captions should briefly describe the data shown and should not repeat details given in the text. Include the type of staining, magnification, and similar information required for accurate interpretation where applicable. Each caption should adequately identify all symbols (where not defined on the figure itself) and abbreviations used in the figure. Captions and symbols should make the figure interpretable without reference to the text. Figure numbers or captions should not be included on the face of an illustration.

Tables . Number tables with Arabic numerals. Tabular material should not simply duplicate data presented in the text or figures. Large groups of individual values should be avoided; instead, these should be averaged and an appropriate designation of the dispersion, such as standard deviation or standard error, included.

Tables should be typed in the manuscript file format, but minimizing redundant space; tables must include a short, descriptive title. Note that each column, including the first column, must carry an appropriate heading, and if numerical measurements are given, these units should be added to the column heading. Abbreviations used in the table should be defined in the table legend. Identify footnotes with superscript lowercase italic letters ( a, b, c , etc.).

Tables are uploaded as a separate file (or files) and are NOT part of the main manuscript file. All tables should be on separate pages. Tables should not have subparts, e.g. Table 1a, 1b, etc.

The format of tables should be in keeping with that normally used by the journal; in particular, vertical lines, colored text, and shading should not be used. Please be certain that the data given in tables are correct.

Special requirements for other articles

Clinical Trial Reports are formatted like clinical investigations. However, before submitting a clinical trial report, authors should consult the GNOSIS guidelines (published in the October 2005 issue of Neuro-Oncology [Vol. 7, Issue 4] [PDF]) and, to ensure completeness, crosscheck their manuscript against these guidelines. For negative studies, highest priority will be given to manuscripts that are written concisely.

Randomized controlled trials should conform to the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) guidelines .

Review Articles should provide timely updates of advances in an area of neuro-oncology. Authors of unsolicited reviews should contact the Editor-in-Chief Patrick Wen, M.D. (patrick_wen@dfci.harvard.edu ) first to determine if the review is appropriate for Neuro-Oncology.

Because of the nature of review articles, which may cover a broad scope of topics related to the subject at hand, authors should use short headings to identify major manuscript sections (major and minor headings must be clearly identified by different-sized text). Though potentially broad in scope, reviews should be as concise as possible and should focus on seminal findings and important developments contributing to understanding of (or controversy about) the subject at hand.

Reviews should include maximally:

  • 200-word abstract
  • 7000 words of text and references combined
  • 7 tables and/or figures
  • 100 references

Advances-in-Brief should provide brief updates of advances in a focused area of neuro-oncology. These are shorter than Reviews and provide either a brief review of important advances in the understanding of an aspect of biology pertinent to neuro-oncology, enhancing the understanding of articles published in Neuro-Oncology , or a thoughtful discussion of new paradigms important to the field. Advances-In-Brief will normally be solicited by the Editor-In-Chief; however, authors who wish to submit this type of article should contact the Editor-In-Chief, Patrick Wen, M.D. ( patrick_wen@dfci.harvard.edu ), first to determine if the article is appropriate for Neuro-Oncology .

Advances-in-Brief should include maximally:

  • 200-word abstract
  • 3500 words of text and references combined
  • 5 tables and/or figures
  • 50 references

Letters to the Editor addressing a recent publication in Neuro-Oncology or containing brief results or technical notes should give full contact information on the title page. They should include maximally:

  • 750 words of text
  • 1 simple table or figure
  • 8 references
  • NO supplementary data

Editorials should include full contact/affiliation information on the title page and the statement that the text is the sole product of the author(s) and that no third party had input or gave support to its writing. Editorials should include maximally:

  • 1250 words of text
  • 1 simple table or figure
  • 10 references

Invited Meeting Reports should typically have a total length—including the title page, text, references, and tables or figures—of five printed pages (or about 15 typed pages).


If you use EndNote and Reference Manager to facilitate referencing citations (not required for submission), this journal's style is available for use.

Neuro-Oncology uses a numbered reference list, with references presented in order of citation in the text; superscript Arabic numbers are used to cite references in the text.

Within the reference list at the end of the paper, please follow the format shown in the samples below. Note that the author’s surname and initials (without commas or periods) are used. In accordance with the current edition of the AMA Manual of Style , for works with more than six authors, list the first three authors and then “et al.”: Rose PR, Walker BK, Matthews CP Jr, et al.

Sample reference entries:

  • Journal Article
    1. Gottardo NG, Gajjar A. Chemotherapy for malignant brain tumors of childhood. J Child Neurol. 2008; 23(10): 1149-1159.
  • Correction
    1. Apte SS, Olsen BR, Murphy G. The gene structure of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMP)-3 and its inhibitory activities define the distinct TIMP gene family [published correction appears in J Biol Chem. 1996;271:2874]. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:14313–14318.
  • Supplement
    1. Robins HI, Peterson CG, Mehta MP. Combined modality treatment for central nervous system malignancies. Semin Oncol. 2003;30(suppl.):11–22.
  • Chapter in Book
    1. Bailey OT. Medulloblastoma. In: Minckler J, ed. Pathology of the Nervous System . Vol. 2. New York: McGraw-Hill; 1971:2071–2081.
  • Book
    1. Kaye AH, Laws ER Jr, eds. Brain Tumors: An Encyclopedic Approach. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone; 1995.
  • Web References
    1. Children’s Memorial Hospital. (2010) First children’s hospital in Illinois to acquire new device for pediatric brain and spine tumor removal. Available at http://www.childrensmemorial.org/newsroom/release06022010.aspx. Accessed June 21, 2010.
    2. OMIM. Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man Database. Available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/omim. Accessed February 28, 1998.
  • Abstract
    1. Vaidyanathan G, Friedman HS, Keir ST, Zalutsky, MR Meta-[211At]astatobenzylguanidine (MAbs): in vivo evaluation in an athymic mouse human neuroblastoma xenograft model [abstract]. J Nucl Med. 1996;37:61.
  • Unpublished Material
    Cite unpublished articles (including those in review or preparation), data, and observations parenthetically in the text as either “unpublished data” or “unpublished manuscript,” along with the name of the investigator responsible for those data (e.g., the lead author of a paper in preparation). No manuscript title or presumed year of publication is needed. In the case of “personal communications,” give the name of the original speaker/correspondent and, if possible, the date of the communication; note that the Editorial Office requires a signed statement from the speaker/correspondent giving the author permission to quote him or her in the manuscript. (Example: Nonetheless, it appears that peptides become associated in some fashion with chaperones prior to or upon extraction from cells (M.W. Graner, unpublished data), and the effects of exogenous chaperones on the innate immune cells are certainly not denied.)


Genes : All gene names should be in italic type, while their corresponding proteins should appear in roman type. For human gene names, the Human Genome Organisation’s database style (all caps, no hyphens) and name (not alias) are used. Visit the OMIM database for human protein terminology.

Other : Nonstandard abbreviations should be kept to a minimum. They should be defined at the first occurrence and introduced only when the abbreviation will be used several times.

The term “nonstandard” refers to abbreviations that are not a part of the Système International d’Unités (International System of Units, known as SI units) and those that are not widely known. Some standard abbreviations not needing expansion at first use are listed in the current edition of the AMA Manual of Style . A list of standard abbreviations is also included at the end of these instructions. Nonstandard abbreviations used in a manuscript should be established in parentheses when they are first mentioned in the text (e.g., “The study population was drawn from the institution’s neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) . . .”).

Abbreviations list. Authors may use, without definition, the following abbreviations:
ADP adenosine diphosphate
ATP adenosine triphosphate
cDNA complementary DNA
CNS central nervous system
CoA, acyl-CoA coenzyme A and its acyl derivatives (e.g., acetyl)
CT computed tomography
DNA deoxyribonucleic acid
DNase deoxyribonuclease
EDTA ethylenediaminetetraacetate
ELISA enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay
FDA Food and Drug Administration (U.S.)
IR infrared
KPS Karnofsky performance status
MR magnetic resonance
MRI magnetic resonance imaging
mRNA messenger RNA
NAD+, NADH nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide and its reduced form
NADP+, NADPH nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate and its reduced form
NCI National Cancer Institute (U.S.)
NIH National Institutes of Health (U.S.)
nRNA nuclear RNA PCR polymerase chain reaction
PET positron emission tomography
RBC red blood cell
RNA ribonucleic acid
RNase ribonuclease
rRNA ribosomal RNA
tRNA transfer RNA
Tris tris(hydroxymethyl)methylamine
UV ultraviolet
WBC white blood cell
WHO World Health Organization

Units of Concentration:
Gy gray
M (not used for moles) molar (moles/liter)
mM (preferred to 10-3 M) millimolar (millimoles/liter)
μM (preferred to 10-6 M) micromolar (micromoles/liter)
nM (not mmM) nanomolar
pM (not mmM) picomolar
g/ml, g/100 ml, g per liter, etc. avoid using mg%

Units of Length, Area, Volume, Mass, Time:
The abbreviations below are correct for both singular and plural forms of each term.
cm centimeter
g gram
h hour
kg kilogram
m meter
min minute
μm micrometer (not micron)
mm millimeter
ml milliliter
μl microliter
μg microgram
mg milligram
nm nanometer
pm picometer
s second

Physical and Chemical Units:
°C degree Celsius (centigrade)
°F degree Fahrenheit
g acceleration of gravity (closed with number [e.g., 200g])
K Kelvin

Ci Curie
cpm counts per minute
Da dalton
dpm disintegrations per minute
eq equivalent log logarithm (Briggsian)
ln logarithm (natural)
mol mole
Mr molecular weight
P probability
R roentgen
rpm revolutions per minute
S Svedberg unit
SD standard deviation
SEM standard error of the mean
V volt

In chemical compounds:
o- ortho
m- meta
p- para
sec- secondary
tert- tertiary

Routes of administration:
i.c. intracranial
i.m. intramuscular
i.p. intraperitoneal
i.v. intravenous
p.o. oral
s.c. subcutaneous


There is a fee for color figures (approximately £350/$600/€525 per figure). If you submit color figures with your manuscript, you must state in your cover letter that you agree to pay the fee. Figures that are reviewed in color may not be changed to black and white at a later stage.

Neuro-Oncology strongly prefers that figures be submitted as high-resolution .tif or .eps files; line graphics may be submitted in their native format, for example, Powerpoint or Excel. For highest figure quality the journal strongly prefer figures in vector format rather than bitmap. If bitmapped figures are necessary, such as photographs, the resolution should be 600 ppi.

When creating figures, please make sure any embedded text is large enough to read. Many figures contain minuscule characters, such as numbers on a chart or graph. If these characters are not easily readable, they will most likely be illegible in the final version. Labeling should be sized to withstand reduction.

Multi-paneled figures should be grouped under one figure number, fitted on one page, with subparts labeled A, B, C, etc., in the upper left-hand corner on the face of the illustration.

The author is responsible for submitting graphics files that are of sufficient quality to permit accurate reproduction and for approving the final color proof. If the paper is accepted but figure quality is inadequate, publication may be delayed.

Figures will not be re-lettered by the publisher. The journal reserves the right to reduce the size of illustrative material. Any photomicrographs, electron micrographs, or radiographs must be of high quality. Wherever possible, photographs should fit within the print area or within a column width. Photomicrographs should provide details of the staining technique used and show a scale bar that is defined in the figure legend or legibly within the figure itself in a size that is able to withstand reduction before publication. Fold magnification is not acceptable and is meaningless due to re-sizing before publication. Patients shown in photographs should have their identities concealed or should have given their written consent for publication. The contrast of panels within a composite photograph should be consistent. Symbols, arrows, or letters used in photomicrographs should contrast with the background. The use of internal scale markers on photographs themselves is preferred to listing the magnification in the caption because it may be necessary to reduce the figures. It should be noted that magnifications given in the caption reflect size before reduction.

Supplementary Material

Supporting material that is not essential for inclusion in the full text of the manuscript but would nevertheless benefit the reader can be made available by the publisher as online-only content, linked to the online manuscript. The material should not be essential to understanding the conclusions of the paper but should contain data that are additional or complementary and directly relevant to the article content. Such information might include more detailed methods, extended data sets and data analysis, or additional figures.

It is standard practice for appendices to be made available online-only as supplementary data. All text and figures must be provided in suitable electronic formats. All material to be considered as supplementary data must be submitted at the same time as the main manuscript for peer review. It cannot be altered or replaced after the paper has been accepted for publication, and will not be edited. Please indicate clearly all material intended as supplementary data upon submission. Also ensure that the supplementary data is referred to in the main manuscript where necessary: for example "(see Supplementary data)" or "(see Supplementary Figure S1)".


Authors are sent links to their page proofs by email. These should be checked immediately and corrections, as well as answers to any queries, returned to the publishers as an annotated PDF via email or fax within 2 working days (further details are supplied with the proof). It is the author's responsibility to check proofs thoroughly.


Advance Access articles are published online soon after they have been accepted for publication, in advance of their appearance in a printed journal issue. Appearance in Advance Access (in either of the models below) constitutes official publication, and the Advance Access version can be cited by a unique DOI (Digital Object Identifier). When an article appears in an issue, it is removed from the Advance Access page.

Articles posted for Advance Access have been copyedited and typeset and any corrections included. This is before they are paginated for inclusion in a specific issue of the journal. Once an article appears in an issue, both versions of the paper continue to be accessible and citable.


The authors’ cover letter should state that neither the submitted paper nor any similar paper, in whole or in part, other than an abstract or preliminary communication, has been or will be submitted to or published in any other source. Once an article is accepted for publication in Neuro-Oncology , the information therein is embargoed from reporting by the print media until the journal’s issue date and embargoed from reporting by all other media until it is published.

Please note that by submitting an article for publication you confirm that you are the corresponding/submitting author and that Oxford University Press (OUP) may retain your email address for the purpose of communicating with you about the article. You agree to notify OUP immediately if your details change. If your article is accepted for publication, OUP will contact you using the email address you have used in the registration process. Please note that OUP does not retain copies of rejected articles.

Upon receipt of accepted manuscripts at Oxford, authors will be invited to complete an online copyright license to publish form. Once invited, the license form should be signed within 24 hours. If we have not received confirmation of signature by the time the manuscript arrives, publication of your manuscript may be delayed.

It is a condition of publication for all Oxford Journals that authors grant an exclusive license to Oxford University Press or the sponsoring society. This ensures that all of the necessary rights needed for publication of the article are in place including provision for any requests from third parties to reproduce content from the journals are handled efficiently and consistently by OUP, enabling the content to be as widely disseminated as possible. No article will be published unless the signed licence has been received at Oxford Journals. Faxing a copy of the form when requested will assist in the rapid publication of your article but the original signed form should also be returned. Any queries about the license form should be sent as soon as possible to Permissions .

As part of the terms of the license agreement, authors may use their own material in other publications written or edited by themselves, provided that the journal is acknowledged as the original place of publication by Oxford University Press. Authors retain copyright of their Articles (or their employer’s do if the employer claims copyright). For more information of Oxford Journals' copyright policy and the authors' rights under the terms of the license.

Work submitted for publication must be original, previously unpublished, and not under consideration for publication elsewhere. If previously published figures, tables, or parts of text are to be included, the copyright-holder’s permission must have been obtained prior to submission. For more information on how to obtain permissions, please consult Rights and Permissions.


Neuro-Oncology authors have the option to publish their paper under the Oxford Open initiative; whereby, for a charge, their paper will be made freely available online immediately upon publication. After your manuscript is accepted the corresponding author will be required to accept a mandatory licence to publish agreement. As part of the licensing process you will be asked to indicate whether or not you wish to pay for open access. RCUK/Wellcome Trust funded authors publishing in Neuro-Oncology can use the Creative Commons Attribution licence (CC-BY) for their articles. If you do not select the open access option, your paper will be published with standard subscription-based access and you will not be charged.

You can pay Open Access charges using our Author Services site. This will enable you to pay online with a credit/debit card, or request an invoice by email or post. Open access charges are £1700/$3000/€2550; discounted rates are available for authors based in some developing countries (click here for a list of qualifying countries). Please note that these charges are in addition to any colour/page charges Neuro-Oncology that may apply.

Orders from the UK will be subject to the current UK VAT charge. For orders from the rest of the European Union, OUP will assume that the service is provided for business purposes. Please provide a VAT number for yourself or your institution and ensure you account for your own local VAT correctly.


Authors will receive electronic access to their paper free of charge. Printed offprints may be purchased. Rates are indicated on the order form , which must be returned with the proofs.


Permission to reproduce copyright material for print and online publication in perpetuity must be cleared and if necessary, paid for by the author; this includes applications and payments to DACS, ARS, and similar licensing agencies as appropriate. Evidence in writing that such permissions have been secured from the rights-holder must be made available to the editors. It is also the author's responsibility to include acknowledgments as stipulated by the particular institutions. Please note that obtaining copyright permission could take some time. Oxford Journals can offer information and documentation to assist authors in securing print and online permissions: please see the Guidelines for Authors section . Should you require copies of this,please contact the Neuro-Oncology editorial office or the Oxford Journals Rights department .

In order to reproduce any third party material, including figures or tables, in an article authors must obtain permission from the copyright holder and be compliant with any requirements the copyright holder may have pertaining to this reuse.

When seeking to reproduce any kind of third party material authors should request the following:

(i) non-exclusive rights to reproduce the material in the specified article and journal;
(ii) electronic rights, preferably for use in any form or medium;
(iii) the right to use the material for the life of the work; and
(iv) world-wide English-language rights.

Further guidelines on clearing permissions can be found at: http://www.oxfordjournals.org/access_purchase/permissions_guidelines.doc.

Authors should also include a statement indicating that permission has been obtained in the relevant legend/footnote and provide the Editorial Office with copies of any relevant paperwork.

A template permissions request letter can be found at the end of the above document.


In order to meet your funding requirements authors are required to name their funding sources, or state if there are none, during the submission process. For further information on this process or to find out more about the CHORUS initiative please click here .


Language editing, if your first language is not English, to ensure that the academic content of your paper is fully understood by journal editors and reviewers is optional. Language editing does not guarantee that your manuscript will be accepted for publication. For further information on this service, please click here . Several specialist language editing companies offer similar services and you can also use any of these. Authors are liable for all costs associated with such services.

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